Newspaper Page Text
56 THE SALT LAKE TRIBUNE, STOTDAT MORNING-, DECEMBER 29, 1907. . . .
1 : SOMETHING HISTORICAL ABOUT UTAH RAILROADS The railroadH have done mores than an other combination to make Utah. In return the pooplc of Utah have dono inoro for tho railroads than for any ono else. The flrst-mimed aided in build ing up and developing the Stato; tho laBt named put up their good hard coin to those who buildod tho steel high- i ways. Tho interests were and arc mu- i lual. ! Away back in tho year 1S49 Iho j qnestion of building or "constructing u railroad ncross tho continent, which had been rotated for some timj?. culminaicd In tho issuing of an order by tho War 'Department to Captain Howard Stnus trary, of the. topographical engineers at Fort Leavenworth, to make a survey of the groat Salt Lake and to explore Its valley for tho purpose of ascertain ing a route, if a feasible one could be found, for a transcontinental railway. This was dono, and in August, ISM. ; the survey was completed. ! The route recommended by him for j th railroad between the Missouri river, tho starting point being Independence. Mo., and Salt Lake Citj', wna by way of tho Republican Fork and the south fork of tho Platto river; thenco, by way of Lodgo Polo crook, striking the south- J era extremity of the Black Hills, to tho Laramie plains; thonco, crossing tho north fork of the Platte, to South Parr; thence, bv wny of Bear Ttivcr valley, to Port Bridger.'f.hence, by way of Black Pork and turning to tho Uintah range, to the Kansas prairie; thence, through the Valley of Timpanogos. to Salt Lake. Later, in 1853, Captain Gunnison, who had been a member of the original surveying partv and who was massacred by tho Indians on October 2-1 of tho same year on tho Sevier river, fifteen miles from where it empties into Sevier, lake, was ordered to make a survey fur ther south, by way of tho Huerfano river and Cooehotopa pass; thence, through tho valleys of the Grand and Green rivers; thenco to the Vegas do Santa Clara and tho Nicollot river: thence northward on a return routo to Lake Utah. Prom Utah lake ho was to explore tho most available passes and canyons of the Wasatch range and South pass. Congress Is Memorialized. Tho Territorial Legislature of Utah in session in 1853 passed a memorial to congress, urging tho construction of a national central railroad to the Pacific coast. This was presented to congress by Dr. John M. Bernhisol, the first ter ritorial delegate to congress from Utah. At that timo he was laughed at and told that ho was a hundred years nhond of the time. Twenty years later sev eral members of tho congress in which he presented tho memorial rode into Salt Lake on the railroad the petition for the construction of which they had derided. Up to 185J nine transcontinental routes for railroads had been surve3-cd across the country. Throe of these woro authorized bv congress and cost $400. 000,000, Jan. 1, 3854, a big mass meet ing was held in Salt Lake, and nnother memorial to congress, petitioning for a railway across the continent, was adopted. Tho national platforms of the Republican and the Democratic parties of 1850 and 1800 pledged l.hcmsclvo3 to aid in legislation in behalf of a trans continental railroad. Presidents Pierce, Buchanan and Lincoln had all called at tention to the need of government aid hi building a transcontinental railroad, and prior to 1860 eighteen states had passed resolutions urging government aid. In an address before congress in 1S02. whon it was learned that England and Franco intended to combine against tho United States, :;nid: "In case of a war with a foreign maritime power tho travel by gulf and tho inlhmuB of Panama would bo im practicable. - Thu enormous coHt of supplying our army in Utah may teach us that the wholo wealth of the nation would not enable us to supply a largo army on the Pacific coast. Our Western states must fall a prey to tho enenry without a speedy way of trans porting our troops." Act Approved by Congress. , Tho Pacific railroad act passed con gress and was signed bv President Lin coln on July 1, 1802. Tho author of the bill was James Sidney Rollins, a repre sentative from Missouri, lie had been the Whhx candidate for governor of Missouri in 1857, but was dofcated. He I was elect od to tho Thirty-seventh and j Thirtv-eigluh congresses ' as a Conser ; vativc. IIo died .January 0. 