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Românul American. [volume] (Detroit, Mich.) 1939-1968, August 31, 1963, Image 4

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SAVAGE REPRESSION of Buddhists by the Ngo Dinh Diem
clique hos exposed to the world the hated, fascist character
of this regime which is kept in power solely by U.S. funds
and military assistance against the will of the people. It
throws a revealing light on the nature of the clique's brutal
war against the people of South Vietnam which it is con
ducting with the assistance of 14,000 U.S. "advisers".
Above, Buddhist monks hold signs protesting religious sup
pression during memorial services for five monks who
burned themselves to death as a supreme act of protest.
* ’ <*sls
It was Peter J. McGuire, founder of the Carpenters Union and
a co-founder of the American Federation of who first pro
posed to the Central Labor Union of New York that one day in the
year be designated as “Labor Day” to honor “those who from rude
nature have delved and carved all the grandeur we behold.”
Accordingly, the New York Central Labor Union celebrated the
first Labor Day on September 5, 1882 with a street parade (as set
forth in Mr. McGuire’s resolution) “which would publicly show the
strength and esprit de corps of the trade and labor organization,”
to be followed by “a picnic or a festival in some grove.”
In 1884, the Central Labor Union urged trade union organizations
in other cities to celebrate a “workingman's holiday” on the first
Monday in September. The following year Labor Day was celebrated
in many of our industrial centers.
Labor Day Items
A group of striking Philadelphia shoemakers in
1805 were indicted for conspiracy to raise wages and con
spiracy to injure others. The judge told the jury: A com
bination of workmen to raise their wages may be consider
ed in a two-fold point of view: one is to benefit them
selves . . . the other is to injure those who do not join the
society. The rule of law condemns both." The strikers
were found guilty.
* * *
Explaining why New York tailors went on strike in
1847, a spokesman said: “It was dire necessity and want
that compelled us to strike. We were working from 5
o’clock in the morning until 9 o’clock in the evening and
we could only earn from $4 to $5 a week.”
* * *
The National Labor Union was the first national la
bor federation of the United States. Formed in Baltimore
in August 1866, it had as its major goal the winning of
the 8-hour day. '
* * *
Tire Noble Order of the Knights of Labor, founded
in 1869, declared its goal to be “the complete emancipa
tion of wealth producers from the thralldom and loss of
wage slavery.”
Speaker at 3 P.M.
Nationally Known Negro Leader
Mi*» Union Maid Contest
Help Pick Her
Books Periodicals • Record* •
Gift Hem* - Print* • Jewelry
TOYS from the USA. and
Arovnd the World
Special Sale On New Book*
A Free Book with every purchate
• Entertainment
• Kid* Race* with Priie*
* Bate ball Game
* Labor Movie*
• Volley 801 l
* Baby Conte*t
* Shithkabob
• Kielbata and Sourkravt
* Barbecued Chicken
* Hamburger*
• Watermelon
• Beer and Pop
“Whether you work by the
piece, or work by the day,
Reducing the hours,
increases the pay."
—lra Steward
Philosopher of the Early
Eight-Hour Day Struggle
• * *
FROM THE earliest stage of
its development, the short
er work day has constituted
one of the principal rallying
points of American labor.
Higher wages and better work
ing conditions were the other
major goals of labor in its for
mative years.
Many a worker is still alive who
can vividlv recall without re
gret laboring twelve to fifteen,
sometimes even sixteen, hours a
When American labor embark
ed on its great crusade for the
eight-hour day in the 1880’s, its
impact was such as to influence
the establishment of May 1 as In
ternational Labor Day.
The onset of the Industrial Re
volution in the eighteenth century
in England, and its eventual ex
tension to the Americas, ushered
in the 14-hour work day, and of
ten the 16-hour work day. It was
only the 17- and 18-hour work
day that was considered abusive.
No longer did the “master” work
alongside his workers. No longer
was the workday limited by sun
up to sunset. Artificial lighting
and machinery made possible the
employment of women and chil
dren, as well as men, to produce
goods in quantities not realized or
possible before. The entrepreneur
took full advantage of his unre
stricted control of his work force.
