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Richmond times-dispatch. [volume] (Richmond, Va.) 1914-current, February 18, 1918, Image 8

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Weekly Bureau of In
formation for All Who
Till the Soil or Arc Inter
ested in Making Homes
AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT
All Inquiries and rommunlcntlonH ndalrcnxnl to 'The Tlnira-UUpatvli
*>111 rri'rlvf prompt iitlrntlon. Thin ilrpnrtmrnl ?lll npprar rnrh
y\ ondiiT, nnd ??ontrllmtlona or Miicprmf Ion* will lie Hrlcomfd.
Facts for Farmers, Stock
Breeders, Poultry Raisers,
Orchardists, Truckers and Gar
deners?Queries and Answers
Ho;;* mid lf( More llnsi.
Tho most urgent appeal of the Unit
cd States government to the farmer;
of the country in this time of wai
is to increase tho supply of pork. Thi;
appeal can be heeded by Virginia farm
erf. It is estimated that if every
farmer in the country who raises any
hogs will add one more brood sow te
Ills stock right now so as to raise
from that one sow two litters of pigs
this year the increase in pork f?^r the
year will be sufficient to meet all o.*
the demands <f the country, even in
a time of war. The government guar
antees a seliing price for the pork
raised Ihis year thai v ill pay a hand
tome profit t'i the farmer, anil this Is
hut another reason why every hog
raiser in Virginia should add the one
sow to bis pi n-; and thus increase his
output of pork.
All of this is, of course, based on
the presumption that the farmer lias
and will grow the corn and other food
stuff to raise t li ?? extra number of
lugs, llow many Virginia farmers will
'nakc i fiKt to .-.ti-\v. r the tail >>f the
government*. it just as important
that this call should be answered
promptly as it is for the young men
to respond to the call to the colors ?
in faet, it really is answering the call
to the Hug.
nig Whcnt Crop In Mglit.
Tho reports from all over Virginia
concerning the wheat crop are alto
gether encouraging. The snows that
came in the hardest winter tills State
has known for many years, while any
thing but a source of joy at the time,
were a great help to the wheat crop.
Since the snows, under the influence
of Old Sol, have gone the way of all
snows, the standing wheat shows the
benefits it derived, and all the reports
agree that Virginia never had a bettor
prospect for a perfect crop and a larger
yield than it has in this good year
191S.
Aid* to tlie Soil.
Much space is given in this depart
ment of The Times-Dispatch this, week
to the subject ?>f the use of nitrates
vf soda and acid phosphate. We give,
upon tiie b. st of authority, the proper
fnanner of mixing and using these aids
to the soil, showing how the best re
sult;. may be obtained. Tlii*: nrti'-le,
long though it be. ; worthy tlx care
ful study of the farmers, and we urge
? very farmer reader to ^ive it his best
attention.
Necrn 1'nrni Hands n* (iti/eii*.
Writing in the James Itivcr Clarion,
the organ of tiie Farmers' I'uion of
Virginia, 11. o. Karp, of North Caro
llna, discusses tiie negro farm laborer
question and offers a solution of the
problem. Mr. Karp first explains how
the negro farm hand goes North in
the. spring and summer to work and
comes back in winter. While he is
ur> North making fairly good wagis
he w.ll ser.d money to hi.* family he
>ft livwn fou'.h, and while that lasts
?hey not hit a lick of work. Thus
farmer ?. :t off from t labor
the family come::
W >? r - ? v n h <? ?
back irzthe North in November or
December, he ontract with a
'. - h-_use r'ar.d :.re wood for the
v i r.t* 5u v. ork a he can't
? ; ir\ _? v. . off he
cto? v. aga::., k av.ag the
Mr. Carp's remedy for all of this is
?.? ? s r*hi r;? ze.ns of the negroes,
lie
? * -'I rherti some kind yet them
to down, arid we w "tt ! .?v more
!ahr,r. soil them twenty-five aeres r,f
land. They w ill then l?eco:: f citizen?
a:.d -v rV: T>.1r own land and l;e)p
work i ir-. They will tr?*a? you v. ::h
the courtesy due you. Why'.' IP-can r
they will be afraid of losing ttielr
home."
That strikes u a- a u'-od ?;igge?
?i'-?t. In a part of Cumberland County
'?) ? that t!:j^ ha? been done, and It
has proven a ble.v :r.g to the farmer."!
In th:^*? 'region.
^nnip I'ninlrr* n* in Tobacco.
But few tobacco plant biids have been
Cf-rto'l Iii t! ? ?> "1 Virginia
in<l North ?':?: ?>I:ti;? J u?-h winter
?rather <au;iip delay. tint there n? <'d
>f! Iir. *|I1. :r ? I h<T< tillH t?>
f'll th< f"i .i .("lit 'J;? I? .f
It i very <? < rIthat th.- tol>.?<?<???
p rower?'. w .1 attempt jll ' as lar;;<
i ror^ ? f th* w ?! as !hey can p"
takf care "f v. th the poor oitiook (or
labor; but it probable that none oC
thftm ' 1 }?! t. ! '-(en ? ? ' ? t ??<?
