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(2tt&&i&a&i .--'.." T .s'Ja.IJJ -i:- " MAGAZINE MAGAZINE SECTION oc,L,i(yi --WASHINGTON. D. C.;SPN1AY4J)YEMBER 3: 1SL2. - AMERICAN RAILROADS AVERAGE ONE EXPLORER TO SEEK TREASURE 1 THE "f iilBET OF AMERICA" . -.FS 1 VICTIM EVERY SEVEN MINWES W TIME S ?l " 5" w'ti sP 'k-s-B-fii" "PS1 f-w Tt"I 2553 -saw. -esse 3,' t "?..,,"r""sw '"I ,"" " '" SH. W. Belnap, Special Investigator, Tells of Work Being Done to Safeguard Lives of Traveling Public Trainmen Blamed for Carelessness. Br JAMES B. MORROW. Thirty-one wide-awake and seasoned (nen are helping to make traveling- on railroads safe In the United States. The public rarely hears any of their name! yet they are officer of the national kov ernment and some of them are usually present before the wreckage of an acci dent has been gathered up and carried way. Officially, these men are known as In specters of safety-appliances. Under the law -they are expected to note whether railroads are working their employes more than sixteen hours a day and It their cars are equipped with self-couplers , and their .trains freight aid passenger (with automatic brakes. The Invesuga jtlon of accidents, also. Is an Important I part of their business. I Two Inspectors are permanently sta tioned in each of the fourteen districts which stretch across snd up and down ,the country. They read the newspapers for reports of bad accidents and when one occurs they hasten to the scene and get the facts, shielding no one. neither the railroad nor Its trainmen, switchmen, or telegraphers If found culpable. Often they are ordered Into action by a tele gram from Washington. Among them are those who have been locomotive engi neers, conductors, superintendents, train dispatchers, and trainmasters. At a re cent civil service examination of men hopeful of becoming inspectors, only forty one passed out of about 900 applicants. Over the inspectors and chief among them in skilL activity and Intelligence Is H. W. Belnap. once a telegrapher and J later a brakeman and a conductor. An inspector must have had eight years of practical experience on a railway. Mr. Belnap came to his office after a service of fourteen years on the Big Four be tween Indianapolis and St. Louis. From the track and from the train he brought to his work an every-day knowledge of signals, of time tables, and of rules and orders and likewise of the human ele ments which must be reckoned with In the operation of railroads. He Is a com pact and hearty man and goes straight to the point of everything. His eyes are keen, his mind is quick, and he can talk like a lawyer when such language is nec essary. TUe Causes of Accident. "That Is a big and disputed question," he answered, when I asked him to name the principal causes of accidents on rail roads. "My own opinion is that most ac cidents are traceable to man himself, rather than to machinery, broken rails and defects In roadbeds. We print a bul letin every three months giving the facts about serious casualties. Here are the bulletins covering six mo'rftbs of last year nnd the first quarter of this year. Co through them and you will find the de tailed reports of forty-eight accidents, thirty-two of which were collisions and twenty-three of the thirty-two were head end collisions. Orders were disobeyed, or wrongly given, or signals wore disregard ed. Only man is censurable under such circumstance-'. "The bulletins contain reports of none but the worst accidents. There were many more collisions during the period 1 have mentioned. Indeed there were 1. 1171 accidents of that kind during the first three months of this year. Men grow careless or they try to make up lost time and trains come together. Then there are hundreds of derailments every year rails of car wheels break or the tracks give way in weak spots. The I.ehigh Valley wreck near Manchaster. X. Y in which twenty-nine persons were killed and sixty-two Injured, was occa sioned by a new rail that was defectively manufactured. "Against my off-hand views on the sub ject of accidents, I am willing to put the sworn testimony of F. C. Rice, general inspector of transportation on the Chi cago. Burlington and Quincy Railroad, who has said that 'excessive speed was the cause of about 75 or SO per cent of the catastropliies In the last few years.' I . quote Mr. Rice because he is accurate, technically. Every man In the train serv ice of a railroad is geared up to his highest speed physically and mentally. The boy who calls a trainman out of bed Is In a hurry. From the time he gets up until he is through with his work the trainman Is pushed by spoken word and orders by telegraph. Americans In all walks of life are speed crazy. More over, I want to say right