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Richmond times-dispatch. (Richmond, Va.) 1914-current, April 23, 1922, Image 19

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Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83045389/1922-04-23/ed-1/seq-19/

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New Status of Amateur Is Fixed in Report of Radio
Conference?Richmond'Hams" Already
Have Ether Policed Here.
Hie action of Secretary of Com*
"17? "?uv,r l"u rJcna rii'u<>
? onforenco at Washington reKardli,g
" amateur Is arousing favorable
comment all over the country and.
Particularly. !,, |t|chm?n-L The status
"' the amateur has always been a
" Indefinable and nebulous. not
'"'ly In the minds of the amateurs
heniselvc-H. |,ut. Strang to say. In
no minds of government officials In
charge of them.
r?,T,h" r?"'V "f t,"! technical com
mittee. headed l?y l>r. w. S. Strattori.
and guided In hy tli<> attitude of .Mr.
oovei. Hhowi-d a promise of <on<ll
! ?H n. 11 wan advised that iai the
r??- /I? ,thu '""a<'-"r bo !!\-.l by
v 'h; that i ho limits ot the wave
length hand allocated the ama
teur he specified in the law; fc) that
tho wave-let,?th har.d allocated to
amateur he from H.O to y:r. and
In Special cases 310 meters; (d, that
the ."ecretary of '.'omrnerce subdivide
""lateur allocations Into small
er divisions for the varlou- class.s
of amateur transmitting apparatus
?it his discretion, hut In tho follow
ing order of wave lengths. starting
at the shortest wave. Hparlt. inter
rupted or modulated continuous wave
'H^raphy. telephony. continuous
wave telegraphy; le| that the ar.-.a
:::r,rnU?'\ tw ""'l-r th< Jur
isdiction r.t tim department f.f Pnm
mcrc; ,t> for the purpose^ of
self-pf,ile|nir among amateur- deou'v
radio inspectors ho elocted fro,,, their
number In each locality; that upon
receipt >.f notice of such election the
radio Inspector |n charge ,.f ,|,e ,|i?.
'rl^t In whlrh fuch arnatourH arr? |>
r-aterl 11 appoint the person <.-ho**n
" deputy radio Inspector, or for the
sum of |1 per year. If compensation
? h legally roquirifl
llottr* for fHrltmofiri.
Rnch amateur deputy Inspector
?t all endeavor t<< secure strict oh
rvan^r *?f tr* ra'Ilo rommijnfratIon
law- and regulations of the Pnlte.l
Slates government, with whatever
local regulations as are deemed
i.ece*fiary and posHble.
T'nder the picturesque title. "The
Wireless Hound: An Interes t ini: Pane
? ?f Radio Pontrnl." the Scientific Amer
ican fVew York) recently described
n curious llttlo vehicle which more
recently has been exhibited at the
radio conventions at the Hotel Penn
sylvania. New Y"rk, where !t excited
the wonderment of thousands of ob
"The 'wireless hound.'" the ar
ticle states, "Is driven by an electric
motor. The vehicle has four wheels _
one In front, which does the steering,
two wheels which turn freely on a
fixed axle, and a center driving wheel.
'The electric motor Is mounted on
a pivoted frame In such a manner that
t's weight !? brought t<. hear on its
rubber-faced pulley pressing down or,
the driving wheel. Storage batteries
furnish the current for the m't r as]
well as for other purposes.
??The control station consists of
the tasual tuneri transmitter?a spark
<oil, telegraph key. oscillating cir
cuit and aerial. Kach time the Key
!s depressed a train of slrnnl.s is s,.?'t !
out to tho aerial of tho wireless
hound. Kach train of signals causes
the detector t>. respond. operating a
relay and closing a secondary circuit
In conventional way.
"Tho secondary circuit makes use
Of a control or contact drum carrying
various braes strips which, when
turned, make various combinations of
circuits in conjunction with the j
brushes or ringers pressing down on
them. Thus In the first position the
contact or control drum may make !
the neccrtsary connections f>.r starting
the inotor. The next position oper
ates part of the electromagents con
trolling the steering wheel, s<. as to]
turn the vehicle to the left, while the !
next position restores tho steering
wheel to the normal position and the
vehicle straightens its course.
"Tho next two positions turn the.
vehicle to the right and straighten It
out. Perhaps tho next position stops
tho vehicle. At any rate, that Is the
way tho control operates."
Wireless Sermon Proll (n)>le.
Diogenes would rave with de'ight
wero he living today. recent
broadcast sermon brought scores of
checks and contributions to the New
York plate because of its "pull" on
the heartstrings of religious ??hams."
I.earn by llnillii .Vow.