? \ii of > ??? !?<?<! ? I ha * ' ? ??
> \ip-< i.f War ilf ' 'land shall lie
larpr ! ?? ? < ? ili ! a!..I v ? The pa ?
trinti firiiii r in '?? toh i ? o '.rrowllip
it pt"r f V rs:.iia a- ? ! ? ? ' Molina
v. :'A ?: . 1 111 ii Dm* u a y ?! u i -a : ? p
all t! ?? i" ..J ml'f. j >??: ??:!?.. ? i :?<!?: mi.
;? trenu"\ i " ??! i than ? \ 1>> t ? ? ; ? in
hi e \ . a- il th' .i .!? ????? : ? hal
ri J 1. - I . thf t i It . va t ',..n
1 . ? ? ' tory -
t ? ivf fi ; r : ? . f lis I'MT .
v.' ? ? i .. ? ? <? 11? . ,c. r
blr. in th: i ..-y iire right, fc>r 'xylille
h? ? ? 1 a ! . . ! ?? <1:\ ..1 :n I !:???:!?
i opV- :.']?*11 :;:ph j>:
f.-T ? ? ' >?'. A. h' ... . th' '? ?!'!!!.T W 11
! ' a!:. ? i ' , i fo;- ' !;?? it.'C .if
I tils < ' : a . e . ! a r obt a 111 . J
t ? :? ? ' i .ii? tn.c i,.i
r V. . ? ? ? .M.I
l h' v ? , p . ? . v } ? .? - u ii' ii
the armies of : ? >uritry and of th
' v. . i ? 1 f .? 11 ' ; H
that a p ! ? ... n ?? c.
I'ftuli ryman'* liny I* at IliiniJ.
T iif p< i . " s- i r ? i ? < i.
doilit1'- > ? i- 1 t-trn : rii.<
jtoultryiitei ? t'.i !<:
and **b c*J ? ? . .* i . a . '
;? ?? O'ir.t "' ' t I I
{? r < hirken i ? 1 .??! ?
a nil ?
pri t-s ?> i ? ? ? a ?? :,d
van'"I aloii; ? ? : i .
ar.rl tl f-r
inp to tii'
.?hickf n f' < '1 ;? ' > .. t :?
Of course, ii <'a nnoi )>?? c-xpoet
tha' cups will t on pr<
lilpli price.--, for *? lip ure it
are always lower : . ;-!'i.p il
in the winter V?nt '? t.- n-i: 1 .t
will for a very 1"r.? ? j*ej ha
old-time prlcfs no ... i
try aivo will !.? ? . , ; rt.
to oth^r frt'xir nji'i ? ]?: a! ' ? .
lhnt it w.ll i.e pr i ?
for the "beofleHS" ai I ?? rl less" da
t hat arc |
country, 'n r?. ponre ?? ; r?'.
l lie f- ' d ailii.liiis: rn t ' ?
crnment. ha%c i reate.. v. ;n , f
t inuft \<> iri'rea.-. ! 'i .
poultry of ail i.irifl^ 1*
for every farrrur aii'i '
in this yar t-; r... ? ?
tiian ever, before.
MIXING NITRATE OF SODA
WITH ACID PHOSPHATES
Commissioner of Agriculture Cieorgo
\y Koiuer gives important informa
tion to the farmers in tho practical
use t?f the nitrate of soda that the
national government is now furnishing
to the farmers at a cost of $.3.50 ,?er
ton f. o. b. at port of entry. This
Information will enable the farmer
to mis bis nitrate of soda accurately
to any percentage that ho may desire
f<.r the different crops. Commissioner
Ivoiner has received many letters from
farmers requesting this information.
TJ^n .?oM)tni^<ion?"'r say?:
"Farmers who have purchased ni
trate of soda from the government
for use on the r crops will want to
u..c the material mixed with arid phos
phate in order to get the best results.
Nitrate of soda if applied alone will
produce a very larpo growth of leaves
and the plant will not produce tho
grain and fruit that is desired. The
phosphates cause the formation of tho
grain and the fruit, and in combina
tion with nitrate of soda both the leaf
and fruit and grain are produced from
the action of tin- fertilizer. The fol
lowing formulas are given for mixing
nitrate of soda and acid phosphate,
ba.ed "ii the nitrate of s>>da contain
ing 1 .*? to 1 per cent oT nitrogen,
which is equivalent to 1^ or U< per
(.?cut. of ammonia, and the acid phos
phate containing 16 per cent of avail
able phosphoric acid:
HOW TO >11 X IN OlIOKlt TO
i;i:t ui:mhi:u uusui/rs
"To get a result of 1 per ccnt nitro
gen, equivalent to 11-4 per cent am
monia. with 15 per ccnt phosphoric j
acid, use seven bags of acid phosphate
to one-half bag of nitrate of toda.