here that the railroad managers themselves sensation ally demonstrated to the public that the 1.00(1 miles between New York and Chicago could be traveled In eighteen hours. The people didn't know anything about it un til they saw it done. All Trnlna nn High Gear. "The price of speed, of course. Is loss of limb, disfigurement or death, to say nothing of the destruction of property. The contagion, logically, has got In among the freights. On a road in the Middle 'West, the other da-, a freight In Tour long sections passed a telegraph sta tion Inside of eighteen minutes and as a result one of them ran over another. The figures for last year show that one pas senger was killed every twenty-five hours and one employe every three hours on the railroads of the United States in train accidents. Ono passenger was injured every thirty-nine minutes and one employe every eleven minutes. Only accidents which cause the death or Injury of one or more persons or a property loss of JIM are reported to the Interstate Commerce Commission. We know that during the past twenty-tour years 1SS.0J7 persons- passengers, railway workers, and tres passershave been killed on our railroads and that 1,395,618 have been Injured, which tiieans an annual average of 7.SS killed, and 5S.130 Injured, a dally average of 181 killed or Injured or, refining the figures further, one person every seven minutes. Night and day, year In and year out death goes walking about. "The facts are terrible, I admit, but to those who understand the situation the wonder is that conditions are no worse. We sentimentalize about the engineer but do we actually know what he Is doing in the cab of a locomotive that Is hauling the Pennsylvania Special or the Twen tieth Century Limited? Running at sixty miles an hour, in a driving storm of snow or rain or in a fog, he can only see a short car-length ahead. He must read and determine each of the signals he passes inside of half a second. During clear -weather be can look ahead and In terpret the signal 'as be approaches It, but even so he has the busiest and most nerve-racking Job on earth. The Engineer In His Cab. "Let us Imagine that the day or night is quiet and light and then let us look at the engineman while he Is at his work. '. Ufa hand, of course, is at the throttle. He frxils tha signals aa they flash by.'keeps to the fifteenth or the twenty-fourth tala t his nlnd on his watch, listen to learn graph pole from tha last ear of Us train. lt tha machinery la coins; all right, studies 'Whether he gom'm. nSdest dlttanee,' la the tracks, remembers the schedule bo as not to go through stations ahead of time, and is careful to note whether there is plenty of water in the boiler. If be turns for an Instant to look at his water glass be may miss a warning and run over a' train going in tbe same direc tion. "In the meanwhile his fireman is spad ing coal 4nto the furnace sometimes ten tons to a trip and can give him no help. A fireman was once asked by an official of the commission how often he .bent his back from the time he climbed Into his engine until he climbed down. 'Just once.' the fireman replied. Besides the engine man must watch country crossings for buggies and wagons and look out for pedestrians, mostly tramps, who are walk ing the tracks. Moreover, men and even women and children pour In and out of factories all along the way, using the railroad because" it is the short cut to their homes and their work. "Into this tangle of duties, responsibil ities snd absent-minded humsn beings the engineer flings himself and his train and be must be a man of Iron to stand the strain. It Is 118 miles between Syra cuse and Albany. At an Investigation of an accident It was brought out that some of the trains on the New Tork Central go the distance In 162 minutes, passing 256 signals, or one every thirty-five seconds. Suppose It Is a greasy day or a blinding storm is raging at night! And you must recollect that the engineer who can't bring his train in on time must give an explanation. Any railroad man is profes sionally disgraced. In his own opinion, at least, when he hears some such ver dict against himself as. 'Bill Is a steady old scout, but he Is nearly always behind his watch.' The Risks Railroader. Take. Why were you late at Squash Junc tion?