College courses by radio will bo
an actuality when tho New York
University radio begins operation,
A recent announcement advised that
this would l.e in short order and
that any one might sit at home and
become educated.
I This recommendation Is based on a
rtudy of tho faithful regard of the
average radio amateur for the gov
eminent regulations ami the enthus
iastic support of every measure huk
Kt'Ntcd by government radio Inspect
ors. Hlchmoml for ^number of years
| has been guided by unwritten laws
I of i llier ethiuette until the advent
) of the Trl-County Itadio Club with
Its formal laws and vigilance com
i Richmond amateurs arc expected to
| observe. In addition to regular
i courtesies of the air. tin- hours from
i 0 A. M. to 0 1'. m. as '"free air." that
; Is. communications of any kind; 6 1'.
M. to 7:.50 i\ .M , loival communication;
7 30 l" 11 i' Si.. standby for broad
cast. 11 I*. >1. and on. long-distanco
amateur communication.
VlgI Innce t'nminlllrr.
^ ^ Ik? lanco committee is on con
stant watch during the Important
, hours to keep close tab on breakers
| t.ils law. The average amateur
t Aort.s ;n a highly technical manner.
particularly If he is a member of tho
| American Radio Relay I.eague. an
organization of iimateurs stretching
j .i!l over tho I.'nlted States and per
inittlng i,f constant communication at
| i* 11 tirnirH and plnrcH.
The greater part ,jf this work In
tli" past has been done bv telegraph
J'i'? hns built tip. not only some of
i t/i?r must offlclcnt fcysteniH and
of apparatus, but also a very elab
orate code of sit,'nals For Instance,
i a -ham operator" might fire ,-,t an
! other amateur Interfering with Ills
(signals: "QHT OM CCI.." This Is
i simply a shortened expression f.,r
-rieas.. stop sending. old man. Ill
["see you later." The first three let
ters belong to the standard naval
"Q" signals; the rest is mnde up
[ anionic tli^rn.
i The new status of the :jfc*t<nr Is
built upon thoroughly sound ground,
f- r in no boilv of young and mlddle
aired m.-n and women Is such elab
orate etiquette and form found. The
i amateur promise,, to bp the bn.*
l.one of oiir n?tlonal system or pop
u-ir radio, now springing into being.
The wonderful possibilities of radio
in the realms of education were point
ed out by Owen P. Young. chairman
of the board of directors of the Radio
' '?rporation of America, In a state
merit made Just before lie sailed for
1* r.i nee to attend a radio conference
at Cannes.
K\ ery little red schoolhouse In the
country has potential possibilities for
becoming a college," he /.aid. "What
! is to prevent boys and girls 'roir. re
ceiving courses of lectures via radio
on various subjects go that they might
j take examinations and receive <11
j pl-.tnas for food work" Mathematics.
: si i. nw, literature, history, art?ail
I could lie taught by authorities.
V not her case of bringing the
! mountain to Mohnmmed. If it happens
that the prophet doettn't find it con
venient or profitable to go to the
I mountain.
"Of course, it is perfectly natural
i 'bat the broadcasting of messages
which have to do with entertainment.
[ etc.. should at present be the popular
phase of his fascinating study, but
the matter of international cominuni
l cation Is of tremendous importance.
| and it is this question which will oc
cupy our attention at Cannes.
i "A station is now bring built In
Poland and another is contemplated
I In China. That will complete the
j girdle around tho globe. Have you
| noticed how youngsters accept all
these radio discoveries with perfect
j equanimity? It in funny, but natural.
! They take It for granted. It is their
! day.
"It seems more marvelous to us
i 'oldsters,' because we can m:ike com
parisons. W. can figure hack to the
nonautomoblle, nonairplane. nonwire
less days?and the ntrides made in
j tlf.ctrical science are colossal."
f.nlior WatcboM Itnillo.
( The American Federation of Labor
I is watching radio closely, it has been
1 brought to tho attention of that or
[ Rani/.at ion by the Musicians' Union,
which purports to sec a menace in
tho increasing favor of radiophone
music as tho accompaniment of inov
Ing-picturo shows. The musicians
claim that thousands of their craft
throughout the United States may be
affected by the possibilities of the
mechanical orchestra.
Ilrnlth by lOtlicr Waves.
Government broadcasting by the
United States Public Health Service
of a semlweekly radio telephone
health bulletin service will begin
shortly, it has been announced. The
service will be transmitted from the
naval station at Anacostia, Va., every
Tuesday and Friday, and is expected
to cover the cniiro country.
.Too Much Is Being Expeetecl
From Newest Fad,
Our of Moat Knueliintlnjc Krolnrra ?if
tin mo In A d junl intc Instrument to !