18SS. i Tho bill provided government aid to i rhe companies who might build the road of a loan of government bouds for 1 thirty yenr?. $10,000 per mile for each I mile of road and telegraph completed, j every alternate eeetion of public land j designated by odd numbers to tho j ; amount of five aliernnto sections per mile on each side of tho road on tho i line theroof, within "ten miles of each I side not sold, redorvod, or otherwise dis- j posed of. This was later increased to twenty miles for tho greater portion of i tho way, while the nmount of money ! was increased to $32,000 and in some ! places In $1S,000 per mile. Private cap ltnl could not be induced to invent tho road under the provisions of tho first net, and in 1 SGI an amendatory net was passed and under its provisions the Union and Central Pacific railways wore built. Tho Central Pacific company had ulread been incorporated under the laws of California in ISG1. J "Dutch Flat Swindle" In this connection it might be said that i ho Central Pacific railroad was originally known as tho "Dutch Pint Swindle." Tho silver mines of the Comstock caused the fir?t suggestion of that road being built. The following from the Nevada Citj Transcript of Oc tober 28. 1801, will show tho humble beginnings of what proved a most stu pendous undertaking: . A railroad from tho coa.it to the sliver regions In the territory of Nevada would pay enormous profits. Govornor Stanford and a number or other men of means went over the route lately surveyed by Theodore D. Judah, by the way of Dutch Flat, and Immediately upon the arrival of In- party at the capital of tho new terri tory wo hear of the Legislature In session making' a movo to gmnt tho party the right to construct a railroad from the eastern boundary of the Slate to tho cen tral points In Nevada. Tho people of Plaeervllle arc- also mov ing .energetically In tho same direction, $108,000 having already been subscribed toward the building of n railroad from Sacramento to Plaeervllle, u route that has been shown by the reports of en gineers to be Infinitely more difficult than ono from Folsom to Nevada City. Tho plan with the Sacramento and Plaeervllle road Is to extend It over Into the silver ' regions. It Is clolmed that a new route has been discovered by Engineer Bishop near the hend of the south fork of the American, where by the cutting of a tunnel thtce and a half miles In length tho snow belt is avoided and the waters of Lnko Blgler reached. This Is the spot pointed out by the projectors of that route nj? shaped by nature for a railroad to pug the mountain barrior between Calif orn in and Nevada. The i truth Is that the Hcnncs.s Pass Is tho lowest, easiest and nearest route in tho Slate for either a wagon road or a railroad. If our people would but laleo hold of this matter In earnest the rail- j rond would be pausing through Nevada ' City lo Washoe before ih& three and a half mile tunnel on the Plaeervllle loutc could be run. Ground Is Broken. On. January S, 1SG.1, the first shovel ful of earth was turned at Sacramento, tho western terminus of the road, as from that cit3 to San Francisco steam- boats on tho Sacramento rivor were to j be used, and tho great- undertaking of i constructing a transcontinental railroad j lino was inaugurated. Afterward a : charter was obtained to build to San Jose, and later tho Central Pacific built the road to San Francisco bay. Loland Stanford, Collis P. Huntington, Charles and Edward Crocker and Mark Hopkins, Iho big five, headed the com pany. The Union Pacific Railroad company was organized in Chicago in September, 1SR2 at a preliminary meeting. A year later, in October, 3SG3, formal organ isation was completed in New York, and John A. Dix, who bad bocu United States Senator from New York, Sec retary of the Treasure-, major general in the Union army, and who issued tho famous order, "If any man attempts to haul down the American Hag, shoot him on tho spot," was elected presi dent of tho company. Ground Broken for U. P. President Lincoln had designated Council Bluffs, Iowa, as (Jin initial point of the Union Pacific railway, and tho act of Congress gave tho companies un til 1870 to complete the roads. The first ground broken which inaugurated tho building of tho Union Pacific rail way was in Council Bluffs December 2, 18G3. in tho prcsonce of a great crowd. 