- a conductor Is asked by wire. Pos sibly the superintendent Is only seeking In formation, but the conductor reads a re buke Into the question and an hour lat er may take a chance that piles him up in the ditch or slams him head-on Into another engine. And it should be under stood that trainmen are paid by the mile. and like other people, want to bustle along and get through with their work. Natur ally, too, .some of them become care less. Nor is it realized that the most ob scure switchman on the line has his own individual obligation to safeguard the fast and luxurious special that steams dally through the yards where he Is em ployed. I'd teach railroad men their ac countability to one another and to the public A broken ladder on a freight car in Chicago, It not reported, may cause tbe death of a brakeman in Pittsburg. It is a common practice for switchmen to stand In the center of the track, face to ward an approaching engine, and nimbly get on the engine by way of the pilot. "All cars are now equipped with self couplers still S7 men were killed or injur ed last year while adjusting couplers with their feet as the cars came together. The cars would Have coupled mechanically: kicking was wholly unnecessary. It is these little unnecessary risks that habit uate men to take all kinds of chances and some day a passenger train goes into a siding and is ground to pieces. All railroaders, from the Italian who repairs the roadbed to the president of the com pany, should have the fact driven Into their heads and then clinched that they are the custodians of the lives of hun dreds of human beings. That, It seems to me. Is the first principle of railroading. Furthermore, the railroad Is no place for booze lighters, poker players, dreamers or reckless lads who like to experiment with hazards. The service calls for steady, re liable and conscientious men and for In telligent men whose minds act Instantly and accurately." The Speed of American 1 rains. "Should passenger trains be permitted to run at a speed of fifty miles an hour?' I asked. "No person in the world," Mr. Belnap replied, "can give an answer to such a question and make it of general applica tion. Fifty miles on some roads may be oarer than thirty miles on other roads it Is a matter of roadbed, weight of rails, cars, signals, and management. Very few American trains, however, reach an aver age of fifty miles an hour. The fastest of the extra-fare specials between New York and Chicago average fifty-four miles for the trip, but at places reach the speed of eighty-five miles. But those are the most scientifically operated trains In the country they are operated for speed and for safety and steel cars give some as surance that the worst thing which can be Imagined won't happen even If a rail gives way or a wheel breaks down In the middle. Steel cars, I want to say, are a great protection to life, as was shown on the Fourth of July, this year, near East Corning, N. Y. A standing train of one buffet car, seven sleeping cars, and two day coaches,, all made of wood, but one of the coaches, which was the second car from the end of the train, was run Into by an express going at a high rate of speed. Thirty-nine passengers were killed and eighty-six passengers and two em ployes were Injured. The wooden coach was pounded Into splinters. The steel coach was bent at the ends, and after telescoping the sleeper Just ahead for two-thirds of its length, was torn from its trucks and turned over. Only two fatal ities occurred In this car. It was placed on new wheels and was sound enoua-h to be taken to the repair shops. The wooden coach and sleeping car. or what remain ed of them, were gathered no and de stroyed by fire at the side of tjje track. Hon- Trains Are Protected. "What are the duties of a flagman?" "You have touched another great sub ject connected with the safe running of trains," Mr. Belnap said with energy. "The duties of flagmen have not been standardized, that is to say. rules govern ing them are not the same on all roads. A flagman Is supposed to be a trained and careful man, the best brakeman, in deed, on the train. I have known cases, however, where green hands were given the job. Theoretically, and actually on some lines, a flagman Is only required to protect his train against rear-end col lisions. On the other roads flagmen are also brakemen. When a train stops, if tbe stop is not on the schedule of that particular train, the flagman is required to go back 'a sufficient distance' and. with a lantern by night and a flag by -day. together with torpedoes or fuses; signal any other train that is going the same way, and on the same' track. "The words, "a sufficient distance. Smt- mlt the flagman to use his own Judgment and the'phrase is found in the rules of a great many railroads, big- one aa well aa lime ones, -mere are roads, however. which direct that a flagman shall go back f v . r .