Itrrrlvp From Stvcrnl Stnllonn nntl I
to Kllminntu Interferences.
Radio In fast becoming tIte world's
greatest hobby, but too much Is be
ing expected from this new fad.
Many people liavc tho l<lea that all
that Is necessary to operate a radio
set Is to turn a switch urid just listen
In. While It Is very simple to oper
ate and any child can handle it. it
should be understood that it requires!
a little patience an<l time to "tune j
In." I
One of the most fascinating fea-1
tures of the game is the tuning In
of several stations, the selection of
ono and tho careful manipulation of
the controls to eliminate tho other
interfering transmitters.
Wide lltinice In I'rlcm.
There are swarms of newcomers j
who do not understand why a iaii.&o j
crystal detector set does not bring j
in tho music Just as well as thix
higher price outfits. Well, the rea- j
son is Just this. Crystal sets are for
local receiving only. The factories |
put these sets out to take care of the
demand that was created for fans de
sirous of receiving stations within a
range of twenty-live miles. This set |
will be all right for local parties
when Tho Tlmos-Ldspatch station i
opens up.
Then, many folks wish to know the
difference in the sets that will re
ceive the Newark, Pittsburgh, l?e
trult and other distant stations, prin
cipally because of the range of prices
found prevailing in equipment of this!
Study Set n* to Tuning.
You may purchase a set for J'lj.s:,,
complete with tin exception of the
storage battery and aerial. Then,
there are others up to 1100. depend
ing upon whether you wish a one.
two or three-stage amplifier, or per-i
haps a loud speaker, power nrnpii-l
fier. cir. There Is also quite a dif
ference in the finish and workman
i-hifi "t various Instruments. As to!
the difference these instruments will
receive, the first-mentioned outfit will I
receive just as far as the others, but|
there is considerable difference in the j
volumn of sound.
The owner of a wireless receiver
should study his set as to tuning, i
as that is practically the chief |
source of trouble. When a station'
has been received loud and clear, loc
this In n book, rioting the position cf 1
every dial and pointer and placing
the station call letter opposite this
Information. This will enable you to |
tune in to any desired station Inline- I
Program for Today |
Ilnlly radio prngrnmr will lie car
ried en eh morning In The Tlmen-I)ln
p ntcti.
(Kast Pittsburgh.)
11 A. M.?Services of the Ktnory
Methodist Episcopal Church. North
Highland Avenue, at lllppey Street. I
Pittsburgh, Pa. Rev. W. Wofford T. |
Duncan. minister.
2:4.1 P. M.?Children's Ribie stories.
.1 P. M Radio Chapel at Station
KDKA, conducted by Rev. Stanley A. j
Hunter of the North Presbyterian I
Church. tJalvestlon and North L.ln- I
coin Avenues, North Side, Pitts- I
burgh. Pa.
7 P. M.?Services of tlie Calvary !
Episcopal Church. Shady Avenue.)
Pittsburgh. Pa. Rev. K. J. Van Ktten,
(Newark, N. .T.)
.1 P. M ?Radio Chapel services.
?I P. M.?Readings from Shakes
peare. celebrating three hundredth
anniversary, by Mrs. Kmma Sheridan.
6:30 I'. M.?Sandman stories and
the Rubble Rook Tha't Sings, cour
tesy Harper and Rrothers.
5 P. M.?Recital by Minna Kauf
man. soprano.
7 P. M.?"Individuality," by Rich
ard Rcnnett.
7:lf> P. M.?Selective service by
Major R. Morris.
S P. M.?Program arranged by
Harper Brothers, celebrating the
three hundredth anniversary of
Shakespeare's birth.
X:30 1*. M.?Vesper service and
choral songs by the Columblnn Club
of West Hoboken.
(Chicago. 111.)
2:15 to 7:30?News, markets and
7:30 to 0?Redtimc stories, musical
and entertainment program.
(Springfield. Mass.)
3 p. M.?Radio Chapel.
s p jj,?Church services conducted
by Rev. John McOann, director of
Christ Church.
Tho professional rndlotrola has)
made Its appearanco in Richmond. A
local dealer hns on display one of
the neatest outfits seen for the re
ception <<f distant broadcast l>y radio.
Tho Instrument is Inclosed In a case
Identical with the mahogany Phono
graph of portable type. One has mere
ly to lift the top. press a button and
the room is flooded with music. A
simple dial and handle In tlie center
In rotated to tune the desired station; |
no other adjustment Is necessary.
The instrument Is manufactured by
one of the largest firms In tho world,
and embodies the latest design In I
radiophone engineering. Four special
tubes, one detector ami three ampli
fiers protrude through the top of the
outfit, under the cover. Arranged di
rectly behind these are four similar
tubes acting as ballast In series with
the filament of the other tubes.