2s o further work was done, however, until I he fall of ISfi-J, when grading was begun at Omaha. In July, JSGo. the first rail was laid. Forty miles of track was laid that year, 260 miles in .1806, 40 miles in l'SG7. and in 1808 and carlv part of 18(59 there were 555 miles of track laid. On April 29. 1809, Con miles of track was laid each side of Promontory Point in Utah. In tho construction of tho two roads an army of men averaging 25,000 and (3000 team's wore constantly employed. There was a groat race between the construction forces as to who should reach Ogden first. The Union Pacific Avon, and then pushed on ii fly-three miles west to Promontory Point, where it met Iho Central Pacific. The grade of the Contra I Pacific, was constructed over this fifty-three miles, but was never used, owing to tho advaueo of tho Union Pacific. Later, when Ogdcn was made the junction point by act of Congress, tho Central Pacific purchased the fifty-three-mile section built by the Union Pacific. Rails Laid to Ogdcn. At 2:150 o'clock on the afternoon of March S. 1SG9, the Union Pacific (racks were laid into Ogdcn (a description of the colcbration had that day was re cently printed in The Tribune in a story about Ogden). On Monday, May 10, .1SG9. the two great iron highways were joined. Tho place Promontory Summit, Utah, on tho northern shore of the Groat Salt lake. There, at a point fifty-throe miles northwest of Ogden, 090 miles east of Sacramento and 10S5.8 miles west of Omaha, the two great railroads, tho Union Pacific and tho Central Pacific, mot, the last rail was laid, the last spike driven and both tracks united into one. The ceremonies attending tho com pletion of tho great highway took place about noon. Tho junction' of the two lines had practically been effected a short time before, but two lengths of rails woro loft for this day 's proceed ings. At 8 n. ni. spectators began to arrive. Thcso wcro mostly workmen on the lines and other denizens of the rail way enmps. Three-quarters of an hour later the whistle of a locomotive was heard, and the first, train lo arrive came speeding over tho Central Pacific, bring ing many passengers. Then' came two trains from tho linst over the Union Pacific, whoso elocmnt coaches wcro like wise heavily laden. At 11:15 a. m. Hon. Lcland Stanfovd, Governor of Cali fornia and president of tho Central Pa cific Kailroad icompauv, arrived by spe cial train from the West. His locomo tive "Jupiter" wzts gaily decorated with flags and streamers. Dr. Durnttt and other Union Pacific notables were alroady on the ground. The crowd num bered about 1100, representing by na tivity nc.'irly all the civilized nations of the earth. A number of ladies and a few children were among the spec tators. Tho Chinese laborers on the western line having with picks and shovels lev eled the roadbed preparatory to nulling in place the last ties and rails, thio final work was now performed. When Union Pacific engine No. 119 each compaii' had four locomotivos on the scene and the Central Pacific engine, ".lupiter." moved up to within thirty feet of each other, and all was ready for the closing scene of this memorable act in the great drama of modern events, then the last rails uniting the roads wore laid. A curious incident con nected with the laying of the-last rails has been little no'ticed hitherto. Two lengths of rails, fifty-six feet, had been omitted. The Union Pacific people brought 'up their pair of rails and the work of placing them was done by Eu ropeans. The Central Pacific people then laid Ihoir pair of rails, the labor being performed by Mongolians. Tho foremen in both cases were Americans. Here, near tho center of the great American continent, woro representa tives of Asia, Europe and America America directing and controlling. The people were now requested to stand back, in order that all might see. Edgar Mills, 'Esq., of Sacramento, thou read tho programmo of ceremonies and introduced the Jlov. Dr. Todd of Mas sachusetts, who offered tho dedicator prayer. Presentation of Spikes. Then came the presentation of spikes. Dr. Hikness of Sacramento presented Gov. Stanford with a spike of fouro gold, and said: Gcnllomen of tho Pacific railroad' Tho last rail needed to uompleta tho