-- ;"' '-'- amBmBmamBmBmBmBmBmBmBmBmBmBmammJE U&VjT aaafei. -U M-? "-Br 4 -JfS lanTCSJBmBmBmBmBmBmBmBmBmBmBmBmBmBmBmBmBmBmBmf BSmBSmBSmBSmBSmBSmBSSnHittdiaOi'vu XKTtSxrlkSBnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnni sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssIS' &&&Fa F S.'b?lsBsssssssssssssssssssssssl KlStJLSz? V fTaJ- kissssKSssnH sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssliss tniilBBnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnH HHsKiPleWsntllllllllllllllllllllllH hrfflslilBnlBBsKPBBSSsl H. W. his opinion, or for a specified distance, measured by poles, he Is to stop any train that Jeopardizes his own. When his train is ready to move, the engineer sig nals him In with a whistle and then he sprints over the ties ns fast as he can. leaving. It is supposed, one or two torpe does on the rails behind. "The flagman, the engineer, and the conductor are In a hurry. Time is so precious with them that every fraction of a minute counts. The farther the flagman walks away from his train, the farther he will have to run when he re turns. 1o is a human being like the rest of us. Maybe the sun Is pretty hot- Per haps it is a cold or rainy night. And 'a suflli-Ient distance' gives him latitude in a matter of life or death! Many a flagman has wrecked a train. -Where One Flaamnn Failed. "The flagman of the Overland Express, on the Chicago. Burlington and Quincy Railroad, was to blame, primarily, for the accident at "Western 8rrings, 111., on the 14th of List July. The train was stopped by signal early during the morning in a fog. It was being followed by the Fast Mail. The trains, so our investigation showed, were about nine minutes apart. The flagman, at the official hearing of the case, said that he went back as far as he could and that he ran part of the way. He put down two torpedoes, ijno feet from the rear end of his own train. On his way back, the Fast Mail passed him at fifty miles an hour, and a moment later ran Into the Overland Express, which had not begun to move, killing eleven passengers and two employes, and In juring twenty-six passengers and two em ployes. "The trains, remember, had been about nine minutes apart. In a test, after the accident, it was found that a flagman, at a brisk walk, could have gone back 2.177 feet In six minutes. It was learned, also, that the flagman of the Overland Express put two torpedoes on the rail, which was simply a cautionary signal, whereas he should have used but one torpedo, which would have been a signal for the Fast Mall to stop. "There should be drastic and plain rules governing the conduct of flagmen. Under the most favorable circumstances of day light and a straight track, they should be required to go back not less than iOOO feet and when signaled In should Invari ably leave torpedoes on the track. Trains on the way would be slowed down In con sequence and trains waiting for the re turn of flagmen would be delayed in get ting started again, but safety to life and property would be Increased. Torpedoes are not always used, simply because it takes a little time to place them on the rail. The engineman has blown his whis tle, the conductor. Is impatiently looking down the line and the flagman, catching the first note of the signal, beats It back as quickly as his legs will carry him. And death. In many Instances, is thereby Invited to take his sickle In hand and go to work. How Travel Can Be Made Safe. "Summed up." Mr. Belnap went on to say, "the safety of travel depends funda mentally on a realization by railroad men, from the highest to the lowest, that they are the guardians of the lives of those GROUP OF KING FERDINAND'S FIGHTING MEN. E??j?i w ;Nkia'aaUlanr wafca-re the -KmtKHisea- nigarlaa BELNAP. who travel In their trains and also of the lives of their comrades: next, on plain and workable rules, enforced to the latter with penalties attached for disobedience, not after the disaster, hut before It hap pens, and lastly, on a reasonable reduc tion of speed, both of engines and of men. "As I said at the start, much depends on the individual employe. Block signals should be on every American railroad, but they have to be "worked in conjunc tion with men with Intelligent, nlert. and conscientious men otherwise they are of little value. It Is natural. I suppose, for most people to oppose progress. If It were not so, we might go forward too fast and bring on trouble. The suggestions I liavo made with respect to safety may not be acceptable In same quarters, but they will b adopted finally. I believe. It was de clared that railroads could not be oper ated If the law said no man unless there Were An srrlnn nn thj. Iln np mnrmm nfli act of God causing delay should work for more than sixteen hours contlmiously l have been out on the road for fifty hours at a stretch without sieen or rest. I have seen flagmen doze standing up with lanterns in their hands. In the old days, engineers often napped at their posts. Rut the slxteen-hour law came and ii has actually been