The circuit diagram shows two
condensers in the antenna lead, one
for lower wave lengths and another
binding poet connection for the high
er wave lengths. The reception of
the shorter waves and the change to
the longer is accomplished by chang
ing one connection. High resistances
and <-or''ensers arc the only trans
former effect ti?ed. Stations all over
the country have been brought in and
thrown all over the room with the
Rahlwin 'phone mounted behind tin
horn effect in tho boltom of the
cablnct. ?
I?r Will In hi G. II. Kincli,
Associate Member Institute Itadlo
New York, April 22.?Without the
telephones receiver you would bo
without mentis of hearing the many
radio telephono concerts) that are
broadcasted and which have been tlio
contributing cause In converting the
general public to this instructive
and most fascinating art?radio tele
It has been established by the
pioneer radio engineer that the usual
telephone receiver, such as Is used
on your desk telephono, was unsat
isfactory for radio purposes. It was
not until after considerable research
and experimental work that a type
suitable for radio purposes was de
veloped <s?-o l-'ig. 1).
In order t'? thoroughly understand
the theory and operation of this won
derful little instrument one would
have to have a good schooling in
magnetism and elcmentarv electric
ity, and the writer will attempt to
give only a brief outline of what
takes place In the receiver.
Hefer to Kig. 1?Thus style of re
ceiver is known as the watch case
type and the reason for adapting
same was due to it being small, per
mitting it to be worn on the head
t<y the operator. It is a general prac
j tice to wear a pair mounted on a
j headband, and by so doing keeping
out most foreign an*! unwelcome
Itnillo lliis Different Need.
The principal reason why the usual
telephone receiver is not adaptable
for radio work is because it Is of
low resistance winding (standard
being 75 ohms) and is constructed
] so as to give a. loud sound, requiring
[ many titties more current which can
bo easily applied in the usual wire
telephono circuit, which Is not the
case In radio, tin; rectified rmllo tele
phono or telegraph currents being
many times smaller, therefore requir
ing ii much more sensitive receiver,
and to Increase this it was necessary
to impress more ?? ji the magnets and
Increase the windings on the electro
magnets from 100 to 2,000 ohms on
cach receiver In ordVr to obtain a
greater number of ampere turns. As
an Illustration:
An electro magnetic having ten
turns, by passing one ampere through
this winding you will liav.j ten am
pere turns. Hy passing through the
satire winding twenty amperes you
will then have 200 amp. re turns?on
tho other liar.d. If you Increaso the
tutns to 2,000 and pass one ampere
through you will then have 2.000 am
pere turns, which "will give you
greater magnetic pull?thereby mak
ing the receiver more sensitive.
The receiver acts as a translator
to tho voice or music currents an 1
converts them to $ouml waves (with
somo distortion) us follows:
llo^T Hecelves Acts,
Tho voice or music Is Impressed
by a microphone on the el%rtric cur
rents at the sending station and Is
rectified by the detector at the receiv
ing station, then passing through
tho winding of tin: receiver (Fig. 2),
thereby energizing the electro mag
netics and causing the. diaphragm to
vibrato (attracted and repelled), ac
curately reproducing the vibrations
as recorded by the microphone at the
transmitting station. The fluctuating
vibrations of the diaphragm pro
duce the corresponding sound waves,
thus making the voice audible. Jsee
Fig. 2.
The usual telephone receiver is
wound with H. S. gauge No. :!4 or
3'"> and tho Mtandard radio receiver
with much smaller wire, being H. S.
gauge No. 44 to 4s for a 1,000 to 2,000
ohm receiver.
Tho writer does not recommend
that any of the readers attempt to
rewind receivers, one of the greatest
difficulties encountered being that
of breaking tho wire, which is as
line as the human hair, and even
though you should succeed a rewound
receiver does not give anywhere
(ct-Ecrreo magnet.?)
Tig. 2.
near the satisfaction or compare with
a properly designed radio receiver.
There are a number of receivers
of good make on the market. A good
pair can bo purchased from any of
the radio dealers for $.Vf>0.
Secretary of Commerce, an Enthusiastic Radio Kan,
Leads Washington Radio Conference in Fram
ing Important Ether Legislation.
Imagine the intersections at Jtroad
ami Seventh nn<l Kightli Streets Im
mediately following the Koch parade
with every trallic policeman Kone
filshlng. This is precisely tho condi
tion surrounding every inch of your
body wherever you may happen to
be from the hours of 7:30 to 11 P.
M. particularly. This condition rep
resents, in a manner, the prospect of
our ether lanes, today.
