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THE SALT LAKE TRIBUNE, SUNDAY MORNING, OCTOBER 12, 1913.
ff . t I (iVil i mlmm"- Odd New Discoveries About -4 ; ' n-I PPI0fi the Great Queen Hatshepsut, , , , Rllilg1 Who Was First of the Militant ggp (J i J WWSlHP Suffragettes of 4,000 Years M j ' KSliliilffl Ago, and Even Wore a Beard, TpSf f ri Hatshepsut at Her Toilet a Quite Feminine Picture. fl jr w ANY new discoveries have "been IVI made by the Egypt Exploration Avx Fund concerning Queen Hat 6hepsnt, the remarkable woman who ruled over Egypt 4,500 years ago. These discoveries, more than justify the claim of Queen Hatshepsut to he called the Mrs. Pankhurst of her time. Queen Hatshepsut gained full pos cession of the throne from which she ousted her worthless brother, assumed the garments of a man, extended the empire into far distant regions, erect- Hj ed the greatest temples and monu- ments of her time and. gave the peo pie the most efficient government they had ever known. The latest worlc hearing on Queen Hatshepsut is the complete excavation of tlie great temple built by her at Deir-el-Bahri, west of the Nile, near 1 Thebes. This building was erected at the base of a vast cliff which adds curiously to its grandeur. The temple now stands practically perfect with terraces and courts re stored. The wonderful colored reliefs commanded by Queen Hatshepsut to record her career and. glorify her sex are now visible to the world. The temple was constructed on three ter races and lies at the foot of cliffs that rise 400 feet sheer above it. Buried in the temple are Hatshep sut; her father, Thutmose I.; her brother, Thutmose II., and her balf brother, Thutmose III. It Is notice able that in all the decorations Hat shepsut occupies nearly the entire wall space. Her men relatives occupy . Hj only the minimum space necessary to -depict them, and they are all rcpre sented standing, while the Queen Is seated.' On the upper terrace of the temple is a shrine of Hathor, the cow god dess, the favorite divinity of Hat shepsut. On the wall painting withiu Hathor Is represented iu the form of a cow suckling a boy and protecting a man standing before her. " On the lower platform of the tem pie is a most interesting relief illus tratlng the methods used by the an cicnt Egyptinns in transporting huge obelisks and' monoliths. Three rows of boats tow the huge barge iu which an obelisk is loaded. The relief shows the pilots' boats running ahead with the pilots taking the soundings, the taut cable, the swinging oars, the tender and the rear line of craft carrying officiating priests and the royal emblems of Hat shepsut. In this way, with the aid of 2,000 Hj men, (he two obelisks erected in honor of Hatshepsut were carried to the temple of Anion at Karnak. One of the many Inscriptions to Hat3hepsut on the walls at Deir-el-Bahri dec-lares: "Hatshepsut, the di vine consort, adjusted the affairs of the tvro lands (1. e., upper and lower Egypt) by reason of her policies; Egypt was made to labor with bowed head for her." H The 'magnificently colored reliefs of the temple show that Hatshepsut wore all the costume and regalia of a male Pharaoh. She wore a crown, dressed herself entirely in men's garments and put on an artificial beard. The archaeologist informs us that an ambasador at her court would find the way to her favor if he addressed her as "His Majesty." Hatshepsut, through her mother, Queen Ahmose, v.ras the heiress of the Hj oider line of Pharaohs, which had left no male representatives. From the beginning of her career she was confronted by a conspiracy of her father, Thutmose L, and her other male relatives, to deprive her of her rights, just as the modern sufra gettes say they are being deprived of theirs. She compelled her father to surrender the throne to her, as he was not of royal descent and had no rights after his wife was dead. She was married according to the ancient Egyptian custom to her brother Thutmose II. Zlc endeavored to usurp the entire fl power, but Hatshepsut overcame him. First she forced him to ackuowl edge her as co-ruler, and her next step was to send him into retire meat and assume all the honors and rights of the Pharaoh. She was H ' i The Wonderful Temple at Deir-el- Bahri Which Hatshepsut Built and in Which She Al- M Sffl f4 ' t lowed the Records of the Men of Her 'Family Hardly Any Space at All. ml 1 lfiU'l Xtil ' 'J'A dla styled "the female Horus," and a woman ruled alone over Egypt for the first time. Her father was still alive and plot ted with her half-brother, known as Thutmose III., his son by a slave named Isis, to gain possession of the throne. Thutmose III. held the throne for three years, and then Thut mose II. emerged from retirement and secured the throne for himself, while keeping his wife in the back ground. But Hatshepsut was not to be sup pressed. She gathered her adher ents together, and at first cleverly compelled her husband to acknowl edge her as co-ruler. When she gath ered sufficient strength she threw him off the throne. Hatshepsut was now permanently established in power. The inscrip tions tell us that "Egypt was made to labor with bowed head for her, the excellent seed of the goda. The bow-cable of the south, the mooring stake of the southerners, the excel lent stern cable of the Northland is she, the mistress of command, whose plans are excellent, who satisfies the Two Regions when she speaks." Her faithful followers were placed in all the high offices of the empire. It is conjectured that there must have been women among them, but the records do not speak certainly on this point. Her scribe Amonem hat, and his assistant, Aahmes, stood next to the queen, recording all her wondrous deeds. The most powerful of her adherents, Hapuseneb, acted as vizier and high priest of Amon, the great god. One scene depicts her father, saying before the assem bled court on New Year's day: "Ye shall proclaim her word, ye shall be united at her command. He who shall do her homage shall live; he who shall speak blasphemy of Her Majesty shall die." Although she is represented in the sculptures in male attire, the ruins indicate that she enjoyed great feminine luxury. It is reasoned that she wore masculine attire on state occasions, and very delicate feminine finery on social occasions. She used her vast wealth to procure jew elry of gold and precious stones. In her tomb