In the absence of legislation or
workers organizations the workers
were virtually helpless against the
super exploitation of the early
capitalist. Reaction to this dehu
manizing exploitation eventually
developed. The pioneer social re
formers joined the early move
ments of the 1700’s to campaign
for the reduction of the work day.
The principal argument for the
shorter work day of 10 hours was
the need to safeguard the health
and morals of working people.
The limitation of working hours
to 10 for women and children thru
legislation in Massachusetts in
1842 was the first such measure
adopted in the U.S.A. The skilled
trades, particularly the carpen
ters, were successful in going from
a 12-hour work day, “sun to sun”
(or “from can to couldn’t,” mean
ing before sunrise until after
dark, as the slaves of the cotton
fields used to say) to a 10-hour
work day. Usually the skilled
trades workers led thru the years
in shortening the work day. Fac
tory workers lagged in achieving
similar results. Employer resis
tance was usually vehement and
In 1825 the master carpenters
of Boston, alarmed at the Boston
carpenters’ strike for the 10-hour
day, declared. “We learn with sur
prise and regret that a large num
ber . . . have entered into com
bination for the purpose of alter
ing the time of commencing and
terminating their daily labor . . .
We fear and dread the conse
quences of such a measure upon
the morals and well-being of so
ciety. (We could not) believe this
project to have originated with
any of the faithful and indus
trious Sons of New England, but
Facts and Figures About Rumania
IN THE FIRST three years
of the Six-Year Plan, Ruman
ia's national income exceeded
by over 30 per cent the 1939
level. The national income is
now nearly 3.3 times that of
1938. The rapid growth of the
productive forces has been per
manently accompanied by the
growth, in various forms, of
the material and cultural stan
dards of the worlting people.
A rise of 2,230,000 wage- and
salary-earners was registered in
the last 14 years. The annual
average rate of growth in their
number exceeded by far the
rate of growth of the popula
The growth in the number of
peoplfe employed in industry
proceeded concomitantly with
a more rapid growth of labor
productivity. This favorable
correlation is due on the one
hand to the introduction of mo
dern technology and on the
other hand to the many meth
ods of raising the qualification
of workers, either in special
schools or where they work,
a a a
FOLLOWING the increase in
the nominal wages, the reduc
are compelled to consider it an
evil of foreign growth. ...”
The period of 1840 to 1860 is
generally recognized as the per
iod of the reduction of hours to
10 and even 9 hours per day for
much of labor. A combination of
trade union organizations and
popular movements for shorter
hours were largely responsible.
There was also the “enlightened”
realization by employers that pro
duction could be maintained and
even improved with a shorter
work day.
The first 10-hour law (with
many loopholes and very inept)
was enacted by the New Hamp
The 8-Hour Day
The high economic activity of
the period to and during the Civil
War followed by unemployment
and dislocations at the cessation
of hostilities set the stage for the
next surge for the 8-hour day.
Labor had suffered some set
backs following the Civil War end.
The early and first efforts to es
tablish national labor councils
during the Civil War had failed
but represented significant trends.
Labor’s first national leaders
brought to the fore William Sylvis
of thş molders, Ira Steward of the
machinists and blacksmiths, J.C.
Whaley of the printers. The idea
of local conflicts being the con
cern of all in the trades, a need
for national labor unity develep
ed during the Civil War period.
The “stage” having been set,
the demand for the 8-hour day
became the rallying cry for labor
in the 1860’s. Even before, as ear
ly as 1836 during the fight for
the 10-hour day, spokesmen for
labor inferred that the working
classes would not be satisfied un
til they had an 8-hour workday.
Ira Steward in 1863, leader of
the machinists and blacksmiths
union, led the movement for the
8-hour day. He made this the un
ion’s principal plank, but the 8-
hour day was not to be accom
plished by trade union action. The
way to have the workers "vote
themselves an 8-hour day.” Ste
ward proposed and led in the es
tablishment in 1866 of the Orand
Eight Hour League of Massachu
setts. Similar leagues sprang up
all over the country.