"for 2 per ccnt of nitrogen, cquiva- '
lent to 2 1-2 per cent ammonia, giving
fourteen per cent, of phosphoric acid, j
use ft.ijr bags of acid phosphate to one |
one bag of nitrate of soda.
"For 3 per cent nitrogen, cquiva- !
lent to 3 3-4 per cent of ammonia, !
giving 1- 1-2 per ccnt phosphoric acid, |
use four ags of acid phosphate to one
bag of nitrate of soda.
?If 3 3-4 per cent nitrogen, equiva
lent to 4 1-- per ccnt ammonia, is j
des-ired. giving 12 per ccnt aval -ble
phosphoric acid, use three bags of
acid phosphate to or.e bag of nitrate
of soila.
"To get a result of 4 per ccnt nitro
gen. equivalent to per cent ammonia, j
and 11 1 -2 per cent of available phos- I
phoric acid, use live bags of acid .ihos- 1
phato to two bags of nitrate of soda. 1
"To secure .*> per out nitrogen result,
equivalent to ?*. per cent ammonia, giv
ing 10 1--' per cent of available phos
phoric acid, use two bags of acid phos
phate to on-, bag of nitrate of soda.
"Three bags of acid phosphate to
two bags of nitrate of soda wil! give
a result of C per cent nitrogen, cquiv- j
nlent to "1-2 per cent ammonia, and
9 1-2 per cent of available phosphoric
acid.
"tine bag of acid phosphate nixed
with otic bag of nitrate of soda.gives
a result of 7 1-2 per ccnt of nitrogen,
equivalent to 9 per cent ammonia, giv
ing 4 per cent phosphoric acid.
LSi: \v.\(io\ iiiinv ix
MIAI.Nt. TliK .MATE:-tIAI>S
"Instead of mixing on a floor in the
.-hed. as is usually suggested, a more
convenient way is to mix in the wagon
body. For example: if it is desired
to make, a mixture containing 3 per
cent of nitrogen and 12 per cent of
phosphoric a. id. take four bags of
acid phosphate and place in the wagon
body and make a layer after emptying
?he bags. The layer can he made of
a uniform or even depth over the
wagon body except for two feet near
*Ke end. Take the bag of nitrate of
? !a and distribute evenly over the acid
phosphate. If there are lumps in the
hit rate, place a two-inch board, about
a foot wide, across the wagon bodv
and break thern with a hammer ?*
of wood shaped for iho work.
Mix up the material for a distance of f
three or more feet with a hoe by
chopping it down and again with a
? hovel as it i* removed from the wagon.
T!.f wagon i. taken to the field and if
the mixturo is used in a drill, the
ilrill e.T.n be backed up to the end of
the wagon and the fertilizer shoveled
:ti it. oi the material can be distributed
by broadcasting. If th? fertilizer is
t ? be ii ed in a ilrill. it is best to
pass the nitrate through a sieve hav
ing three >>r four meshes to the inch.
When the work is finished, material
remaining in the wagon body is sw< pt
out on the land.
NITItATi: OI-' M)I)A AMI ACID
i'iiom'iiati: ri.Avr food
"Tho nitrate of soda causes a large
growth of vine and leaf in the plant
which is good for grass. To check this
,o i ion and to make the plant produce
t ?? gr.ni! and fruit, phosphoric acid
hould be used in a Iari-*.r proportion
than :? usual in ordinary mixtures.
Ti," nitrogen in ordinary mixtures
n.-ed for firtili/.cr consists of three
form- of nitrogen, the nitrate of soda
or quick-acting nitrogen, t lie sulphate
? ?f ammonia ??! the medium-acting ni
trogen. and the organic form of nitro
gen or the low'-acting nitrogen. In
the mi\tiire of nitrate of .da with it:
?;11? 1: o ting nitrogen, there : hoiild be
u: < d about .".ft per cent nore of phos
phoric acid than Is usually uicd. For
? \aniple: in.-1 end of using a 3 per cent
nitrogen and s per nt pho. phoric
a -id, it i letter to u.-.e a 3 per ccnt
nitrogen and 12 per cent phosphoric
acid. The phosphoric acid will not be
lo t hut v. ill remain in the land for
the following crop. Nitrate of soda
cotnpb t e ly "olublc in water, arid '.he
lonf of ti e plant .-an u e it without
the material undergoing any change.
'I ae other forms of nitrogen, like the
-ulphate of ammonia and organic form
f nitrog< n must undergo certain bac
!?: al changes before the nitrogen can
ic- taken by the roots of the plant to
i:" as food.
"In the use of fertilizer in the row
er hills, the mixture, of nitrate of
od.i arid acid phosphate should not
? u ? (1 in too large amounts, and where
it d<?: 'able to apply large amounts
?>f f.-rtil /.? r about otic-third should be
I' ? ?! in the hills v | twu-thirds
?! a ? f d in order t iTTt t the plant ?