Although tho several thousand re
ceiving sets in use in 1 1have ln
creased to over a million, with tho
advent of comparatively cheap ap
paratus and the revolutionary broad
casting stations scattered all over tho
world, no important legislation for
its regulation has been passed allied
that time.
Control of the Air.
The few laws, such as the 200
ineter wave length for the amateur
and the 600-meter wave length for
ships, have been followed in a blind
sort of way that today demands im
mediate attention. The radio confer
ence called by Secretary lloover in
Washington lias just issued what is
regarded as one of tho most sensi
ble tentative groups of legislation
imaginable for the regulation of
radio trallic.
The control of the air is confronted
with immeasurably more problems
than any other channel of public ser
vice with which Secretary lloover is
required to deal. There is the dif
ficulty of eliminating Interference,
affording legitimate stations freedom
of the air with every opportunity of
being heard, allowing the amateur
perogatives to which he, from his
very position as founder of popular
radio, isr heir, and the host of other
Kour I.nry;r Divisions.
Tho radio conference, tinder the di
rection of Dr. S. W. SUatlon, chief
of the liureau of Standards and chair
man of tho technical committee of
the conference, divided the transmis
sion of broadcasts into four largo
divisions: (a) government broadcast
ing l>y Federal departments, (b) pub
lic broadcasting by States, universi
ties and others disseminating infor
mational or educational service, (c)
private broadcasting by newspapers,
stores, companies and others dlstr">
uting news, entertainment or <>i ?
services, and (d) lull broadcasting by
a public service radio telephone com
pany as a paid service.
Wise foresight on the part of tho
conference marked the allotment of
the band of wavo lengths extending
from 1,050 to l.fiOO for the use of tho
ilrsi class of broadcasters?tho gov
ernment. Tills, it will be observed
will necessitate tho use of load coils
with tho ordinary short-wavo sets
now In vogue. However, government
broadcasting as a public, institution
Is now itt its Infancy and 'ts develop
ment will no doubt be paralleled by
steps on the part of manufacturers to
accommodate this branch of broad
The conference allocation of gov
ernment wavo lengths also stipulat
ed a band of from l,8f>0 to ?j.O.'iO
meters for such broadcasting and the
suggestion that transoceanic work
he done on wave lengths of from
."i.OOO to 6,000 meters. A band of
wavo length.* between these two sots
wcro set reside for governincfit uso
a I.so.
Aircraft and radio compass com
munication was allotted Sf>0 to 1'50
motors, respectively, with lite addi
tional lengths of 525. C50. 7<") and
750 for other government work.
Permits Variation*.
Most Important, from the stand
point of the public, is the fixation of
standard wave lengths from It 10 to
435 meters for regular broadcasting I
hy the third and largest class of
service. This hand permits of a nu,m
ber of variations for the broadcast
ers such as those of l'tttsliiirgh,
Newark. Schenectady, etc. It was de
cided to allow the fourth class, toll
companies, the use of this band also
for their work. This will mean that
oftentimes the slight variation of
one's vernier will transform a con
cert number to somo Intimate hit of
conversation being held by radio
One of the interesting features of
tho suggested allotment is the sot
ting aside of 275 and 285 meters for
tho use of the city and State de
partments of public safety, such as
police or other emergency work. This
is possible because of the retention
of wave lengths of from 15") to 200!
meters hy the ordinary amateur and!
the use of up to 275 motors by the
special licensed amateur under tho
provisions of the conference.
An interesting commentary on the
faith of tho Secretary of Commerce I
in the American amateur is the wide'
degree of latitude extended him for I
his experimental and relay work.
One of the recommendations call for
making an amateur operator in each I
territory a deputy radio inspector.
Tills will do much to lighten the bur
den of the overworked radio depart-1
aient, it is said. {
The adoption of various subdivi
sions of the amateur band of wave
lengths for various purposes, such as
damped, undampted, telephone and
telegraph work, Is expected to make
interference even more dlfllcult
Steady Improvement of tuning will j
eventually result In a condition of
absolute impossibility of interference,
it is declared by the conferencei
Itndlo Movie* Art.
The advent of a new art, and inci
dentally the realiatlon of an old
dream, is accomplished by If. .1.
Powers, Jr. of a Chicago theatrical
company. He has invented a system
making tho talking movie practical
by throwing tho picture upon a
screen in his studio and l.roadcast
ing voices nil over the country
where they are caught in motion
picture houses and thrown Into the
room iu which the picture is being
shown. ^
Itndln Slionii 1'opulnr.