have been found a magnificent necklace of gold and amethysts a yard long and many strings of gold beads, gold necklaces and rings. There were also strings of amulets in the form of Hathor heads and gold hawks. The perfume pots, the little pincers and magnificent mirrors that lay upon her toilet table have all been. brought to light, proving that with all her wonderful virile statesman ship she was not above making her self as attractive aB art could ac complish. Her banquets were magnificent af fairs, and the whole known world must have been searched to provide dainties and luxuries for them. In one relief we see her servants bear ing twenty-one different kinds of meats. "Wines were provided In cor responding variety and abundance, for this early suffragette was no pro hibitionist. Another of her great temples was at Buhen. It was built of beautiful sandstone, brought from Nubia, which her followers explored. Tho Inscriptions indicate that Hatshep sut built this temple entirely, al though her successor after her death tried to steal away the credit by writing his name on every wall. He even removed whole blocks of stone bearing her picture and placed his own portrait in their stead. The square pillars were all sculp tured with the queen receiving the symbol of life from the gods and goddesses. Many of the inscriptions are interesting, as showing the sent!-, ments and Ideas of the great queen. For instance: "Oh, Horus, Lord of Buhen, may ho grant life, prosperity, health, a ready wit, favor and love." "When Hatshepsut died after reign ing twenty-one years, her miserable brother, Thutmose ni., who had hardly dared to show his head while she was alive, hastened to de face every one of her monuments, erasing her face and name wherever possible, and striving in every way to steal the glory of her great and beneficent reign. Queen Hatshepsut was a great in dustrial and scientific pioneer. She carried on mines in the Sinaitic pe ninsula, a savage region, far removed from Egypt. In her own country she established factories that produced glazed ware and colored glass, which were novelties four thousand years ago. One of the remarkable achieve ments of her reign, was the scientific expedition which Lady's she sent to Punt, Mummy a country that is Case of believed, on ac- Hatshepsut's count of the ani- Time, mals depicted in Showing the temple paint- Approximate ings, to have been Trousers on the coast of and Abyssinia. On the Satisfied return of the ex Expression i i I Jj , l J M; i 1 ' . ' i pi Hatshepsut Making Offerings to the Gods. A Wall Painting Deir-el-Bahri Showing Her . X 0( Wearing Her False Beard as 'Is Also Her Attendant. f J plorers Theban troops went out to meet them, and a great naval flotilla escorted them to the steps leading to the temple at Delr-el-Bahri. This expedition maao collections of the fauna and flora of Punt, in cluding giraffes, baboons, panthers, hippopotami and horned cattle. All these things are shown in the reliefs at Deir-el-Bahri. The trees collected were planted on the lower terrace at Deir-el-Bahri. Trenches cut in the rock and filled with earth, which were evidently made for this pur pose, have been found during the excavations. Artists accompanied tho expedi tion to make drawings of the strange animals, fish and plants of the country. In this respect Hatshepsut established an enlightened policy which Napoleon was the first among modern monarchs to follow. Later Egyptian dynasties were very neglectful of Hatshepsut's tem ple, perhaps because they were jeal ous of her sex. In the course of centuries a landslide buried part of the site, and then in early Christian timeB a convent was built on tho highest terrace. It was known in the early nine teenth century that the temple of Hatshepsut lay here, but through a The Criminality of "Pot-Huntinff" 6nr SoBg Birds iT OBINS, bluebirds, scarlet tanagers, golden tT orioles and other decorative and singing birds of the United States must not be shot and made into pies!" Some such notice as this should be substituted for the torch the statue of tho Goddess of Liberty holds in the harbor of New York. There are certain immigrants, especially thoso who come from Southern Europe, who, so far as wild life is concerned, can only be compared to a mongoose. In the United Statos the Immigrant is an inveterate pot-hunter in the north and the negro is but little bet ter in the South. With the murderous automatic gun and the habit of the negro to hunt in bands, over vast stretches of the South annually, every living song bird is slain. Nor do the laws suffice to protect. In eight States robins may be shot and sold for food, in five curious accident in modern times c the extent of the ruins was con- - cealed. The early French excavator , tj Mariette, who went to work In 1858 ) n on tho upper platform, threw the J. earth and rubbish he dug up near g J the spot where he worked. In tiia - way he concealed under tons of ru . bish much more than he revealed. The regal chapel of Thutmose I. I and the inner court containing an y, Immense white altar, the finest ever w found in Egypt, were covered up W ' him. Another French arcnaeologlst, s Edouard Navllle, went to work here s , a In 1893, and after years of labor aai ., completed his task. 1 Ir States, Including the District of Columbia blackbirds may be baked in a pie; in North Carolina toe meadow ;v lark is legallv a table dainty, and over half the Statea , permit the killing of doves for food. More destructive still is the house cat . About three- , quarters of a million song birds are killed and eaten by domestic cats in Massachusetts alone. The New York Zoological Gardens suffered fearful losses, not ,v only of song birds, but the neighborhood cats were seen to catch and kill rabbits, gray squirrels . cWpmunM , and quail. In the open wild Me. the domestic cat soon became a fierce and intractaolo creature, and tnrea . States have passed laws requiring cats to be 1 Icensej, f at the same time permitting the slaughter oi wild cag Of all men, the farmer cannot affora to tolerate ; existence of hunting cats, they are too .trucme to r , the bird life which feeds on the insects that injure m , . crops. i; i i n fl ' Believe in and That Was the Hunger Strike-as TWs Wall Painting of Minions Bringing Tribute to Her H Copyright, 1013, by tho Star Company. Great Br tain Rtffhts Reserve. J;-- jj .'