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Richmond times-dispatch. [volume] (Richmond, Va.) 1914-current, March 11, 1918, Image 8

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<^3552
Weekly Bureau of In
formation for All Who
Till the Soil or Are Inter
ested in Making Homes
AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT
All Itiqalrlr* untl roiniiiunlnitlon* nililrr.oril lo/Tlic 'rlnic*-I>l?i|>?? < cl>
nil) rrcrli r i*r?> m f> t ullfiillon. Thin <lr|tiirtmcnt will npprnr m?'h
M'inilny. mid t*onlrlli!i(ioiiM or Micsr*(liinn nlll bp nrlromrdi
Facts for Farmers, Stock
Breeders, Poultry Raisers,
Orchardisls, Truckers and Gar
deners?Queries and Answers
Mnnaton'a Apprnl to I'arniera.
In an appeal to the farmers ??> mil
their savings into government war
uavlngB ccrlllicsites. Secretary of Agri
culture Davit) S. Houston recently said:
"It Is the patriotic duty of ever>
cltieen who is in a position to do so
to invest in war savings and thrift
-tamps and thereby help the nation
to win the war. The purchase oC ox-en
a Co-cent tliriit stamp 5s a tfellnito con
tribution to this end.
"Wax saving ? and thrift stamps fos
ter the habit of thrift in small ex
penditures, muke it possible for near
ly every on-- to purchase what .ire ii
reality small government bonds, and
offer a unique opportunity to the peo
ple at once to help their govevnnieni. ,
and to economize conveniently for tl ?
purchase of the best investment se
curities in the world.
"To win this w.ir we must, have boil:
men and I'.'onvy 1 Know that every
farmer wants m do everything in hi
power for the nation in tl is day o:
trial. He will nrt only labor to pro
duce the ne*esx.irv foodstuffs, let will
alno jri-nero'.j'dy contribute ot his means
to make it possible ir-r the men it th^
front to achie e victory. I am con
fident thai tie tanner- of ill ? land
will not permit any other class t<>
take the leadership in supporting the
government in t! is cxi?i . financsall}
or otherwire."
Secretary Houston's rer. atr.s. while
address "d to t tc .ami crs* of the coun
try generally. rend if they were
intended mainly tor tobacco "r.
of Virginia, whe have beet tr *tir?t;
such tine price: for th;.'r v;ed
1 hr I'lrmfr's l.itlle \S ork?hnp.
Xot onlj dur the winter months,
when regular held v orl; i not so pr^s :
;tip. but en rainy days during the
catire vcar. a prcat deal of valuable t
repair work on implements can he
done, ar.u indoor and outdoor conven
ience*. made argues the Progressive
I'armer in an ari'.-le on "The Farm
Work .Shop."
The fact of the i>u;> ne.-.- i> .1 suit
able repair shop or o: he" roomy place
in which t<> keep repair tools and
? orl: is \ er> nearly as essential and
important as are the farm tools and
implements. A small building or a
portion of the implement shed ran be
titled up to contain a work bench,
anvil, forpo. trestles an.! an ample
supply of repair tools and supplies.
The shop should have an abundance
of lipht. sis mu'h of the work will
be done on dark days. All repair tools
should be ke;i* together, and after tiso
nhoul'l always be- returned each to a
designated place?bung about 011 nails
driven her" and there or placed on
convenient shelve:, about the shop.
The Us* of wood-working and ldack
s:nithinp tools used need not be fnr-ii
Iduble?a hand saw. cross-cut saw. r!p
wr. st?e! square, a : "t of chi.sels, two
or three planes.. <1 rawknife, wood ra^;>.
snoke shave, hatchet, brace and set of ?
'.rood-boring: bits and a set of twist
drill bits. A vise should be on the
work bench and a borinp machine will
be found a fr.-c it convenience. Knr the
blaeksmlthinp. wo should have an anvil,
a blacksmith's vise, tiles, hammers, a
set of tans and dies for cutting threads,
cold chisels, several sizes of punches,
'orew drivers, jrrind and on stones,
two o~ three pairs of tonps. several
wrenches and a press dr:ll The fo-?;e
ar.d bellows used may be either one
of the combined, portable typi>, or a
repuiar MBi'ksnv.tir:- blower mav
u.-ed with a forge built of brick or
atone.
Bcsiden our 'lor!: of repair tc-olr. we
???ill need a small stock of rod Iron
and band iron ot ditfereti* * ize;; ?ind a
supply of holts, nut'-, washers, etc..
and different kinds <?' seasoned wood.
Hrealden Me.\*nvre to the T'nrnter*.
T-.very Virginia far:nor outtht to c't
n copy of President WiKo;:'' message
to tlie farmers of the United Staff:-,
frame It ari'l 1cc*?-1> !? in :v c< >it
place. whern he <;.n r'-for to it mtv
?Jay th:s^ifon. T/,e Presid^n" ?'T i!:e
!l he voices a strong faith in the loyalty
of iiit the farmers ru ! mr.ke- a -front'
call t"or their co-operation in winning
t '.i e v. .t r.
T: bar Wn ?: f-. : ?? many
writer.* ? .-*?; .re ? :? < ;>- "on ;.???
ncre of Kuropeari farrr.tr# with that
of American f ir~r.fr' ? ? tl * ?ietriTTtfcr:'
of the An:'-.*; Pre- dent how
t;s ar.y.o'S*; fir: In the world. and
that ?h?-y d ? : ? prolu. * mo:??
per acre !t ' *0*. on'v nt necessary
rh: th*: ?hould do f-o 1 perhaps.
Jt would be bad economy for thoiri to
r.o ;.v'.r." 1 -w. r :V,rc
country: they ar?* more alert and use
r.:ore !a>. .r-savir.fr
oth?r i:, t!-< -.vor!'!
Tli" roapoRs* t'
Mr. Wilson, to the demands of the pres
ent ernerp ?r-11 ;? r been 1;. ever;. way "*
rmarkabl-. at d h' quote figure- in
proof '?f the a; ->ert|o:). Tne: e achieve
ment;;. he uri;<: should h- repeated and
even- evcee i'-rt.