greatest ontcrprlso of the world Is about to ho ! laid; the lost spike needed lo unite tho ( Atlantic and Pacific by a new lino of trado and commerce is about to be driv en to Its place. To perform these ucts tho East and the Went have come to gether. Nover slrfce history commenced her record of human events has man boon called upon to meet the completion of a work so magnificent In contempla I tlon, and ho marvelous Irt execution. Call 1 fornia, within whose borders and by i whose citizens the Pacific railroad was ! inaugurated, desires to express her ap preciation of the vast Importance Lo her ! and her sister Stales of tho great enter j prise which by your joint action Is about to be consummated; from her mines of gold she has forged a spike, from her laurel woods ho has hewn a tlo, and by the hands of her citizens she offers them to become a part of the great highway whleh Is about to unite her In clorw.r fel lowship with her sisters of the Atlantic. From her bosom was taken the first soli; let hern be the last tic and the last spike, and with them accont the hopes and wlshos of her people that the success of your ontcrprlso may not stop short of Its brightest promise. Tho gold spilt thus presented was j about seven niches long and a little t thicker than thc ordinary railroad spike. It was made from twenty-three $20 "old pieces, ami was worth $-160. On llio head of it- was engraved the words: "Tho last spike," and tho sides bore this inscription: "Tho Pa cific Railway. first ground broko Janunry 8. 1SG3: and completed May 10, 18G9. May God continue' tho unity" of onr country as this railroad unites the two great oceans of the world. Pre sented by David Hervos, San Francisco.-" A silver spike similar in size was pre sented to Ur. Durant; by Hon. F. A. Fryth, of Nevada, who utored the fol lowing sentiment: "To tho iron of the East and the gold of the West, Nevada adds her link of silver to snnn the conti nent and weld (ho oceans. Gov. Safford of Arizona offered a spiko composed of iron silver and gold, and said: "Ribbed with iron, clad in silver, and crowned with gold. Arizona presents hrr offering to the enterprise that has banded the continent and di rected the pal h way lo commerce. ' " Gov. Stanford, in behalf of the Cen tral Pacific railraocU General Dodge, for the Union Pacific railroad, responded briefly as follows: "Gentlemen, the great Benton proposed that some day a giant statue of Co lumbus should be erected on the high est peak of the Roekv mountains, point jug westward, denoting this as the great route across the continent. You have made thatprophecy today a fact. This is the way to India. " ; Mr. Cob of the Pacific Union Express I company then presented to Governor j Stanford, a silver spike maul. j j Last Tie Is Laid. i ! The last tie, uniting the rails of the I two roads, was put in position bv ' two superintendents of construction, .1. IJ. Strowbridgc of the Central Pacific and S. D. Peed of the Union Pacific, tho former handling the north end and I I he latter the south end of the tic. Tt I j was oi glit feet long, eight inches wide and six inches thick, and was made of California laurrl, beautifully polished. I and ornainontod with a silver pinto, i hearing the mimes ni the directors and ofiiccrs of the Central Pacific Railroad ! company and the following inscription: ! "The last tie on the completion of the 1 I Pacific railroad. May 10. 1SG9. Pre- ' sontcd bv West Evans. Manufactured by Slrahlc & Hughes. San Frnucisco. " it was now half-past 12, and at a given signal, Governor Stanford, standing on tho south side of tho rail, and Dr. ,Du rant, standing on tho north side, struck ! the spikes and drove them home. Tele- I j grnphic connection had been made in such a manner that the blows of the hammors on the spikes wcro sent vibrat ! ing along the wires to every telegraph j office betweon the Atlantic and tho Pa I eilic, between the Great Lakes and tho Gulf of Mexico. This was dono bv at taching the wires to tho spiko mauls, everj' blow from which announced itsolf as it fell. In San Francisco the wires were connected with the fire nlarm in the tower and in Washington with tho boll of the Capitol, so that tho strokes of the silver sledge, sending forth tho joyful news' of tho marriage of tho oceans, East. West, North, South, to Chicago and