" i' h'. ?- i mi pp of fund a: t lie
exteiiii thiowgh the : oil. the food
11 ?;1'> th'i b mg maintained through
t ? growing :-e.ason. Where truck
are grown and the proper ma
lum ry .-an be used, the fertilizer may
1-. applied in tu<> or three applica
tions near th< plant as the crop grows.
TIIB M I XTI HI ". I'Olt O ATS,
? OI< \ \ Mi OTItlMt I HOPS
"For spring oats good results have
t een se.-ur<'i 'r.:n using a mixture
of i nc bag . i' rate of j-oda to two
t ii". of acid ; h- pliate and oil' bag
! nitrate of .soda to three bags of
?? hi pho8pliat< depending upon llio
"ii land. \\ th corn, the
""Mure ot :. half bag ??f nitrate
? ' "vi n bag of acid phos
phnto and oiu bag of nitrate, of r.oda
'".even i.n i f add phosphate will
l* . ifii.iii S, II r p, 111| .. f,11 coil
1 diticii of the land, l'oi apple orchards
u:;c three to five pounds to tho tree,
accordilit; to tl<e ago of the tree. For
potatoes, mixtures containing 3 per
cent nitrogen and 4 per cent nitrogen
can be used. Kor cabbage, tomatoes,
and plants having a largo' amount ot
leaf, the higher mixtures containing
o to 7 1--1 per cent ot" nitrogen can bo
used to an advantage.
"The season will determine the crop
to a large extent. If wet, the nitrate
of soda will effect the crop with a
larger leaf growth than if the season
should bo dry. If used on low land or
wet land, less nitrate of soda should
he used than on upland that is dry,
in proportion to tho amount of phos
phoric acid. If the land contains vege
table matter, or if a soil is turned
under, use about two-thirds of the
percentage of nitrogen that would be
used in the ordinary fertilizer.
"If it is desirable to use a mixture
containing 2 per cent of nitrogen and
S per ?????!t phosphoric acid instead of
any of the mixtures given in the table,
it is suggested that instead of adding
a filler that the mixture containing 3
per cent of nitrogen and 12 1-2 per cent
of phosphoric acid l?o used, that two
thirds of the amount usually applied
be used. For example; if it is desired
to use 20t? pounds of a mixture of
2 per cent nitrogen and X per cent
phosphoric add, use 133 pounds of the
mixture containing 3 per cent nitrogen
and 12 1-'-' por cent phosphoric acid,
which will supply the same amount of
plant food.
"The mixture of nitrate of soda and
acid phosphate will not supply potash
for the plant. The nitrate of soda
will act on the potash locked up in the
soil to set it free, to some extent.
The sulphate of lime, or land plaster,
in the acid phosphate will also unock
the potash in clay soils so it can be
of use to the plant. If potash is need
ed and wood ashes are available, it
is a mistake to add the ashes to the
mixture of nitrate of soda and acid
phosphate, but they may be sown sepa
rately on the land as a source of
potash. Tobacco stems may bo used
to supply potash, and if the mixture
Is to be sown by hand, the stems may
t>e added to the mixture if fine enough.
?Von tlie Time to Snve.
High-priced crops are pouring in'->
he South a golden flood that is un
recedented in all our history. Ton
ints who have hitherto merely broken
von are finding themselves with liun
Ireds of dollars in cash ahead; small
andowners are wiping out all obliga
ions. with h'-nvy balances to the good;
p.rgc landowners, in many cases, .are
.etuallv netting small fortunes.
All of which is good. But lot us mn
luring this era of great material pros
ieritv forget to lay bv something for
? rainy day. Wc would like to see
~*rv Southern farm home painted a:;d
quipped with lights and waterworks,
very Southern farmer supplied with1
he best of labor-saving machinery and
?ood live stock. These things arc nec
essities. and spending money for them
s nroduetive investment. On the oth*i
land, wc need during these times to
mil ourselves up sharply when we are
empted to buy things we really do
lot need, and nut the money in the
i.'tnk instead. Next year may not be a
ear like this has been, and wc may
>c certain that the present era of
irosneritv cannot continue indefinitely.
Wise in he who foresee's these things
nd eoverns himself accordingly. There
icver will be a better time to put some
nonev in the hank and k*ep it there
gainst the rainy days ahead.
Sooth'* Increasing Corn Yield,
How fast the South is moving in
he matter r.f corn production is imit
ated by comparing our average acrc
fields any ordinary year now with
lields fifteen or twenty years ago. In
1000, for example, the average yield in
leorgia ar.d South Carolina and Flor
da was less than 10 bushels per acre,
fhis year Oeorgia reports a lC-htishel
tverage, Florida 15 and South Caro
ina 1 r? hu.-hels. In 1900 North Caro
uta aid Alabama averaged 1b-ish?h'
:>rr acre; this year Alabama reports
If, bushels and North Carolina 2<?.
x'eithcr Tennessee. Virginia. Arkansas
ir.r .Mississippi averaged 20 bushels in
fnifi. but this ynar Tennessee averaged
bushels, Virginia 2?. Arkansas 24
ind Mississippi 20. The American aver
? g'- this year is 26.4 bushels per acre.