The President den'.e t . ? the kov
wnmtnt ha: ? ought t ? r. tl.- p: ? e of
food:?.tuffy ami not so a:':.' ' x other
price:* which d? ;e Tin.:;- t ? expense
of the farmer. statin;; :!.? i- ??.-?-r? i
neat has su ^u! !v ?1:! . ? ? ?! ?li o
prices of many materia':;- under.# .nu til
the interests 'if the countr\. and such
r?:f;u.i;tio!i w:i: not for the pur
chiicer. of th< Kr.v"!nr) 'nt but for the
pur? iiaaes: of the pub!, . ar.d in lixing
the prices of foodstuff: th' j;o-ernment
ha:< sincerely tr???d to Ue?-p int< r<
of the farmer mu-h j.i mind a1 t?ie
interests of other .
ItocallinR the hi tori- a/imn <,t ih
(.irmerM at I.^si'.Kt' !i when the-, "flred
the shot that wa : eard around the
world." President V.'il.ion -ay: that
toll, the int'.ilijje:.. .- the e?'.???kj-. 'h
fore:)iRht. the uacrlfiocs and devotion
of the fnrmcrt; of Atneri a will bring
to a triumphant con'.-lUHloti this j-:reat
last war f>>r the emati?-i[?at .?>
from the control of arbitrary govern
ment and the telh: hnt- of I-;;.
lutlon.
tnittkfr Irinmph for ihr I orntt-r.o.
"(lao.e again" says Wnmsn': ?'??Titury,
'the adaptability and kill of womon
have confounded the eriti -11.? ? - i-..
credulous critlef. the I'.trrnei Thf ?
admit that in the re rent ??'!. ? y t-t-'v
at Maidstone (ICnglatuli v. ? ? ;:..-h
standard ha.; heeti i -a hed in tln
mitk'.ng competition tnore than oin
fourth gained over ninety ..r,. Two
women thatchers. v.-h.o iia'i <>?,.? h??i*n
at the work for five week.-, x jr. (l tl.e
Highest possible rating The i
tions were arranged by th? K-nt
V.'oinen'e Agricultural Committe. Mr.
1?'. Heron-Maxwell, chairman of the or
gMtilvslrig committee, .'aid tln:< were
P.000 women registered a:- laud v.-orV.
era In Kent, also 20t.<00 memiter.i of
the "Women'a Land Army."
I.tme 1? Mtieli Itfltrr.
\Vell-?lfted eoal ash?*? unlike ? oo<i
anhes. ha<*e no f.r rt tliz:ng vali.. . t.ot
are uaeful in lightening : oil lame
u-ill lighten soil arid at the sain' lim
corrcct aciditj-.
LARGEST EVER PRODUCED.
BUT IT CAN YET BE OUTDONE
<I'. Mjrtley. of the Bureau of Plant
Industry, lias issue*! tlie following proc
lamation to the farmers of the coun
t r n .
^ oi! have Jemon?;nilo(l your abilitv
.iii.l patriotisr.i bv taising the largest
r < r..p ever produced ami have ac
? ? : .plished it under rather unfavorable
seasonal and labor conditions. This
compli-duneut entitles you to special
honor?.
Xow .t greater opportunity and task
confronts you and the earlier its mag
Mtuue is realiss-d. the better will the
? .itry be fortified
Last spring you had a good supply
<?; good seed .Vow a very consider
able area has suffered a Void, back
ward summer. and an exceedingly
largo per cent of the corn was frozen
so o.ii" 1\ as to make seed saving im
possible. As there is practically no
i'old-over supply, the frost stricken ati<l
drought stri-ken areas must import
seed. and next year's success depeno:.
upon the promptness and thoughtful
nos.-. u it'i which these importations
are made.
As considerable corn matured thor
oughly in sections with similar cli
matic conditions to the frost and
drought stricken areas, prompt action
by each planter who i-5 not now sup
plied with adapted seed, can proven*
.. 7?"?.(>00.000 bushel reduction in next
yoar's crop.
Whether ; n\i can secure another vie
tory 11 *? x t yeai depends largely upon
your action now. Kach and every
plant ft for his own sake and for his
country's >.,tke. should have surTicient
adapted seed corn set aside now or
should p"t it without delay. To delay
is to invite failure. The consequences
are too serious to permit transporta
.ton problems. .State lines, prices, ot
anything to delay the securing of suit
able seed corn by all the tinsupplied.
Suitable reed is now available tn?t
wil be used for other purposes than
st on before n?*\t spring, utiles:} cadi
irrower now secures and safeguards
his planting needs. Do not depend
? ?n the other fellow If you do. you
and the country will quite certainly
stiifor loss, l.'nadapted seed may be
availbale next spring:, but would prove
costly at any price, whereas well
.'?riaped seed should prove profitable
at Tinny times its cost.
This appeal is made to you person
"i 1'-aiisv upon \ou depends the
suck's*? of next year's corn crop, whic ?
is threatened by a scarcity of well
inatured. locally adapted seed. The
seed trati". -ounty. State and National
workers, though anxious, can help but
little except as you make known your
needs a *i<l \ our supplies, and you should
n? t now as you v, mild act if next week
we*-e corn-plant ing time.
I miltniil fur I'nrriiwlliir Timr,
I'.i roivimr tint. is I i" most critie.1,1
season for the swine herd. At no
1'' :>??:? l: lie ?? :l ? ? a ?: ; i' entiop pa"
ter retuvi - The results ? f sev
er;?; months of bib ?:? mil care may
he ir.;>y iievIre) ,;i ttiis period. Km ?
phasis is justly placed on prolificacy
'?f ' rood sows, but (lie nuin'ii-r ot pii;?
which thc> farrov is tt.-? t the most im
portant consideration. The number
t ?: t.ii'o ?;??; e ini in..; whether the t-'?w
baa been kept at a profit or loss. The
v lii h farrows live pius and raises
of t*:eiii i more profitable than the
0 < 'vh: "? farro v- fifteen and s-i\es
t" ? ?? t li ?? f. The disposition of the
? ' * ? I- i. in :?" : t?> d'? vit !i ' 1. mini -
'?''I* I' -:?? i.r- raise. The w av
i handb-ii . 1 on. e- her disp<
? io\ ? 1 ? ? ?:?1 ?.i'i? a. 1; . the result - that
tr a ; ? ' -.:??< 1. \V < a vi-r. ? ? *
the University of Missouri Col lego of
Atrri< it ???? offer - : ? following sui.
ge.Mio- : on tli? . are -l sows at far
v- ? w i ; g : ::?;<?