New Orloaus, to "Washing- 1 ton and Sau Francisco, were not only heard throughout the land, but were sont ringing down the Potomac and out through tho Golden gutc to grccL old Neptune in his watery realm and ac quaint him with the glad tidings. The same electric Hash sent the rcverberat ing discharge of 220 guns from tho batteries at. San Francisco. No sooner was tho spiko driven than the pent-up feelings of the multitude that had witnessed the act burst forth in a thunderous storm of hurrahs. Thro cheers were given for the Government of the United States, for the railroads, for tho Presidents, for the Star-Spnn-' gled Panricr. for the laborers and for those who had furnished the means lo build the road. Immediately after the ceronionics the laurel tic was removod for preserva lion, and in its place an ordinary one substituted. Scarcely had it been put in its place before a grand advance waa made upon it by curiosity-seekers and relic "hunters,' and it was di vided into numborIes3 mementoes, as fast as each tic was demolished and a new one substituted, this, too, shared the same fate, and probably within the first six months there were used as many new tigfc. The Ceremony Concluded. At the conclusion of the proceedings tho two locomotivos, standing face to face, moved up until they touched each other, and a bottle of wine was poured as a libation on the last rail. Thus was tho great railway completed. Thus waa accomplished the mightiest human achievement of modern times. Thus, over Utah, tho koyslonc of the arch, the East and the West shook hands, and the continent was girdled with ils bolt of steel. PROMONTORY SLT.M.MIT. Utah, Mav 10. Tho last rail is laid: The lust spike is driven' The Pacific railroad Is completed! Tho point of junction Ik 10SG miles west of the Missouri river, and BOO miles east of Sacramento Cllv. I j ELAND STANFORD. Central Pacific Railroad. T. C. DURANT. SIDNliV DILLON. JOHN DUFF, Union Pacific Railroad. Such was the official announcement of the event, telegraphed to the Asso ciated Press immediately after the driv ing of the last spike. A similar tele gram was sent to the President of Ike United States. General Ulysses S. Grant. Before either had sped, how ever, the following dispatch was re ceived from several prominent Califor nians in New York: The presidents of the Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads at the Junc tion: To you and your associates wa send our hearty greetings upon the great feat Ihl3 day achieved. In the Junction of your I wo roads, and we bid you God speed In your best endeavor for the en tiro success of the Trans-American high way between the Atlantic and the Paci fic, for the New World and the Old. Greatest of All Roads. It is uii necessary to go into detail of the vicissitudes which tho Union Pacific railroad has gono through in the past, of its receivership, etc. What it does today is what the reader desires. When Mr, llarriman and his associates pur chased the railroad from tho receivers in J897, ten year's ago, tho railroad had l:84fl miles of track. Tho Central Pa cific from Ogdon to San Francisco, with 786 miles, was added. During the ten vcars more than $250,000,000 has been expended in the acquisition of terminal properties, con struction of sidetracks, passing tracks, second tracks, reduction of grades, straightening of lines and the purchaso of equipment; 50.000 freight oars havo been purchased; ,1200 passengers cars. 1500 locomotives. Over 7500 miles of track have been rclaid, a million tons of heavier rails put in; $12,000,000 has been spent in promoting greator safetv to lives and property; block signals have boon placed upon 3200 miles of right of way and 1500 milps more are under construction, grades havo boon re ducod. tunnels constructed a great lake bridged. And for what? To expedite tratlic. The pnst year the Union Pacific has earned nearly 17 per cent on tho com mon slock, or $i52,000,000; tho Southern Pacific earned nearly 12 per cent on its common stock, or $22,999,000. Tho rail roads are the moat magnificent proper ties in tho West. CHARLES P. PRUITT. E..B. ERWIN. F. H. VORSLEY. ' ALEX CAMPBELL. W.C.HOWE. A. V. PETERSON. . fi. M. FRAZ1ER. " . 's ' k ex " ..... ! I j D. S. SPENCER. 1 5 "1 1 J C. F. WARREN. f ' ' j j jf ! fill5 1- "ar.' cushingTI fH III3 i DAVID A. CRABILL. 1