\ little more pushing and the South
vill be recognized as really in the
'('urn Kelt."?Tho Progressive Farmer,
t is worthy of note that Virginia is
lie loader, according to the above sta
istics.
Termor the Hotline; band*.
About the biggest tax Southern far
iers are having to pay is the soil
rosion tax. With our heavy rainfall
nd rolling lands, every year millions
nd millions of tons of our best soili ?
o down our creeks ami rivers, a total'
?ss. Fertilizing and trying to huilu
!? soils that are allowed to wash away!
* very miiuh like pouring water'
h rough a sieve.
Wo believe everv farmer from \rir
inia to Texas who farms rolling land
hould give his very host thought to
his problem, and now is the time to
?> it. when other Jobs are not prosi
ng Study again the articles on tor
ii< intr in our 1'iainage Special r.f Qcto
?or 20, write your State experiment
taliou for ;m\ information it may bo
bio to furnish you. and also call on
our county demonstration agent for
lelp. liood land and big yields are tho
:eys to profitable farming, but wo will
iover set 111eao so long as wo let our
oils wa !i away. V?on't lot any muddy
later l-ave joar farm.?The I'rogrcs
ive Farmer.
The Snre Dependence.
We are hearing nowadays ot bureaus
ind organizations that are planning
0 send more laborers to the farms of
he country this year. It is to be hoped
hey will be successful, and w-e be
iove they will do some good. but
a iiirrs need not depend on this to
uf. very groat extent. There will
?oniiiiue to bo a scarcity of farm la
>or nil of this year, and the farmers
? f Virginia might as well plan to do
f iiiu> h of their own work as possi
>le. The work that the old man and
h* boy: arc going to do is the work
lliat x\ ill count this year.
It iv :il be wise to make that work
?ffe> tive and not too laborious by
Planning tho farm operations carefully
1 ud by having all farm implements
ind ail tho labor-saving machinery in
ir: t-class condition and kept so all
ho season round. Kvory stroke must
-ount this year for big crop:'.
The \ nine of I.ime In Soil.
l.ime affects both tho physical and
biological conditions of the soil, and
it the same, time has a tendency to
iheratc unavailable potash and plios
;>horic acid, ilie principal object in
upplying it to the soil to correct the
oil acidity. It should never bo eon
idored as a direct fertilizer, but al
ivays an a soil o<rreetlve. The effect
nf lime shows up better on such crops
us clover, alfalfa and timothy than
r>n corn or wheat, and very often tho
failure of clover or other leguminous
plants Indicates the need of llipe.
| DRAINING soil of fields
acr'lpi!!i voorliocs. agronomist of the
i, ural lime bureau. savs:
I air,'Vr,ryU hcrc proper drain
1 Kood ,wm SO,Ks *:a,,so ,ossc-s- It is n
inir ?? make observation? dur
or sMo,'? ^ an" ,,laoc s,akcs :i< place??
verv i ? where drainage is
often ,!!,.Per.IO,"'t such detects
....... :iy 1,0 remedied without great
KcnoZ,t:?Ub,C- " ,Irat?a*? ??
it is vJ ?*??-M>t for sueli spots is B.,od
lalil i S* tn.it the soil to un<W?r
throueh a. rti,T l,oav>' KUbsoil.
Hlowlv \vX-? ? pcrviatos only
I hat ii'ifu ? ?i" as b*e" determined
Ie to ,?" ,V"?- ,h? "S? of "-v"a
It with .. n.ltCr ,h<! SUl,SOi? ???? ?>'N
odv TI.J to" ?vr"1 wl" effect a roin.
in other Vav"? m*-UU ,'.My wb??'"e<l
practice t * * ii* ,S " :i!l Uncommon
of Miii*11 - K lnc '??i'hllo
II,.'. . *l *-Pot and de.p enough to no
io t?.nV T' C,ay "" 11 w'?"
t^? them? W"lCr ",:'y rU" ?Ul -b?
agc Vmirw"I>|,w,rs ?"* K<?od drain
j:< notioo- 11 *0,rc heaving of crops
?r I,vcjratoii?i.n 11'''" ?1'1"11 <luick-loine
about a bet I','"' h'!" """ b "?
action o< i coiidil ion because the
soils "vi^ i '??' ft Iff. heavy, clav
ris:hi!k'"r
SiX
for" cm-- . water sufficiently Ionic
make it r1 ',y tr"|,s- win
1Jrlln-,~'0r^ retr",!v<' "t moisture.
While nri vory Important, and
in !k 71ary at tent ion must be siwr
aKC by Mini1" J,P0'1 r,f con,',|pte draln
PUf, ., 1 '""ET. yet each little spot in.
seed everySvca?r a? ton. f?r\,,lzer and
undrained. ' " ' ',b "mains
Aced Confederate- Mnkea Good.
i of Lynch Station, Vs..