Str:< * ac <>iint should be kept of
!-r? ? i! i. - ? ' ? n ?.. 1 ?* -ok or s>> 1 .e
fjro a sow i- due t*. farrow. she should
ri::.'iV"d f.-. . sow to '. iie
I ? ? t er - > .? in f crrmi 'i'
1 "<! tr 111 ir should
:' > s . ne !. ..?! ? i ? . 11 lie f. ii wii ??
? io ;s?.w is mi kling her pi?s. Tin
: ? ? . : i ? out a in pie;, t y <?:' j ? < t ?
aiid should also be laxative in nature.
A ? :<? : o r,.? per e.-n
f" ;???. ???rii bran 1 ."? per ??e- t. linseed
? Il.e;,l 1>. ;.< ? <?<?. || t sllo'lld k V ?? j;o'>tl
:. ' ! i: ? . :. u while it is no* re com -
u ti.e b?st ration, it an h
V ? ar: example, and similar ra
ti'.r.ss u.a\ he used successfully. A
'? v d-.'s Se:ore tlie sow farrows the
: ".our.r of the ration should be re
? lu-ed sr.mewhat. If this Is done, and
laxative teed is fed. the sow will
<o:..e up to farrowing time without
fever, arid v. :il for this reason, not
be apt to injure tlie pigs by her own
r ? 1 iess?' -)
i. i ? !, . :i?l he wunn enougn
that e:: -e: i bedding will not be
?.??iired. I! too much bedding is oro
vified the p;;:: may become hidden in
;? a ;'l : :."i !i? r. 'l or erusti?-d. A bushel
'.r r: ???re <>( wheat chaif or cut straw
will In suflieient. After the sow far
; 'vs it may be necessary to change
?i;' i.eddir but tlo- amount need no*,
i? e :i; . . .1 I ?. -. bedding t mo: ??
t a i! t *.;j:i t he arnrcint <?{ bedding.
It . o :!d b<- change.1 often enough to
alntain a ilry bed.
Ho it to Mnkr \r*tnnlc of I.rati.
In malting tip arHenate of lead for
?!:?" "W i>??mri*1 of the po\vdi*r
nv.. poiti'l of lit- piste to f.ich
ifty galioi.H of water. Frotn oiic to
?. > ol i| I in' rihottlil Hi.- ?
if i;-o-d Willi 111 <? lead. Sink" the
;tii< kl.me nrnl pur Into i he fifty ?: 11 -
? oris of wjfter Work it thront'n u
traitu-f ko ;i: to !;??? ;> out ;?!! th<: trash
iii'l lump".
I; tli': powdered a r t> 81 f* i *, t:>:ed
k- ' : ? 11 ?. a p.'ihtf wit -on.': V ater
A'orU ? ???it.l tin- J.ftJ'll p'Tf.-l-'
? iioo,.li, tioii v.otk it through the
;traim-: : \\* 11 ?- !?? p..
irMMiat c . : Pad i ll: ?? 11. wo: k .1 wttti
".vater iiMii : .tisr and smooth. 1
add to Hf* ? gallons of v. .iter and
litllf". i tt to IICII t ra 11/.?:
any fre< acid tliat might lie in t li
? r. "t lead ami to prevent au\
jii.int i!. ; .r
it" <!??. ired trail quant itir?t ii r
. ii'jiii i' i f ;?.??!(? <ir half ? tint ? of
|Mi vdi-r -d to a:i oun ol <|'jickl;n:e t >
"ii?- gallon ol water.
I nrmiriK ' tuir*r* for W omrn.
Women .ire- in ?,???! I? y thf i?eparl ment
f .V r 1 ? i'' iff ? ? farm .'.pi-cial
)>y taking cowr. <?: li agrh altui a!
.< I T.li '1. . lo.'i i.f ,u;r. -iltuial
: n- t fi'-t ion n;.; plantid .jtiri-.es > >? t i>?l -
? ??I to lit u. ? n.' :: lie.;onnr ??\p- f' in
certain linen of farm Work, arid it.;
oil it;! a 1." .t ?? ,iici< at'.- 11 ; farm r p<-? -
a'.rU si wi?. li ptopi t'.y tralm-d w-.m'-n
< a; not i! o i u ( ' i a ? men.
Many >.i applying t.. orga::iza
'ion-- t ', . fa rin work ' iii'lii I.v
11'? t a;?!" . lii' they do riot i- a 1 ivt??
that skilled labor 1 needed Doparl
it.'i.r M.. .? ay !i.a; the woman who
i ? < " 1. : !i '1 ' ! i . t In r 111 j t y to !? e r ?'Oll ri -
try il' inaiMl' t!.,. ? }i? l.i-i-ome an agri
Iculturifit should lit herself l>y thor
tiii .niil'
Ar. iiu r* .i'cil !.i r .f women anil
K.rly ar<' l..,.ni|; ; i'.rural roin y.i"
1 *r K? rr> \ \ li t ? it I?I r loot.
1 ''?li ' '-til t tit i a -hi , a i <?. f n 1; v ar
-""1 r '???! Will :? n.,1... ?? . ? ?
loi.: of rtvfllitthlo i pace 1:, thu i mall
tard. :i pr ml 'J'.' til' max ? t. n n yn-|.|.
'I'll,. (tight KgKw for HrttchliiK.
Kggs from fowls of strolls vitality
??uv more fertile, hatch better and the
chillis :ire easier to roise.
A few breeding1 fowls selected for
iheir superior visor and stronger vi
tality. will often return a greater
profit than a much large number of
fowls which are lacking in these char
acters.
Strong vitality is indicated by h
head that is short, broad, deep and
coinouct: an eye that is bright, full,
dear and prominent; a boak short, .
stout, hroud and well curved: comb
and wattles well developed and liery '
red The body of the bird should be
well balanced and compact; the back t
Ion:: and broad, carrying its width
well out to the end. The individual .
should have good capacity, as shown
by the length, depth and width of the
body. This will give room for devel- !
opment of good digestive and repro
ductive systems.