By 1866 the trade unionists,
pressed by large scale unemploy
The Ohio Report
Reporting to the Ohio General
Assembly for the year 1878, H.J.
Walls, Commissioner of the Ohio
Bureau of Labor Statistics observ
ed: “Ten hours’ labor per day
has been the recognized work-day
in nearly every mechanical and
manufacturing industry in the
past 30 or 40 years, except in the
textile manufactories of the Eas
tern states; and in them . . . leg
islation has been invoked specially
for women and children, and
which, being secured, caused a
lessening of the hours of adult
male labor, though it was not un
til 1874 that a 10 hour law was
passed in Massachusetts.
“For 12 years (Since 1866, the
question of reducing the hours of
labor from the number establish
ed by law and custom 10 per
day has been more or less pro
mised at every gathering of rep
resentative workingmen. (Italics
tion of the taxes on wages and
the price cuts, the real wages
of factory and office workers,
and engineers increased twice
in the 1951-1962 period.
Besides the increase in the
real wages, the working peo
ple in Rumania avail them
selves of a number of advan
tages thanks to the socio-cultu
ral expenses covered by the
Education is completely free
of charge in Rumania, from
elementary to the university
In the 1962—1963 school
year, the educational network
at all levels embraced 3,360,-
000 pupils and students. The
state spends from its budget
approximately 3,000 lei an
nually for a pupil in a general
education type of school, some
10,000 lei for a student in a
higher learning institute, and
some 16,000 lei for a student
in an art institute.
All wage- and salary-earners
in Rumania are granted free-of
cha rg e medical assistance.
There is now one doctor for
some 700 people as against one
for 1,900 people in 1938.
shire legislature in 1847. It was
argued as being advantageous to
the employers who “would realize
a greater profit, even in less time,
from laborers more vigorous and
better able to work, from having
suitable time to rest.”
Prior to this. President Van Bu
ren in 1840 issued an Executive
Order for the 10-hour day for
government employees on public
projects. Commencing in 1850 the
movement for shorter hours gave
rise to anew argument. Possibly
first expressed by the New Eng
land Industrial League in 1851. it
stated that“dlminution of hours
worked would lead to an increase
in wages.”
ment and the employers’ anti-la
bor campaign, turned again to the
shorter work day as the way out
of difficulties. Influenced by the
unemployment, the 8-hour day to
the unionists meant “making
work.” This was not Ira Steward s
reason for the 8-hour day. His ap
proach was based on the theory
that more time for leisure and
reflection would develop new de
sires and demands for more pay,
that reduction of hours did not
mean a reduction in pay.
It was in 1866 that the first So
cialist International raised the
demand for legislation to limit
daily hours to a maximum of 8.
The formation of the first na
tional labor body, the National
Labor Union initiated the trade
unions’ agitation for the 8-hour
day. From then until the ‘great
depression’ of 1873 local and na
tional trade unions took leader
ship for the 8-hour day. Strikes
for the 8-hour day were many and
somewhat successful. These in
cluded the anthracite miners
strike in 1868 and the strike of
100,000 building tradesmen of New
York City in 1872.
Congress in June 1868 had
passed the 8-hour day law. It ap
peared the 8-hour day would be
come a national standard. But it
was not an effective law.
Then came the 1873 depression.
The National Labor Union had al
ready disintegrated one year be
fore. Union after union went into
eclipse. By 1877 unemployment
was reported as 20% totally un
employed and another 2/5 em
ployed only 6-7 months out of the
year. Longer hours and lower
wages accompanied the unemploy
authors) The large number who
are idle in our cities and manu
facturing towns, and the general
belief among workmen that the
increasing productive power of
machinery is, to some extent, the
cause of their idleness; that the
labor-saving attributes of ma
chinery is only such in name, to
them. . . .