^e ? i rm0r- e,??>?>-o"c years of
^ ' and long since retired.
the 1 nitotl ^tacts entered thc
meni War ,aM April ftMd tljc govern
ment sent out broadcast the urgent
w,? Vevcry.?,an- xv?n,a'1 ?"d chnd
visfirM , ,h* o!d Kent Ionian
his aJed ,Cnt1UKiasm' and >>* told
bit? that hv n ? '??- wo,llfl ?lo his
^oi,is1:!1nraPcd iab?r-,,c ????'???
bushels) in k C?r,,s n0?
and ('oninil'V? octogenarian
his bit -1 1 I r> r 1 ,rra" >Cl out to do
aec. hcifli ? a" Ia-'k Ujr onc of '"a
hc wotihl ^io"
K;mUh!?e?f,rT
^ist hln, w thr ?,trrmohst?t?eClP
P"t of the work; that?of breaking
? ml harrow",,; thc H(. d,,,a'\7^
'irllline^' ',aJ'rowlMK- "fnrrowinp-out,"
IJ ov S:E; hault
?orL 5i . Mlw.r'Vi.0" M?' "iS ?"????
?hn.Bh confident lliat
[Wished what he In out ? ?l<:con'
llirdled bv ,hr " <U>- was
"?J rals.?i o,\" ,;"Z" XT',?''''*' !'?
over twentv harrois iai -- ' - peeks
(his done on twr 4. bus,lcls?
fier^s of land. a" ?"c-third
nSa0rioodafIt,nnear'1 ,HC ao1'1 th? corn
-re. and
form this work?-his hi, - l? PCr'
feathof%hHCI,.aH ,hr" Said aho,Jt the
?i<r fro?,^krnh'l;?,c".<-"
it horse) thronir)< ,>,? , "ick of
boilinir sun behin i p ''''' r'el'1 under
'ankerou ?iU1"
'ious task of hu?kinc -n , v' 1;ib?
frosty autumn days o?gh ' to be'""'"
splratioi, to those whose nit fn,in*
lacks white heai nrw. , .c patriotism
!he means" to Ji 10 san,c time
si.irkcp ">?" ?r ih.
f;v;;' b>; ">? ,r
fiprhly-one-vear-oM 't '1,,,'npI'''1 ?" hl?
l?? Proposes* to do hr?!e'.-^'hi,loclarcs
'? Cive (j,e eMtj-c ' , year, and
l-Po.sa t|,W '.TuTtX?,',." ""
i-. . "?I?I?B Knlleo Trrn
when1"'/he groISSlJ 'TSu?l
?he ground is ^r i<] r r, Kr t barI< while
until the L'? C"y-d jn
Krowth. A *.vVre o-' clv?i ?a a
used next to the bark J|".,"USl not ho
ujrjr .a i5r:k,i!lis
r^' "v "irc? ??
set . , ,c and r"? ?? slakes
_ t _ ? ?o hold I rr-e i? position.
I FEW MEN ON RAH
! EARN LARGE SALARIES
Federal Wage ('ummi.sslon Mucli
Impressed With Justice of Re
quests for Higher Pay.
WILL REPORT FINDINGS SOON
Secretary Lane, Justice Covington
and Others Muko Thorough Inves
tigation of Subject for Guidance
of Administration.
[Spccial to The Times-Dispatch.)
WASHINGTON. February 1".?With
in a week or ten days the railroad
wage commission, appointed hy the di
rector-gcncral of railroad.*, will com
plete what may he regarded as the
most important wago inquiry under
taken in this country in a generation
and v. ill begin the preparation of a
report upon which the government
will readjust the rates of com
pensation of approximately 1.S00.Q0U
American railway employees.
This investigation has addend Interest
at a time, when the United States Ship
ping Hoard is engaged in a controversy
with a large body of its employees:
when there is evident restlessness on
the part of wotkers in many of the
war industries, and when there is a
revival ?>f the agitation for the ron
seripiion of Mich iabor as may he nec
essary to man the vital war works of
this country.
The President and the director-gen
eral. without waiting for the wage is
sue to become acute in so far as the
railroads are concerned, concluded more
than a month ago to Institute a
thorough inquiry into the pay of al!
employees of the railroads with a view
of granting such increases as the
higher cost of living might dictate and
to establish complete understanding be
tween the government and those citi
zens who man. the railroads, an un
derstanding that is to hold an long
as the transportation system of the
country is operated under Federal au
thrrity.
In order that this Inquiry might be
mnducted with the utmost fairness and
the findings merit the confidence o.'
the great army of railroad men. Mr
McXdno selected the wage commission
with the greatest rare. The names oI
scores of leading men wt>re considered
before the director-general arrived at
a decision. When the list was Ilnallj
boiled down the four tm-n found to
possess every necessary qualification
were franklin K. I.ane. Secretary ot
Interior and former Interstate Com
merce Commissioner: J. Harry roving
ton. chief justice of the District Su
preme Court, former member of Con
cress from Maryland and the Presi
dent's personal investigator of labor
troubles in the West: Charles C Mc
Chord. a number of the Interstate Com
"?er<c Commission, and William n.