Kadio shows are proving extreme
ly popular nowadays. Iowa p'ans
| tiio llrst State convention In history,
to take place In Iowa City during
the latter part of April, under the i
auspices of tho Iowa State llnlver
'slty. The Uoston radio exposition will |
bo staged In that city during Ma>
and I: lilt) Newark l.edgor hold a
radio show in the Uohert Treat
Hotel for four days last week, and
a big fete Is planned in Chicago for |
June 20 to July 1.
But Kvcn There Radio \\ aves
Will Sometimes Refuse
to Work.
<; <> v k: u .v s|i:\t ixvi:stio.\ti:s
Dencrlbrd n? "Itapld Variation of In
tensity of SlK'inlit Itecelveil Kriim a
(?Ivrii 'l'raiiHi)i|ttln(C Station"?("nunc
11 ji r<l I >? Kfiuwti.
t By ITnited News.]
WASHINGTON. April 22.?Rnrllo |
' fans arc aiTrlsed to spend tho com
ing sumni'T at the seashore If they
would obtain worth-whllo results.
And, even there, the radio waves will
sometimes refuse to work, Just like
a prima donna. "Failing" Is to
Down by the sea this phenomenon
Is not as disturbing as It Is Inland.
Hut any place "'fading" Is most ap
parent at night.
The Bureau of Standards recently
completed an Investigation of ' fail
ing." and describes 11 as "the rapid
variation of Intensity of the signals]
received from a given transmitting,
station." |
Kvcry radio fan has experienced
the nuisance. At first, ho thought hit!
set as simple to 'Operate as a phono
graph, until ho tried to listen-In on
his favorite pastor and f.tlled. Then,
[after swearing half an hour, he real-]
ized that the radiophone Is as finicky
as a limousine. Often he had blamed:
his set and rated himself a dud for |
ever Investing good money in thisl
radio craze.
Three KI nils of "landing." |
Hut the set was all right. The
fan simply did not know that "fad- J
ins" may be violently apparent to
some receiving stations and not so]
apparent to others at the same time,
all depending upon tho distance over
which the radio signals must travel,
the time of day and a few other
highly sclentillo things.
Three kind's of "fading" are com
mon. according to lJelllnger and
Whlttumore, tho bureau experts, who
conducted the Investigation: (.a) fad
Ins or swinging lasting one second
or less, (b) one minute, and (c) in
spells of one hour.
The cause of "fading" Is hardly
known. Kxperts do know that tlw
trouble lies between the earth's sur
face and the "heaviside surface"?
the roof of the earth's atmosphere
about six miles in the air. Hut the
trouble is caused by something that
exists either below tho ground or
above the earth's atmosphere.
"I'ndtnn" Worse at .Night.
During the day radio waves have
a habit ?>f traveling close to the
ground. During the night, especially
at great distances, they travel along
the "heaviside surface"?six miles in
the air. Hut these two extremes do
not remove the nuisance of "fading.1
Day waves are absorbed by the earth
and, therefore, fade In spells of a
second, a minute or an hour. Night
waves are absorbed by varying con
ditions in the uppermost level of the
atmosphere, and this is even worse.
Commercial radio stations are not
bothered with fading to the same de
gree as the amateur. Most amateurs
do their receiving at night, when
"fading" is at its worst. Hut, It Is
pointed out. tho commercial radio
man now finds himself obliged to
investigate this disturbance because
it is Interfering with the success of
his broadcasting. And broadcasting
is the attractive feature of radio, the
feature largely responsible f<>r the
sets In n million American homes.
Oscillation Generation
Oscillations are nothing more or
less than a very high frequency al
ternating current. Oscillation gen
eration is. then, the production or
generation of very high frequency
alternating current In an electrical
Suppose that a condenser, a coll
of wire and a spark gap are con
nected in series with each other to
make up an electrical circuit in which
alternating current will How when
the air space between the spark gap
electrodes becomes a conducting
path. The condenser Is given a
charge of electricity from some
source outside of the circuit under
consideration. When It is charged,
the opposing plates of tho condenser
are of opposite polarity, and there
is a difference of potential between
them. If this difference of potential
is high enough it will overcome the
resistance of the air space between
the gap electrodes and a spark will
take place in the gap. The air space
becomes conducting and the circuit is
closed. The condenser then dis
charges itself through the circuit anil
a current of electricity flows. This
discharge takes place in an extreme
ly short period of time, but during
the time the current flows hack and
forth many times until it finally
ceases when the condenser is com
pletely discharged. If the current
flows back and forth in opposite di
rections alternately if is. of course,
an alternating current. Its frequency
will depend upon tno natural fre
quency of the circuit, which Is, In
turn, dependent upon the capacity
and inductance in the circuit. At any
rate, this frequency Is usually ex
tremely high, and ihe alternating
current flowing may lie called oscilla
tions. In flowing baok and forfh
through the circuit the current meets
with opposition, due to the pure re
sistance of the circuit and the resist
ance of tho spark gap. This latter
resistance is naturally not as high
as it was before the spark started,
but is still high enough to consume
a considerable portion of the energy
of each swing of current. Tho cur
rent decreases In strength every
lime it flows back atnl forth and
finally dies out because there is no
electromotive force to keep ii going
in the face of flic opposition of re
sistance. This whole action can bo
compared to the swinging of a pen
dulum which Is struck a blow. The
blow Is the electrical potential differ
ence which started the spark in the
gap. The swings of the pendulum are
comparable to the alternating cur
rent which flows while the condenser
is discharging. The dying out of
the swings of the pendulum are due
to the resistance of air friction, di
rectly comparablo to the resistance
in the electrical circuit. Tho fre
quency of the pendulum swings is j
the natural frequency of the pendu
lum system In the same manner as
tho frequency of the oscillations is
the natural frequency of the electri
cal circuit.