(To Be Concluded in Next Issue)
FUNDS went to the steady de
velopment of the spas and
health resorts for the working
people. In the last five years,
the number of working people
who spent their holiday in var
ious resorts, on state expenses,
exceeded 3 million.
The working people have
nothing to pay for social in
surance. The state grants now
old-age, disability and descen
dant pensions to some 900,-
000 people, and monthly al
lowances for some 2,100,000
a * a
attention to the continuous im
provement in the housing con
ditions. An amount of nearly
billion lei was earmark
ed to this end in the 1957
1963 period from the state
budget. No less than 181,672
flats were put at the disposal
of the working people in towns
during the same period, in
which more than 550,000 per
sons moved. The rent amounts
to 4—5 per cent of the wages.

Pagina 4
Salutul Nostru Marşului la Wash.
(Cont. din pac. l-a)
traţia ţării să satisfacă de ur
genţă revendicările Marşului.
Spre ruşinea lor, cele două
ziare scrise în slova noastră ro
ininească, care se pretind chiar
şi creştine, nu au şoptit un sin
gur cuvînt asupra acestui mare
eveniment istoric, ceea ce do
vedeşte destul de limpede, ce
poziţie au ele. Ştim că clica
nazistă şi rasistă din ţara noas
tră s-a pronunţat împotriva ţe
lurilor Marşului. Cele două
ziare ~America’* şi ~Solia"
au tăcut ca mutul. Si tăcerea,
în cazul de faţă, ne dau a înţe
lege poziţia lor. In secţia en
gleză a foii lui Trifa s-a arun
cat „un os" în chestia lup
tei populaţiei de culoare, cău
tînd să-şi acopere adevărata
lor ideologie. Dar scurtul edi
torial în limba engleză, de care
ne vom ocupa într-un alt nu
măr, este în realitate o insultă
la adresa luptei pentru dreptu
rile civile dusă de poporul ne
Dar indivizii care poartă răs
punderea redacţională a celor
două foi, nu sînt decît nişte pi
Recepţia Diplomatică la Legaţia
R.P j. în Cinstea Lui „23 August"
(Cont. din pag. 3-a)
vurat vinurile romîneşti, care
şi-au cîştigat faimă la concur
surile internaţionale.
Printre diplomaţi americani
am notat pe dl. Alfred Vede
ler, director în Departamentul
'de Stat, pe dl. Arnold Boerer,
ajutorul subsecretarului de
stat pentru probleme culturale
şi alţi reprezentanţi. Au parti
cipat de asemenea funcţionari
superiori din Departamentul
Agriculturii, ataşaţi militari şi
ofiţeri din cadrul Departamen
tului Apărării etc.
Au fost de asemenea foarte
mulţi ambasadori şi alţi diplo
maţi de la multe ambasade din
Washington, oameni de ştiin
ţă şi de artă, ziarişti şi oameni
particulari, inclusiv un număr
de americani de origină romî
nă, în frunte cu familia Spiru
Papas. Au luat parte şi un nu
măr de oameni de ştiinţă romî
ni, veniţi să ia parte a două
congrese internaţionale la
Washington, de zoologie şi psi
Ascultînd la diferite conver
saţii n-am putut să nu înregis
trăm faptul că mulţi diplomaţi
au ţinut seama de importanţa
ce a acordat-o guvernul R. P.
Romîne încheierii Tratatului de
la Moscova, depeşind trimişi
speciali în capitalele celor trei
tici la minte şi cu suflete deşar
* * *
Sprijinul, fără rezervă, ce-1 dă
ziarul n6stru, în numele
grupului nostru naţional, ţelu
rilor nobile întruchipate în isto
ricul Marş la Washington, va
scăpa pe oamenii de bine ai
grupului nostru naţional de ru
şinea celor două foi, însă ei nu
vor uita niciodată purtarea ru
şinoasă a celor două foi care
se zic creştine.