an economic bene fit H. the railroads themselves. In 189J. the number of tons carried by the rail roads for each trainman was u.0K: In 151 1, it was 8.041. Moreover, there has been an Increase In tlie number of train miles run by each trainman employed. Then. too. the preventable dangers of accidents have been lessened. The outlawing of the link and pin. bit terly fought, and the unwilling adoption of automatic couplers revolutionized our system of transportation. Links and nins could not hold a modern 7,000-ton train to gether. The safety-appliance law of 1S33 was vigorously opposed, but It was a financial blessing to the railroads and of Immense commercial and industrial value to the country." (Corrnitit, llt by June B. Morrow.) Morgan Likes Old Photos Best. J. P. Morgan's reluctance for posing for the camera was explained by Fred erick Gutekunst. the well-known artist and photographer, who celebrated his clghty-flrst birthday In his studio at work. Speaking of some of the noted men whom he has snapped. Mr. Gunte kunst told some delightful stories of Gen. Grant. Wu Ting-fang. Phillips Brooks. Henry W. Longfellow. Walt Whitman, and Edwin Booth. Looking at one of the old portraits of Mr. Morgan, the aged artist said: "It Is not that 3Ir. Morgan hates pho tographers, but that lie imagines that he Is not as good looking as he was years ago. He wishes his old pictures preserved for future use and taken for the correct likeness of himself as he Is to-day, rather than pictures that show the change that has come over his face in later years." It Is not an uncommon thing, accord ing to the photographer, for him to re ceive an order for one of Mr. Morgan's old photographs, whereupon he Is com pelled to touclv It up and make It as modern as possible. Uraat tne U tfce esn-stssraaf ae - la atraad advaace, c-talyped wMh'faa cfek Dr. Hiram Bingham Starts for Plateau of Titicaca, in Peru Important Archaelogical Discoveries Ex pected in Realm ot Ancient Incas. Dr. Hiram Bingham, backed by $15,000 from Yale College and I1O.0OO -from the National Geographical Society. Is now starting- on his return to what has been called the "Thibet of America" I. e., the plateau of Titicaca, the most wonderful unexplored region In the new world, where was developed the ancient civiliza tion of the Incas. Dr. Bingham's recent discovery, at Cuzco. of a human skeleton of ' great antiquity supposed to lie anywhere from 40.000 to 60,000 years old. Judging from tlie geological formation in which It was found has stimulated Interest In the ex ploration of that little-known part of the world, where, at the time of the con quest of Peru by the Spaniards, there existed the most thoroughly organized, most widely administered, and most ex tensive empire of aboriginal America. To lend an additionally picturesque In terest to the study of the remains of that vanished civilization, there are enormous burled treasures of gold and sliver, which the Incas concealed to prevent them from falling Into the hands of the Span lards. Some nf the tales of these treas ures are doubtless myths, but certainly not all. One Is at liberty to deem either true or false the story which attaches to the lake of Urcos. sixty miles southeast of Cuzro. Small but deep. Its bed like the crater of a volcano, it has no out let, but repeated unsuccessful attempts have been made to drain It, In order to recover tlie golden chain of Huayna Capac. This chain, according to tradl tlon. was of the thickness nf a man s arm. and long enough to extend twice around the great square of Cuzco. Wealth la Historical. The enormous accumulations of prec lous metals possessed by the Incas are matter of undoubted history. When Cuzon. the ancient capital, was looted by the Invaders, the great statue of the sun god, taken from Its temple, fell to the lot of the Conquistador Legulzano, who gambled it away before morning. From the celebrated shrine of Pachaeamac (the mecra of the ancient Peruvian re ligion! the Spaniards took away, accord Ing to their own account, about 1,700 pounds weight of gold, together with an Immense quantity of sliver, without discovering the hiding place of 2S.009 pounds of the two metals, somewhere be tween Pachaeamac and Lima, twenty miles to the north. Peru, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, embraced not only the country now called by that name, but also Ecua dor. Bolivia, and Chile. It extended from the fourth degree of latitude above the equator to the thirty-fourth parallel of south latitude a distance of approximate ly 3.0M miles. With an average width of 400 miles (west to the Pacific Ocean ani.easi into me .mszoman vaneysi, its are wait ovr l.nin.OiO square miles, or equal to that of the whole United Statea east of