The stronger birds usually stand
with legs placed squarely under the
body, and v.'idc apart at the knee j
joints. The toe-nails of stronger birds
are worn flat and broad across the
point, showing evidence of greater ac
tivity. The stronger fowls are als:>
generally first off the roost in the
morning, and the last to go to bed
at night. A short, heavy, well-curved
vpur ?'ti a good-sized shank indicates
vigor in the case of the male bird.
The weak and unprolltablc fowls are
those which have long, narrow uiiu
sunken heads; flat, sletider beaks;
small, sunken and dull eyes. Their
bodies .ire often abnormally shaped,
shallow and lacking capacity through
in.t. The birds of low vitality stand
r?n small legs, which are close at the
liO'-k or knee joint. They are less ac
tive and may often be seen in the day
time on the roost.
Contrast these two types. Breed the
Irons birds only. They will produce;
fertile eggs which will batch sturdy
and thrifty chicks. Don't breed the
en lis. They do not earn their feed
? i c.i re.
Due Wny to Test Seed.
K\ery ear of seed corn should be
tested before the crop is planted. This
precaution against a poor stand has
lionn made necessary by the shortage
? I" good seed this year. While seed corn
testing is the only safe practice i:i
ordinary years, it. is douMy important
this year because a big crop of corn
ivill be necessary to meet the coun
try's demands for food and feed. The
lepart merit of farm crops of the I * r? i -
versit.v of Missouri College of Agricul
ture offers the following suggestion for
? sting seed corn. Thi Is one of 111??
?simplest ways by which the test may
!??? made.
I'sually several shallow woortfi.
fray:' are made and nearly filled with
srwdust or fine soil. They may be
>T a"-' size desired, but a tray about
ivo *eet square is perhaps the most
i <"? j: * ori^ t o hati (11c A cotton
V:ii :'e sir.e nf the tray is marked
ff ? twi'-lti''li siiua :<??<. f-ich square
l'ltmbc'-rd. and laid on top of the soil.
. ?.. In t .? I im| i ! i> ]a '<1 o ! t 'i
sets of ten. each ear being civen the
i ? n;i: t!ier j;.? one .if the squares
.ill" .-'olTaking a set of ears,
i ??!.!?.v" s'\ kernels from an ear and
i ni on the s-q'inre in the clotli
i' ? r.-4 the r a - number. T*o thi
11! the ear; When all the squares
.? ?; i'|o?h ;ire fllb'il the !;enirN .ire
covered wltll a second clotli. ii third
cloth is placed over this and an inch
v.'ln.-t <?:' s >it i-' spread ?>n top
.? * *i*? 11u'_r'11v wet with warm water
'n pi of the layer of soil, a pad
I vi' 'i sawdust may be u*ed to
the tester. This somewhat
i'l< ii er and more convenient than
; ,,:l ,>;? sav dust. When .*.11 the
trays a e tilled, stack tliem in a warm
;'!ac" and '.vet ;lie top layer of soil
n eac.li tray i? ith warm water once a
1?\ for five or six days. At the end
* thi-' time remove 'l\n t' r< cloth and
. .?.".line ?he kernels. If the kernels
from a-r ear do not show stroni,
?. ? '.'.atic i. t h'l I ear vhou'd not !>e
;-neil.
!:?. ?' r.f the cerminnt'on test
nil ear.- unfit for seed may be found
,'.<1 thrown out. The r-sul: will be a
better stand and a thriftier growth of
;iie you no1 crop.
\iH ?Mill," lull f mo*I
?WhM 1? Your I'tmost ?" is the slogan
. :?id|>:t ; :rr: now being conduct ed
farm i>' ;>'rs in various States, par- ,
? i nl.-i rl v iri f|ii? South. The idea
hin'i it "is interest inp. When Knjrlan.1 j
w? lit t<? :< r cvcrv persoti was ur.kr^l
to do his or her "hit " \V:ir was still '?
regarded a ' a storrn which would soon
hlow over, hut the traccily of Vpr>>i
? luicklv reused the Itritir.h to their
peril. :ind it was seen that they must
do their utmost .*.!nTli':i is in the
vat: <? [i1 >s;i ion. itnd nn;?i do her utmost.
':d tii" farm papers conn i^ting this
"What Is Your I'tmoslV" campaign are
?>!:i ' liK blank forms. enumerating
crops ?u i toil to their territory, nnu
njj farmers to indicate thereon
v. . a* spe. [? ? food staples they wil!
: !" i ?> and in what respect
? ? i i r< i :.? ?? arid a '? s o th"ir planting
? !i d'l!" have bei :i enlarged. The r<
;io?f-" voi % greai, and it serves
wo useful p-irp"se: I'irst. to !n
terent farmers In actual Increased food
lirodu'tioi si-rond, to encourage a.
careful snrvev* of possibilities and ar
range a comprehensive planting and
;?! ei-ding id .i! Ii'-luri' the season begins.
Incidentally the letters received in
oiilie tioi: with tliis c.i in pa i en show
how farmer; are mectui? labor <1 i Hi -
' allies, nsiiii; labor-saving lords, adapt
ing .'o 1 to suitahb crops, planting;
'?over crop.-, crops, and the lik.*.
'?I\r (lie l mv n llr.nl.
I: we . \p,. i a cow to freshen ?<nv?
year. it is .i matter of course that
v. <? ought t<> prepare h ? r each ye.tp
(??r the i.i-m ear: in other word-, that
iV' ? > 11; i i' to give her .? iriicicni time
and rest to prepare herself. Therefore,
il"- row ought to lie dried up a short
lime before e;:lving. If this is not
done, we may not expert that she will
do well t he next year.
It sometimes ociiirs that the row l?j
i ??? rd to dry tip. She beeps on giviirr
loo rntJrii mill; to leave in the bag.
H >??.* ? an we now dry up sue!i cow"
If a cow i :i only producing five *.o
po-jnd- of milk, the milking ran he
stopped at once. If >.he is producin,;
t?n to twelve pounds, the mi'k iptan
;it would cause injury, and v. ?? then
? w 'his method: For two or three
da . t v.<- do not mill; the row dry. The.t
?nil-: Iif r for a lew days once -i
I.; : once itvet ? tie ond day, and if
iry, once every third ila\. I?ur
ng tlii dryiiiK-off period we put the
? ?ji .! ? 11 j j i j.-. ? ? r: 11 !<??:. That i'. -he
only . IK le hay and water, with
ar, other f.-ed
I' i matter of course that cows
h :i tn i I it - p! f>rl uci ag capacity
"?Ud ?? fed well again as soon as
l ' .ir< 'i:i ed [I. She ha v. to he pre
|i:md f? i the Mr work again, and if
he |m in /rood liexh condition she If.
i l<l? ' >i do HO.