Salutînd Marşul la Washing
ton şi ţelurile sale, ne dăm sea
ma că ne aliăm cu tot ce-i mai
nobil şi democrat în naţiunea
americană. Si ştim că acest
Marş va inaugura o nouă eră
în viaţa naţiunii noastre, căci
va fi începutul sfîrşitului rasis
mului şi începutul integrării na
ţionale, cînd populaţia de cu
loare va aduce, ca cetăţeni li
beri, contribuţia sa la propăşi
rea libertăţilor democratice, la
înaintarea întregii naţiuni pe
calea belşugului prin muncă
cinstită, la marşul înainte spre
dobîndirea unei păci trainice,
cu o lume eliberată de frica u
nui război nuclear.
ţări semnatare iniţiale ale Tra
Cu ocazia celei mai mari săr
bători naţionale a fraţilor noş
tri, posturile de radio america
ne au transmis în seara zilei de
23 August la orele 1 I un pro
gram de muzică romînească,
iar posturile de televiziune au
transmis frumosul film „Ma
Cu toate că recepţia din sea
ra zilei de ~23 August" a fost
să fie oficial terminată la 8,-
30, personalităţile marcante
din viaţa americană, cît şi mul
ti diplomaţi au mai zăbovit cu
mult mai târziu.
Din părerile culese de la di
feriţi diplomaţi şi celelalte per
soane marcante din viaţa ame
ricană se poate spune că spiri
tul de ~23 August" şi bucuria
simţită cu semnarea Tratătului
de la Moscova, ca pas prim în
spre rezolvarea altor probleme
de bază internaţionale pe căi
paşnice, a făcut ca această cele
brare să rămînă neuitată în ini
ma şi mintea participanţilor.
Răspândiţi Ziarul
„Românul American";
Faceţi Abonaţi Noi!
i _ _ —.
Evenimentele din
Vietnamul de Sud
(Cont. din par. l-a)
schimba situaţia din Vietnamul
de Sud, unde poporul ameri
can plăteşte din gros cu sute
de milioane de dolari şi chiar
cu miliarde, cît şi cu vieţi o
meneşti pentru a proteja un
regim unt de propriul său po
Ce se cere este o nouă orien
tare democratică din partea
guvernului nostru, care să con
tribuie la unirea celor două
părţi ale Vietnamului, prin ale
geri libere, pentru ca forţele
sinistre, corupte şi fasciste din
Vietnamul de Sud să fie elimi
nate din viaţa nenorocitei ţă
Senatorul Wayne Morse, de
mocrat din Oregon, a făcut o
declaraţie în Senatul ţării în
cursul dezbaterilor asupra aju
torului acordat altor ţări. Se
natorul Morse, opunîndu-se la
ajutoare regimurilor fasciste şi
autocrate, s-a referit la Viet
namul de Sud în felul urmă
~D-le preşedinte, pe baza
faptelor privitoare la regimul
lui Diem care ««te tiranic,
dictatorial, antidemocrat şi ab
solut de tip fisc ist Vietna
mul de Sud nu merită să se
sacrifice viaţa unui singur tî
năr american. Repet: în opinia
senatorului din Oregon, actua
lul guvern sudvietnamez nu
este demn ca să se sacrifice via
ţa unui singur băiat american.
Si cît mă priveşte, nu voi mai
aproba un singur dolar pentru
Vietnamul de Sud . . . Mai
bine de 95 procente din costul
(pentru menţinerea regimului
diemist—n.r.) sînt susţinute de
contribuabilii americani. Si
ceea ce sprijinim noi, în opi
nia mea, este un regim crunt,
oribil, tiranic în Vietnamul de
Aceasta este povestea aproa
pe a întregului program de aju
tor american. Intîi trimitem bb
ni ca să nu trebuie să trimitem,
chipurile, oameni, apoi trimi
tem şi bani şi soldaţi. Final
mente, guvernul diemist va fi
aruncat la gunoi de propriul
său popor, şi vom fi norocoşi
dacă nu vom moşteni ura aces-
Vii infam regim.’’