It is thus seen that oscillations are
generated by the discharge of a con
denser, and tha these oscillations die
.out unless the condenser is again
(charged and discharged. The oscil
lations ure said to be "damped.
Construction of Tuner, Using Latest Model Coils, Ef
fected W itli Few Hours1 \Y ork?Total Receiv
ing Set Costs Less Than $25.
Several Kichmond amateurs have
found the operation and construction
of tho typo tuner about to be de
scribed In every way highly satis
factory and efllclent for use In re-,
eeivlng, tho broadcasting stations
with the use of one or more lubes.
The outfit is constructed according tf>
tile most advanced ideas in radio en
gineering. ami. for the benetlt of the
novice, tho assembling of an entire
receiver to be used in conjunction
with the set will be given.
The colls used are tho stagger
wouml or (<11I<I<T-web Inductances, and
a set of three can bo made in very
short order. The form upon which
they are to be wound 13 llrst made.
Take .1 piece of ordinary cardboard,
such as a pad back, and mark out
the circles about three Inches In
dlatnoter on each of ,th? three pieces.
Then divide the circumference on
the outer edge Into any unequal
number of spaces. Seven may be
taken for convenience. Lines from
| each of tho outer points should then
be drawn to tho center, stopping at
a circle drawn with a diameter of
an inch nnd a quarter about the cen
ter. Slots exactly a quarter of an
Inch across aro then cut with scis
sors along tlieso lines, leaving a disk
with seven slots extending within
live-eighths of an inch to the center.
I'roeo** of Winding.
After the three disks are shellaced
and thoroughly dried. get three-quar- |
ters <>f a pound of No. 22 or -'I cot
ton-covered magnet wire . from a
hardware or electrical store. Make
a small hole near tho center of the
disk and insert the end of the wire.
Then proceed to wind carefully and
smoothly alternately under and over
each leg of the disk. Hccause of
tho uneven number of lops, the sec
ond turn of wire will cross the first
at each leg. When tho slots are
tilled-with wire to within an eighth
of an inch of the top, you will have
a smooth and neat-appearing coll. ex
actly tho thickness of two single
wires and the cnrdboaril form. The
second and third coils should bo
wound exactly like the first, with ex
actly tho same number of turns.
The end of tho wire should bo
fastened In the same manner lis the
beginning, making sure not to allow
any chance of slack In tho wire. Do
not shellac tho colls after they aro
wound, as It will greatly Increase
the distributed capacity. These colls
n. K. J,.?Will you kindly explain
tho meaning of tlio rogeneratlvo re
ceiver? I am using honeycomb colls
on a long-wave set. l>o the coils
replace the tuning unit, or aro they
connected In series with the aerial?
Answer.?A regenerative receiver
Is one that uses tho vacuum tube
with tho plate circuit of the tube fed
back to tho primary coll, Imposing
a new wave upon the original one.
Your honeycomb colls aro renegera
tlve If you use three of them at
once. They are the sole tuning unit
with tho exception of the variable
condensers. ,
T. M. W.?Can I Improve my range
by placing a forty-three-plato vari
able condenser In my ground cir
Answer.?To tncrcaso the wave
length range of the circuit connect
tho condenser across the primary.
If you placo it in tho ground circuit
you will decrease your range, if any
S. TV N.?What Is meant by the
natural wavo length of an antenna,
and how is it calculated?
Answer.?Natural wave length is
tho length of the wave, usually
measured in meters, produced by the
combined capacity and Inductance of
the aerial. Itoughly, tho natural
wavo length of the aerial can be
calculated by multiplying the length
of the aerial and lead-in by four and
one-lialf, and to change to feet, di
vide by three. This will give you
the natural wave period of a single
or double-wire horizontal or ver
tical swing aerial.