HiimIiIciI t (t llir l
.Mo t owners of small gardens are
onti-n' to raise a sitiKle eiup on each
(dot of laud at their dlsporal, but It is
'I l ? pn: ? lile to |;ru? two or three
i 1111 of ? oiio t i (jelahleit III one sca
nt!
VALUE OF THE FIELD PEA
AS LEGUME AND OTHERWISE
The field pea, sometimes known as
tlie Canadian Held pea, deserves even
wider use than has been given It, ac
cording to a recent farmers' bulletin,
"The Field Pea Is a Forugo Crop,"
published by the United States Depart
ment of Agriculture.
Since the field pea requires a cool
temperature during- Us growth it Is
well adapted for spring and summon
growth in the northern portion of the
United States and in the comparative
ly high altitudes of the Itocky Moun
tain region, and for winter growth in
the lower South. It is useful on the
farm as a rotation crop for hay, grain,
silage or green manure, and the peas
may be used iri the green state as a
vegetable like garden peas.
The rate of seeding varies with the
size of the seed of the different va
rieties from one and one-half bushel*
for the smallest to three and one-half
bushels for tiie largest when broad
casted. When sowed with oa.r. the
proportion of peas to oats should be
;wo-*hirds or one,halt'. The tie!! pea
is best sown with a grain drill
? i:iK-iila t ion is necessary for field
peas unless they are grown in ground
in which bacteria are already present.
Iti moving the vines. attachments
should be used on the mower which
will raise the tangled plants from the
ground and prevent clogging the cut
ter-bar. Peas may be thresh?<! iri an
ord'nary grr.in separator witn inoof. < f
tiie teeth removed from the concaves
and the speed of the cylinder reduced.
The vines should be cut for seed
when the pods arc fully mature ar.d
the peas firm. For hay they are cut
'.".rlicr. when most of the pods ara
well formed. When crown for hay,
peas are usually planted with oats or
some other grain crop.
When intended for use in silos, peas
usually are planted with bald barley
and cut when the latter is ripe. Pea
ensilage has a higher feeding value
than corn ensilage, but shoultl be fed
iri connection with a train ration. It
i? especially good for dairy cattle, but
?ilso has given excellent results in
fattening beef cattle and sheep. When
peas are grown for green manure, a
large-vined sort should l>e selected
The most favorable time for plowing
tinder is when the lower pods are well
tilled. It should be remembered thai
tin- use of green-manure crop is profi
table only in sections where sutlicient
: oil moisture is present to cause the
.IcU decay of the vegetable matter
turned under.
Although peas are pastured in some
regions, many farmers are discontinu
ing the practice because they con
sider i* wasteful, arid a'-e harvesting
all or a par? of their crop and feed
ing i-i a t'ei-ii lot. The use of alfalfa
sweet clover pasture In connection
with the fe.-ding of field pens notice
11 ly increase the rapidity with which
animals gain in weight.
The p? ?i weevil is the most serious
insect enemy of the tield pea.
are laid on the young pod and the
larva, on hatching, bores into the
young pen. The insect may he com
ta t e d !>y fumigating the seed beforo
planting, or. where it has gained a
strong foothold, by discontinuing the
rowing "f peas f->r several years.
I'owdery mildew and leaf spot or pea
blight are the chief diseases of the
field, notation of crop* is the best
remedy if the disesises affect a con
siderable area. Small areas may be
4: r. yet| with Itordeaux mixture.
'I tie I'nrmrr nnil the \utnmnblle.
J. 1.. justice writes 111 r itrm i.?iie
r.s follows:
The other morning 1 war; down t>j
a meeting 11 1?1 hy the county ad
viser. Tin? speaker answcp'il questions
after h.s address for about two hour:--.
until dinner ; i. t:? . ori n ; nbi " v!t<T
interest to f*.". por cent of the farmers.
Some mon who r:in-c t'roin a <i;stance
of olsrht mil";-. received am! exchanged
valuable Ideas- ami plans ami g?t home
in time for dinner ami a good after
noon's work. Olic of the notable fea
tures about the meeting was that
every one <>f those farmers except out
c;rno in his automobile.
I have heard it said that as soon
as the average farmer purchases ?
motor en r hi.-' usefulness or efficiency
as a farmer is lowered somewhat, as
the pleasure uained from the ear dis
tracts him from his work. Vet. as
I looked over the men at tills meet
ins and other meetings. I could not
help but notice how serious. Interest'!
and progressive they appeared; men
of good purpose. Interested it> the'r
welfare and that, of their country.
I know that some of them wotili
riot have been at those meetings if
Miey had had to poke along behind ?
hor.io, for their day would have b?en
pretty well used up by the time they
had driven six or eight miles. The
valuable suggestions gained at the
meetings will eompensate for a part
of the investment in gasoline and Ihe
car. This is a day of rapid evolution
iti farm practices and methods, and the
farmer who gets around in his car is
aide i<> take note of them, keep abreast
of the times and use the knowledge
gained to his profit.
When the farmer loads his car with
tools and drives down to lix the lino
fence, runs down town to get a repair
needed in a hurry for the tractor or
hinder, takes his family to institute
or eimrch in stormy weather. or
hitches a trailer on behind and hauls
a calf, piy or garden produce to mar
I; e t these tilings show how lie lias
turned a thing of pleasure and luxury
to practical uses.
Joint (hinrr?lii|i of Siren.
\.- the demand grows stronger for
more and bettor live stock, and as the
price of good breeding stock goes \
higher and higher, we naturally turnj
to co-operative ownership of sires as
a means of solving the. problem.
Where conditions are favorable, the
forming of a neighborhood organiza
tion for the ownership of breeding
stock has been proven to have many
d'-li n i t e ad va nta ger.
ity such an organization if in possi
ble for a community to have belter
bred and .stronger individuals for
breeding purposes than could other
wise be had.
A more expensive animal can in this
way be had than would be cconomlc.il
for the single farmer to own, and at
tii<; same time each one will not have
to invest as much as he would possi
bly for a scrub sire.