Istorib va caracteriza ca o
ruşine la adresa Statelor Unite,
sprijinul acordat de noi (regi
mului crunt şi corupt al Viet
namului de Sud”).
Scopul Marşului de la Washington
Un alt eveniment istoric ia
loc astăzi miercuri în 28 au
gust, cînd ziarul nostru merge
la presă după două săptămâni
de vacanţă. întreaga ţară dis
cută asupra acestui Marş la
Washington. Oriunde mergi,
pe stradă, în restaurante, în sa
loane particulare, în casele po
porului, în şedinţele organiza
ţiilor civice, în Congresul ţă
rii ca şi în Casa Albă, subiec
tul mai des discutat, din toate
punctele de vedere, este: ce se
va întîmpla de-a lungul marşu
lui şi care vor fi urmările
acestui marş, la care vor parti
cipa cel puţin un sfert de mi
lion de bărbaţi, femei şi copii.
In realitate, întreaga popula
ţie a ţării va participa, fie în
mod pozitiv sau în mod negativ
în acest marş istoric.
Deşi ziarul nostru a indicat
în trecut scopul marşului, Co
mitetul de direcţie al marşului
a dat un nou comunicat public,
care explică pe scurt, dar pre
cis, ţelul marşului.
Marşul istoric de la 28 aug
ust are două ţeluri importante:
acţiune urgentă pentru dreptu
ri civile şi slujbe la cei fără de
Populaţia de culoare şi alia
ţii ei insistă ca guvernul fede
ral să ia acţiune urgentă să se
realizeze integrare grabnică în
toate facilităţile publice şi in
şcoli, să se pună capăt bruta
lităţii poliţieneşti şi egalitate
deplină în faţa legii.
Marşul va pune emfază pe
gravitatea crizei economice cu
cel puţin 5 milione de oameni
fără lucru; va insista că numai
acţiune federală printr-un vast
program de lucrări publice va
putea elimina acest pericol
pentru securitatea naţională.
Marşul la Washington pen
Românul American
tru Lucru şi Libertate va mar
ea o nouă treaptă în lupta îm
potriva acestor gemeni de rele
ale societăţii americane: dis
criminare rasială şi privaţiuni
(lipsuri) economice.
NTici cînd nu s-a unit un atît
de mar? număr de cetăţeni de
toate rasele şi pentru ţeluri
atît de variate într-o acţiune
directă la sediul guvernului fe
deral ca să protesteze împo
va duşmanilor lor şi să inspire
pe prietenii lor.
Sînt ample dovezi că nu exis
tă înlocuire la intervenţia per
sonală a poporului care este
insultat sau oprimat de relele
societăţii. Si soluţiile acestor
rele, care ne afectează pe noi
toţi, sînt în mare măsură în mi
na guvernului federal.
De aceea chemăm pe toţi
• Să ceară votarea legisla
ţiei efective de drepturi civile,
Monday, September 3, 10 A. M. On at
Beechnut Grove on Middlebelt Rood
(Between the Expressway and Michigan Avenue)
Adm. $l.O0 — Children under 2 and unemployed FREE
Auspices: THE WORKER
care să garanteze la toţi:
. . . locuinţe omeneşti;
. . . acces la toate serviciile
. . . educaţie integrată şi
. . . dreptul la vot.
• Să prevină compromisu
ri sau sabotarea legislaţiei.
• Să ceară un program
vast şi atotcuprinzător de lu
crări publice şi de ucenicie,
pentru ca toţi şomerii negrii
şi albii să se întoarcă înapoi
la lucru.
• Să ceară o lege care
interzice discriminare în gu
vernele federal, de stat şi mu
nicipal, din partea patronilor,
antreprenorilor, agenţiilor de
plasare în lucru şi sindicate
• Să ceară un salariu minim
naţional, de nu mai puţin de
2 dolari pe oră, care să inclu
dă pe toţi muncitorii.
President, Amalgamated Meat Cutters Executive Assistant, Amalgamated Meat
District Local No. 427 Cutters and Butcher Workmen
Simbătă 31 august 1963

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