Hlllcf.x, former chairman of the New
York public Service Commission and
Jtitil a few days ago chairman of the
Republican National Committee.
This is the /-roup of men charged
with the duty of recommending a wage
standard that Is to guide the director
genera! or railroads In his dealings v ith
the hundreds of thousands of organ
ized and unorganized employees of the
government-con I rolled railway system,
the importance of whose findings has
not been fully comprehended by the
country. Nor has the novelty of this
proceeding been generally understood.
This commission Is not sitting in Judg
ment upon a contested case. It is not
acting even as an arbitration board
between the railroads and their men.
There is r.o dispute to be settled or a
controversy to be mediated. The gov.
ernnient. upon its o-vn motion, is
simply making an investigation into
trc question of wages with the view
<>f doing justice to its new body of
war-tim**; ofnployccs.
The st.-ope of this investigation em
braces the compensation of all em
ployees of the railroads, the conditions
respecting wages paid in different parts
of the country, the emergency respect
ing wage- \shirh exist at this time as a
result ot war conditions and the high
eost of living and the relation between
the various classes of railroad labor,
organized and unorganized.
Already the investigation has pro
ceeded to the point where the bigger
phases of the question involved stand
out boldly. The public hearings will
continue for a few more days, but they
probably will develop no new condi
tions. It might be stated, in the tlrst
Place, that there is no issue raised
between organized labor in the rail
road industry and the labor that Is not
organized The four brotherhoods, as
DIXIE GAS
A producing natural gas company with large, proven
acreage within eight miles of
Birmingham, Alabama
Three wells already completed to the first pay sand,
showing an aggregate daily production capacity of li.GOU,
001) cubic l'cet. Other wells drilling. Five distinct gas
sands at greater depth, as developed by diamond drill
operations on the property. Franchise applied for in
Itirmingham and environs. A new and potent factor in
the industrial upbuilding of tlie South! The most, im
portant commercial discovery since the uncovering of iron
ore! Stock soon to be traded iri on the
New York Curb Market
All signs portend a widespread demand and a quick
rising market. Orders in brokers' hands for execution on
tlie; day and date DIXIE GAS goes out, should realize the
fullest measure of profits.
Instruct your broker to execute orders on opening day
"at the market" or communicate with the undersigned
direct. Ihiy your stock outright and require immediate
delivery of certificates.
H. L. MANDEVILLE
120 Broadway, New York.
la well known, prcscutcU the llrst for
mal request" for a consideration of
w.ik? Increases, but they have not
sought to exclude cither tho minor
unions or the nonunion employees from
tho pending adjustment. On tho con
trary, many union loaders have ac
tually argued the case of the unor
ganized inen with the same force that
they liavo argued their own case.
Another Important phase of the mat
ter which the commission is keeping
clearly in mind is tho cfTed of what
ever wage increases thut may he
granted upon the wages of men In
other Industries. And in this connec
tion the commission has carefully con
sidered tho i^eimanency of railway em
ployment as contrasted with the tran
sient character of employment in many
other .industries. Also the effect of
the advances which may ho granted
upon the railroads themselves is a
highly important matter. The com
mission does not wish to saddle an
unnecessarily heavy burden upon these
properties, against the day when they
may ho returned to their owners and
against the day when peace will conic.
MAW CI. ASSES <?!?? I.AIIOK
en'titi.ei> to i\cm-:ask
l'.ut the commission is already im
pressed with the necessity of allowing
more money to many classes of railroad
labor whatever V.;; futars may hold
for the transportation system. Some of
the members have been surprised at
the astonishingly low wages paid for
some of these classes. lJecauso the
brotherhoods have seemed well paid
the Impression has been more or less
general that all railroad employees are
to be regarded as fully compensated for
the Kind of labor they may be per
forming. I?ut the evidence does not
bear this out.
At tho end of the last calendar year
there were 1,703,577 men employed by
the American railways. They received
an aggregate of 11,511.728,020 for their
service, or an average of $S77 per man. |
This gives a fair indication of tho
wages paid and an Indication of the
necessity for generous advances In
many directions. Also It explains why,
in this period of h'igh wages in many
Industries, the railroads have been un
able to keep their forces Intact.
ovrcn 1.000,000 i:a?iv
ABOUT $nr.7 A YKATl
Of the 1,703.577 railway rmplnyci at
the end of the past year. 1.070.S21. or
03.4 per cent of them received $710,
122,75S, or 47 p?r cent of the total out
lay for compensation The average pay
of the more than a million employers
was J157 a year, or a little more than
t'.O a month. A total of 119,240 more
of these employees rr.ad*. 0:1 an average
of J'.MS a year; 2<?S,flO0 more of them
averaged $1,110 a year; 107.73", others
averaged J1.2S0 a year, and lOS.MJ),
more of them averaged $1,724 a year.