1 iie animal purchased Jointly can I)"
kept on tlie single farm for a period
of one oi- two years, depending on tin;
iiamber of farmers in ibe organiza
tion. and then parsed on to the next
man.
I ci:i plan can lie earned on so long
ai the individual is fit for service. Full
v.i Mm; can I., realized in this way fror.i
each individual animal during his
whole eifei.tive lifetime.
Muttlilne nnil Shade.
Voltage crops, such as lettuce, spin
ach and kale, do fairly well In partial
' :>.iade, |>ut even they need sunshiiiA
two ..i three hours a day. Plants
which must ripen fruits, such as to
il'.iloca and ej>iit, fhniild have the
runniest locations.
DESULTORY CHKTER I
OF THE STOCK MARKET
Attributed largely to Fresh Com
plications In foreign
Situation.
INDUSTRIALS ARK IRREGULAR!
Annual Statements by Some of the ?
Leading Manufactures of Steel and
Iron Has Derided KfTeot In Add
ing Strength.
(By Associated Press. 1
N'KW YOltK, March 10.?The dcsul
tory character of the stock market in !
tho early part of last week's operation ,
was attributed in largo measure to |
fresh complications in the foreign sit - I
nation and preparations incident to 1
the next Liberty loan drive.
Sharp recoveries in the later deal- !
ins;::, especially in rails, resulted main- !
ly from the agreement arrived at. by
Congress relative to the terms of the '
railroad legislation and further prog- |
ress of the war finance measure.
Cains of two to eight points among ,
hlgh-giade investment transportation |
shares were effected chiefly at the ex- 1
pensc of a long-standing* short interest
in v.-rious market leaders.
Industrials moved with some irreg
ularity for a time, but developed de
cided strength after publication of an
nual statements by some of the fore
most manufacturers of iron and steel.
There revealed greatly enlarged earn
ings for 1017, despite the severe p?-n
a I ties imposed by excels income and
war taxes.
Trade reports also were far more
encouraging than those of the first two
months of the year, business in General
indicating expansion and recover}- from
the depression occasioned by stringent
regulations at that period. Call money i
was freely offered at 5 per emt.
VF.T CHANGIS IN COTTON
PltlCK WAS VOT \VII)K
N'EW ORLEANS, March 10.?The n"t
change in the price of cotton here last
week was not wide, contracts being live
points lower to twenty-two points
higher on the clo>,e than they wvre on
the close a week ago. Spo's rose fifty j
points to 3.250 ior middling, and closed
at the highest. Best prices for both
fut,ir,es and spots were new high rec
ords.
At the highest If vela contracts were
eighty-nine to 101 points over the pre
vious week's e 1ok.\ the market being
bullishly influenced by continued drlu
tliy conditions in Texas, the strength
??f snots and the continued advance in
'ini--li. fi cotton goods. There was much
covering by shorts early n the week,
but a reactionary feeling set in to
ward the close ar:<i heavy liquidation
of '.or.g contracts jesulted. IJettc- crop
accounts than expecte-1 from Texas
anc' constant rumors of Federal price
I'xir.g were cU-t -??svlrg influences after
the middle of the veek, and the bear
element se?med '.o expect that, this
week will bring them further encour
agement in crop p<?w? while they also
expect much from the Census l'.ureau
report on American mills for Februt ry
due r.'xt Friday.
At ihe end of last we?k the trade
took much ?nterost in a private bureau
report showing a f?tal ginning for the
season now enllng ?>f n. 100,000 bale ?
Ginning returns will again assume im
portance this v.-erii because the <*en u
i'.ureau, on March will issue 't>
final 'igures on girning. The tend
ency among private bureaus seems to
be to go above the government's crops
estimate for thi? cc.isrn of 1 t>.'.MI?'>00
halts of COO pounds gro-s weight.
MEXICAN SCHOOLS CLOSE
X? Fund* With Which to Par Salaries
of Teachers In Mate of
tiiiannjuato.
I nv Aisodateil I'rft."1 '
I.HON. MKX1CO. >.?areh 10.?Lick of
funds with which to meet the salaries
of school-teachers has caused the
abandonment of all public schools in
the State of Guanajuato. Francisco
Kspinosa, who recently resigned as
leutenant-governor, lias gone to Mexico
<'ity to seek aid. but faint hopes are
feit. that the federal government will
lend assistance to the state, as school
teachers in Mexico City have not heen
paid for months.
GOVERNMENT ARRANGING
FOR NEW COTTON ORDERS
Sixty Million Yard* Will lie .Unite |'|?
by .Ml I In of the
South.
I Hjr Ansocin tnl I'rMf. ]
NKW YORK. March 10.?Cotton
goods markets have boon very strong
and prices have advanced sharply dur
ing the past week. The government |s
arranging the distribution of orders
for 230.005,000 yards of bandage
cloths among Southern and Kautern
mills, Southern mills taking 00.000,000
yards. A price was fixed vy>iicli Is ma
terially tinder the current prices paid
by civilians for similar merchandise,
the reported government price being
71 cents and 73 cents per pound, and
the civilian price running ns high as
PI cents. IMoachcd and brown sheet
ings. prints, fine combed yarn cloths, '
and print cloths have advanced vei , |
rapidly, and toward the end of the i
week many large selling agencies j
withdrew all prices and all goods un
til the markets become more settled.
As high as 1 fJ cents a yard was paid
for a substantial quantity of thirty
eight and one-half Inch, sixty-four by
sixty, an advance of 1 1-2 cents a yard !
in a week. Some brown sheetings havw ,
advanced 2 1-2 cents a yard in the earcu
time. Civilian buyers are trying to
cover their requirements In anticipa
tion of growing scarcity, due in large '
part to increasing government busi- j
ness and to decreased production. Dur- :
ing the past week mills have been In
creasing their output somewhat as a
consequence of better fuel and trans
portation conditions: Prices quoted
ar* an follows: I'rint cloths, twenty
eight-inch. sixty-four by sixty-four.
12 1-2 cents; sixty-four by sixty, 12;
cents; thirty-eight and one-half inch,
sixty-four by sixty-four. It; 1-2 cen's;
brown sheetings. Southern standards, '
24 J-2 cents: denims, 2.2 Southern In
digo. cents: tickings, 8 ounce. 40
cents; prints. 10 cents: staple ging
hams, 1? cents; dress ginghams 22 1-2
cents and 25 rents.