A. 10. Gunderlach. Chicago, says
he's the llrst landlord to supply a
complete radio receiving apparatus hi
every one of his llats at no extra
charge to tho tenant.
Ilere you seo a family and its
guests enjoying an evening's pro
gram in ono of the radio-c<|uippc<l
The man boi ling the baby is A. I
Weinberger, who demonstrated how
boats c.ubl be controlled by radio
years before wireless became popu
<1. 1C?What parts are neces
sary ami how should one build a
loud speaker (tho magnavox type),
suitable for a set equipped with a
loose coupler, radiotron detector and
a two-stage audio-f requeiicy am
Answer?<t is not practical to
are made especially to eliminate tills,
it Is a very ctlioient Inductance.
You now have a primary coll. a
secondary and a "tickler." The last
two colls must he mounted In such
a way as to allow free movement
to and from the primary; one on
either side of it. To do this, first
take :i stout match stem and push it
(Irmly into the primary winding, al
lowing it to extend In .a plane with
the disk, so that a small hold can
lie drilled In the panel to which It
Is to he mounted, and the coll fixed
by gluing the match stem In the
I lie two additional colls are m.vlo
movable in the following manner:
I'Mrat, il:< the match stem lirinly Into
the coll as In the first case. Then
glue the free end Into a small block
about a quarter inch square and two
Inches long- so that the striD is on
the same plane as the coll. A brass
rod should be made fast Into the
strip, to extend through the panel,
and tako a knob and dial for grad*
uated turning. The movable colls
should lie close to the primary anil
should be able to rotate through nine
ty degrees away from It.
.Miittt I'urrhnur Hcvit.
Tuning is accomplished with the
aid of a twenty-three plate variable
| condenser shunted across the second
ary and a forty-three-plato variable
condenser in series with the primary
coil. The other requirements are a
vacuum tube and control unit, with
phones, batteries and grid-leak and
the usual antenna and ground. The
hook-up is as follows: Primary to
aerial; primary to forty-three-plato
condenser and thence to cround; sec
ondary shunted to twenty-three-oJate
condenser, one terminal to grid-lead
and grid-condenser and thence to
Krld. Other terminal to tllament (neg
ative) and thence to phonos; other
terminal of phones to tickler and
thence to plate; 1.lament connected
with "A" battery r,nd rheostnt; "13"
battery inserted between phones and
The aerial best suited to bo used
in conjunction with this outfit is the
single-wire antenna, 100 or more feet
I in length and at least twenty-flvo
feet IilKh. \\ ith one tube and the
tuner described, a ratine of 250 mile*
has been covered. Petalls of construc
tion more minute will be furnished
by the radio department upon re
mal<e a home-made magnavox re
ceiver. A loud speaker may bo
niado by coupling a single sensitive
receiver, such as the Baldwin or
Hrowne, to a horn or to your phono
graph. lou can purchase a coupling
I device made for that purpose.
C3. Jf. h.?it Is impossible for mo
to erect any form of outdoor an
tenna. How should I construct some
form of Indoor aerial to serve the
Answer?Connect one end of tho
wire to the aerial post on your in
strument, run tho wire up to the
picture molding, laying It out nice
and straight so that it cannot bo
seen. The distant end is not con
nected to anything. The aerial must
not be grounded, tut the ground
wire from your instrument can bo
connected to tho water pipfe or radia
Complete Outiits and
A complete line of Radio parts
Is now in stock and prices are as
low as they can possibly be made.
Also hooks on Uadio that every
amateur should have.
Complete Westinghouso Sets.
Am rail Couplers and Varlmetors.
ltadiotron Tubes.
Heinler Detccter Panels.
Dials and Kncb.i.
Itralid's mill Iloluer-Cabot Phones.
Radio Transformers.
Amplifying Transformers.
Lightning- (.round
Sivif clii's
$3^ Each
Now that hot weather is com
ing. with its frequent lightning,
it is necessary that Radio out
iits be equipped with Ground
Switches for Safety?In fact, tho
city regulations require a
ground switch.
(let yours now and take ad
vantage of our big quantity
purchase. Specially priced.
Virginia Auto
Supply Co.
G01-<S<>3 West Hroail.
, Mesco Head Phones
iiOOO Ohm, $(l.OO I'ulr
iiHOO Oliin, .SH.OO Pair
Wry Scibltlvo aiul Loud
!. 2200 Oliin, ."SI5.00 I'ulr
| HOWELL BROS., Sixth and Broad Sts.

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