It has been generally supposed that
there are a great many railroad em
ployees who make I.trge salaries. A
few officials do make a great deal of
money, but the evidence before this
commission shews that only 13.s<7 of
the total number average as much as
J2.059; only 1,1<57 average ji much ;*?'
13,731, and only 4.3f>2. which includes
the highest paid class of employee.-,
average SC.565.
SECTION" HANDS PA1I>
DMA S.'OO A TEA It
More than a quartor of tho employe;
in the group averaging lei-s th:?r? Js77
a year, it should be staled, are un
skilled section hands, whose yearly
average has been fixed at J~'0C. The
average for the trainmen who have
asked for an Increase of tO p'r cent,
was f 1.330 a year. The passenger engi
neers. who are c!asse<i with the train
g I
| incn Just referred to. averaged 12.099
| in 1017.
[ Increases asked for by all the cm -
j ployees of tlio railroads who have pe
j titioned this commission aggregate
about $750,000,000 a year. If thoy
should bo allowed by tho director-gen
eral. upon tho recommendation of tho
railroad wage commission, tho pay
j roll of the American railroad system
would bo approximately J2.22.1,000,000,
as against $1.500.000.000 aa at present.
lOvcn so. the employees' spokesmen
contend that they are not asking for
au increase that would cover the total
Increase in the cost of living during
the past year. They arc asking, they
claim, for only G6 per cent of tho living
cost an based upon government sta
tistics as to food, fuel and clothing
prices now prevailing.
It Is. of course, improper to antici
pate tho action of the railroad wago
commission, but it Is in order to say
that this body lias been Impressed with
tin: Justice of many of the requests
for higher railroad pay. And It may
be assumed that they will recommend
to the director-general a very thorough
readjustment of tno wage basis. This
much i !* certain even now, the moro
so for the reason that no "demands"
have been presented to tho govern
ment. no ultimatums have been Issued
and no suggestion from tho employees
of a strike to enforce their appeal for
higher wages.
THREE OFFICERS MENTIONED
FOR BRAVERY IN SEA FIGHT
Men on llonrd I". S. S. Cnnnln I,ant
* October \\ hen If Met Sul> ?
murine Honored.
WASHINGTON". February 17.?Thr?o
officers of the I". S. S. Cassin were com
mended by Secretary Lanicla to-day for
I li r> i r gallant conduct during an en
gagement with a German submarine on
October 15. 10! 7. They were:
Commander Walter N. Vernon and
lieutenants John W. McClaran and
James A. Saunders.
The secretary's letter to Commander
Vrrnou was ordered read aloud to th<?
destroyer's crew. It said.
"The department . . . notes wi'h
gratillcatioii the highly commenda.b!o
conduct of yourself, the other officers
and the men of tho Cassin. The man
ner in which tho Cassin kept under
way with her steering gear disabled
and practically at the mercy of tho
submarine, and opened lire upon thi
submarine when she appeared upon th<*
surface an hour later, is well worthy
of the be?t traditions of the service."
Tho lieutenants were praised for
"going down Into the smoking han
dling-room adjacent to a magazine, to
ascertain the extent of the damago
don*-' to the Cassin after that vessel
had been struck by the enemy's tor
pedo."
Commander Vcrnou's home address is
civm as Watertown, Kla.; Lieutenant
McClaran Wooster .Ohio, and Lieuten
ant Saunders. L ;taw Place. Bal
timore. M'l.
First National Bank
/V//KZ^y >7/VZ? /V^///
CAPITAL&SURPLUS, % 3.000.000
barnes Safe Vault Co.
l-III I'd n t Mnln Street.
Ilobt. II. liarnrn, I'roji. ntnl Mcr,
Fertilizer Facts No. 47
The Tub That Tells the Tale
The shortest stave determines how much "water the tub "will
hold. Increase the length cf the short staves and you increase the
?water-holding capacity.
The shortest element cf Plant Food in a soil determines the
crop yield.
Dear this in mind. Southern soils are short in Phosphoric
Acid, Nitrogen and Pota3h. There is no use increasing one or
two of these if one or two are left short. The short stave is going
to decidc the increase.
Consider carefully. It is not the first cost of your fertilizer but
the profits from the use of your fertilizers that is vital. Profits
come from maximum crops and maximum crop3 can ONLY come
from lengthening oil the staves.
Feed the plants a complete ration?a complete fertilizer of
available plant food that can be used to produce a big crop this
year.
Frederick W. Drown, of the U. S. Department of Agriculture.
says in the Year Booli of 1916: "An analysis of the fertilizer in
vestigations carried on by tho experiment stations of this country
and abroad brings out the significant fact that, generally speaking,
the use of complete fertilizer?that is one containing nil three
elements?gives larger returns than the use of one or two of the
fertilizer ingredients.'*
Pat your Fertilizer Problems up to the grical
ia ro I Experts of the Farm Service Bureau?TTiit
Office Docs Not Have Fertilizer for Sale.
SOIL IMPROVEMENT COMMITTEE
Southern Fertilizer Association
Rhodes Building Atlanta, Ga.

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