ALASKA COAL TO AID U. S.
Two New Mlnra K*pected to Add to
the I-^el Snpply ot the
.Vntlon.
SEATTIjK. WASH.. March 10.?Two j
Alaska coal mines will be adding to i
the nation's f'jel supply tuls year, ae
cording to word reaching here from
Katalla. Alaska. The mines, now being
developed by the government in the
Matanusgka district. It I? expected this
year will not. only produce coal sufll
dent for use ??f the governrr. nt rail
road. but will become shippers to
other sections of Alaska and even to
the State.-.
It is expected also that or:* or two
mines will !>e opened !n the <"hl<ka
lo'.n district The Moniie f'r^ek mine
in the same district, in producing l'.fij
toris a day and further development
work is under way by the rrovernrnent
R. J. Reynolds
ToImum'o
Rights
Hoiiirlil, Soltl mid Quoted.
Webb & Co.
SPECIALISTS,
t.*{ Lxciiungc I'lacc,
Now York.
First National Bank
&//?/?//
CAPITAL &.SURPLU5. *3.000.000g
, AVERY
TRACTOR j
Service Demonstration
A Special Skilled Factory Man Direct From the
, Avery Factory Will He at
THE IMPLEMENT CO.'S
I Store, 1302 East Main Street
j March 18th and 19th
to give lull in formation and instructions in regard to
the workings of the Avery Tractors. These deinonstra
B lions or schools furnish the best, opportunity for farmers
| and all interested in the practical working of tractors
B to become fully posted in regard thereto, and every
a farmer, whether he owns a tractor now or hopes to do
I so in the future, is specially invited to attend. The
| demonstrations will commence each morning about !>
I o'clock. We cordially invite all persons interested in
motor tractor or cultivator service to attend these meet
ings on the dates above named.
THE IMPLEMENT CO.
15102 K. Main Street* Richmond, Ya.>
Headquarters for the Host in
FAIIM 1MIMJHHKNTS AND FAIOl MAClllNFItY.
TIMES-DISPATCH
CLA8S1KI ISO AI A" KUT1 SI N< J
Standardized mid Indexed lor Quick
Kcforutico.
loe a lltir* Sunilay.
Kc a lino Daily.
21c u line l"r J i'>in><>(Utlv? !ii?.?rlloii?.
42c a lint* tor 7 conaocutlve innrtioiin
Sl.iO u lino for i iintci utlvv Insertions
Minimum of u llnea l.-> ulluttt'ii.
Mliilntiini <;lmri;e 20 cvnlx.
Count i; words to llio lino and 11 linen r.
tlio Inch.
14-polnt niuchlno fct l.i tlio Iui'rvm Ij'i'
prmlttoil In uvular clm-Hlllcutloii.: No
verttwciiii.nl taken for lei.* tliun ono In*.,
where 0 to 14-i<olnt typo lined
Aiivrftlscilieiili) wltli |U|'K<*| than 14-|.oir'
type. vvitIt cuts, borders or broken vol
utit/iH, uio churned ai 1 cent per liny auui
tjonal to ubovo ruler. uild KUcli uclvur'
ll?eiii(llt? sir# pyramided toKellici' on llu
l lUMfcllletl pug...
All udverttKoiiicntM received up to 1? I' A
<'?> I'. AI. .Saturdays, i lliit <i.ty litfo. i ; .i
llcailon v.lll rocolvu propel el.i ? ?.I> ai. i
Advertisements rnrlvcil after Ihut ho;
will be placed in tlio "Too l.utc to Cia
Ify" column.
TELEPHONE.
Telephone your Want Ada. to The Tijik.
J >1.. patch. Jtandolpli 1. wlien you lino u
more convenient to do so. and tli?;>
Lu taken ut ultimo ratee.
bl U.VI ATIO.NS I OK T.-l). WANT AOS.
'i lie I olio Willi; Tltiiea-Dispa'.cb litanm ut
Dees ate lor me com eiuei.t-e of tne uub.i.
\Willi Ads. Ill e incepted L.? Ihe.ii ai U*.
regular oflKo rate.i, v-hun urn tlven abo>?
iVtiS'l' Ofr FOUHHEE STttUKT.
Weal Kiiil Pharmacy. zySl \V. C a ry St.
Cuveuo'a Drui; Store. !? loyU av?. ana Hob
limon Hi.
Chai lea S. Turner, DruKKlbt. Weat iirou-i
coriiM Davis Ave.
Kern:. Pharmacy, 2223 Hanover Ave.
Warliiners Drue Store, 2024 ijrovn Ave
It. L.. Hooker Urua Store, 20(>1 West iinlr
Bt.
J'oy'ti Drue Store, Ail?a Ave. mid Cirace Si
Allen Au. Pharmacy, Allen Ave. Uric
Co i y st.
A E. .loliann Dm* Co. Jii7 \V. Main Si
Dutlmer Drue Store, ioO W. Marnhull St.
Pine Street Pharmacy. 324 S. I'lne St.
liurnetl'M Dtuk Store, 401 \V. Ilro.nl St.
V. It. May <L Hro . Jlrouk Ave. uud Claj
Bt.
T&rrant Drug Store, Foushee nod Uroa<!
Bta.
KAST OF FOU8BEE STllEE1?
Coh'.u Co., 11 Ea?t llroad Bt.
TiaKlf liruic Co., al7 E. Ltroad BL
T. T Jefiric.i Drue Store, ill I- Hroart fit.
W&llls DruK Store, Fifth ai?l il.irib n
StH.
W. K. Vauelian, 301 N. Fifth St.
W. 11. Daley, 400 N. Tenth 8t
JUcfiardaon Drus Store. 6U1 N. 3???r.teec'.l
Bt.
II. II. Chlldrey. i2 N. Eichteenth HU
Turner's Pharmacy. T-wenty-Orit and Maif
Sir.
Williams Pharmacy. Twenty-ftrm. and Ma-r
? hall 81 !c
SorlnKer Drag Co., Twenty-third act'
Venable Sta.
Hord's Drue Store, Twenty-ninth and
Bta
Wood & S'-haaf Drue Co.. Twenty-CfU
and Vtnable Sta.
H. D. CralK Druir Store. 2M E. Broad St
llichardaon Clay Street Drue Store. 501 N
Thirty-first St.
FAIR MOUNT.
Pair.-nouat Pharmacy. 2121 Fairmount A?*
BAP.TON HEIOIITS.
Itady'a Drue Store, North Ave.
btecra'a Drue Store, KO'J North Ava.
HitJHDAND I'AKK.
A. N. Cosby A: Co. 1400 Third Ave
W. K. Vauehan. Fourth and dtuarL
A. K. Townaend. illltot. ui.d Marylan<
A ve?.
R<")t.'TII niCHMOND.
liianch Otfl'.e Tn>*:a-Dlo patch. 1403 Ilul
6w
WOODUND II EIGHTS.
Woodland lltlcl.ta Pharmacy, 3104 Stmmi
A vo.
Charles W. Garrhoi:. 3117 1'ortal Bill Ave
KWANSBORO.
li. M. Hot<rts's I'ruc Store. It04 Mull 8t
Ft:l.i ON
J. A. Hlack. 2!>l?. w ltliRtiirbu; c Ave.
People ? Di uk etoru. ? .?0 V> .iilamabun
Ave.
fete its he no.
Tlmea-Diapatrh Branch, 410 North Stc.?
rncr* Htre?? nhi?r>c l'?i?r?'t'irc
Is nno of the quickest - crowing
preen forace and Rrazin'.? crops Tor
cnltlc. sheep, hops and poultry.
Is hardy and can be sown as oarlv
in the spring as weather will per
mit. Costs less to seed per acre
and will Rive quicker Rreen foraRC
than any other crop. Also valua
ble for soil improvement.
WOOD'S DESCRIPTIVE CATA
LOG for If IS Kives full informa
tion and also tells about all otix-r
SEEDS for the
Farm and Garden
Write for Catalog and prices of
any seeds required.
T.W. WOOD & SONS,
SEEDSMEN, Richmond, "\ a.
UAILKOAI?S
Seaboard Air Line Railway Compan
"Ihf Projcrr^ivr lUulwnj of Iho
Tr.iin* leave iJawy. J A. M.. . ?orl-i
. t i to i* M At.itr tii nr.
Z 1 v!:,- :? ? J r. M . Atlanta- Mtrmliit
Va-iV Miena!". n <0 P. ? -ict-p-ra J.iO
CHESAPEAKE & OHIO RAILW A'
? 1 r.o n . '9:30 I
l.o n . '0:3o
?S:1C a., 25: l j
lO.Ouu.. :i:lj
.. n . M:? I
?, :oti m . ? . i
i. ? vi;;< * y>
Main I.In* I.ocal
janiv: Itlvcr l.ine.
S'rvc|.or? News.
NI'k. DM I olnt.
Nctttii'T! I .oca I
1 'r'.ViM. MljW a . ;i.<0 p.. *6:40 i
Vrv x???i*t N.. liOt'tcl, ?$>:*??? ?*.. S.CO p. I'tot
|M a ? u<>) i.. Ixjc.iU. 11'? 1 ^
.< ??.. io ?>.
Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac R.
To and from Wanlilnclon and lifjond ?
I.oavo Richmond Arrivr Mchniond
* 4.UI AM f H ;. t AM f WO AM ' ? 1
? (5.(0 AM i St.lM A M I'M t lO.ii I
i'ti.l.iAM H.'.Jt I'M ? .MM I'M ?II.V* >'
t . WAM * fi.00 I'M 4 ijA'T I'M 1I- -0 >
? H i A M (Kid I'M i '.'.OS I'M *
Iii<-11iiioikI-W:i*.!15nj-'t"II I..w?l.l.v.t*.M0 I" ;
vrcck days; 2-1.15 I'M, Sundays; Ar. ?tl.< > AJ
dallv. I- redrrioksl.nrK Arr?>rn. week days. ??
III.VPM" U.WiAM. Ashland A room, wef
clays l,v,|T.SOAM. ??.;?)PM: Ar.yi.:*AM.6.S01?
AKIlia ticket, and bnpKaco oflV cs no) np<
for this train. ? Miiiii !-??
f Uj ril ht. 8=t?. (stopping at lMba). t I-.lba b<
Richmond & i'etersourj
Eiectric >< ail way
|,raw ItM llllKlll'i
Norfolk & Western Kai:vv?
ONI V A I.U-UA 1 l? LIN 1-i TO NOKI-Oi.K
lVavts ii> c ?1 ^V.rfel Mtuiton. liu luiioii
,\uKi'uMv ? ??i.t).* A. M.. #,J iuw A. A a
? in) i* A I.. ' ?"? IG C? 1*. M
i-iiii i.YSCinit'iHi A NO hi:;
?'i 'ii \ M . ?IS:*)*' I'. M.. *b:Zo I'. M.
Ai rlvii Klchiiioiul Iroin .Norfolk. *11.
\ ?i ? 1: 4i? M. Kro.'n the Wot. ?;
A sS:; 12:10 ''? M . tl:M ?'
? Daily I1j:>II> Minday. iSuikI..,
s:fs i: Mull" M I'lione Mud 4*<
, vtliv 'ilLtiiiiultii loul ill AtoJI
'. Ii', i'. 11 ?'olill' ? I mils ?llli M
su- u'm r*. IciivliiK Norfolk lor New VoJx
i H Cii'. Mummy < ?>?) t'. M. Connectlo
irail** l>y N. ?v ^ Ky.. 0.00 l*. M., ai-.
{? ,v 11. Ky. ut Mio I'. M. ilmly enrout t>u^J
iliiy NlKl.l I'ao f-teaim'r* i>i?>p ill Olaiij
inoii. on iiilfiiiil KmJ uro met t>y wubllc
Ve' iV{<VlNIA NAN HiATION
CO.
lllvi'i- l.y <lnyllKht for Norfolk. f)l?t PollU
,\cv/iiori N''v. . snd an .)?me* lllvcr Iar>1
lnt!?: Monday Wednesday and I-'rltliiy
.lain';
Politf.
JmntN nivcr Ian*
? .
i;:00 A M. i'relslit rccclvcd lor nil Jau?|
llivcr Polnta.

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