the Mississippi River. Close along the Pacific shore of .South America there runs for thousands of miles a mighty ranee of mountains, upon the feet of which the ocean waves may actually be said to break. Further in land are the yet loftier Andes, and be tween the latter and the coast range above described Is a long and relatively narrow plateau, three miles above the level of the sea. Upon this plateau was developed the most ancient American civ ilization a civilization the origin of which Is to-day wholly a mystery, though the presumption is that It was derived from somewhere in Asia. Warsa in Valleys. At such an elevation the climate Is nec essarily very cold. But scattered over the plateau are numerous, cup-shaped valleys, which enjoy relatively mild tem peratures. Thus Cuzco has a delightful climate (being In the tropics), and with in twenty miles are other and deeper valleys wherein 'semi-tropical fruits are grown. The word Cuzco means "navel" the city being the very center of the ancient Peruvian empire. When the monarchs of Mild made It their place of residence, the city was strongly fortified, and was connected with the four divisions of the four great roads, constructed tor military purposes, to enable large bodies of troops to be moved expeditiously. Cuzco occupies the contra 1 one of a group of cup-shaped valleys (originally lake-beds, doubtless), and the most eas ily defensible from a military standpoint the valleys In question being separated from each other by relatively low passes between the mountains. Here were the palaces of the monarchs: also immense structures in which festivals were held: and, most Important of all, the religious edifices the convent of the Virgins of the Sun, and the gorgeous Temple of the Sun, with chapels sacred to the moon, stars, &c. The Temple of the Sun at Cuzco was In Its day the most Imposing structure in all America. The Spaniards wrote that there was nothing finer to be seen In all Europe. Rectangular In shape. It Inclosed a court, into which opened lH i-JKVJr, .w&irva Wf&i'S'lPi ',v,ii';v,""n "h kiJMs1 Vilxl" it) 1 stv ual Trfclafc ati-eagHolds, among them I kit. - a number of chapels dedicated to the sacred objects of Peruvian worship, and from it fell off a series of terraces down to the river below, forming the famous Gardens of the Sun. The inner walls were plated with gold, and at jme end of the temple proper (which occupied one side of the court!, was a huge plate of gold, representing the sun. On the other sides were the chapels of the Moon. Venus, the Pleiades, the Thunder, the Lightning, and the Rainbow. There were also apartments for the priests, and a large room for the supreme pontiff. Largest I.ake In World. A journey of about 200 miles southward from Cuzco brings the traveler to the northern shore of one of the largest bodies of fresh water In the world the celebrated Lake Titicaca. which, of a very Irregular oial shape. Is 1 miles in length. It has eight Islands, the largest of which Is the sacred Island of ancient Peru. To it the Incas traced their origin. For here it was that Manco Capac and Mama Ocllo. children of the Sun, were commissioned by that luminary to go forth and Instruct in arts, religion, and government the savage tribes which at that time occupied the country. On this Island are still to be seen the remains of a temple of the Sun. as well ss the ruins of a royal palace and other once-magnificent buildings. At the north end is a rock the most sacred spot In all Peru. Upon It (according to the an cient belief) no bird would alight or anl ma! venture, nor human being dare to place his foot. Tradition said that its hollows gave to tbe children of the Sun their first shelter after their arrival on the earth. To-day It bears the aspect of nothing more than a weather-worm mass of red sandstone, but In early days It was plated all over with gold and silver, and was covered, except on oc casions of most solemn festival, with a veil of cloth of richest color and ma terial. Six miles distant la the Island of Coatl. sacred to the Moon (the wife of the Sunt, on which Is the palace of the Virgins of the Sun one of the best preserved and most remarkable remnants of aboriginal architecture on tills continent. Within It are two chambers, which contained, reepeetlvelj". the golden statue of the Sun and the silver statue of the Moon, which were unveiled on occasions when the people came to worship. There still remain the walls of an Interior court wherein the vestals wove garments of vicuna wool for Peruvian royalty, for the high priests, and for themselves, as well as hangings for the holy temples. Meern of Pilgrims. Coati was second only to the It-land of the Sun (already described) as a re sort for pious pilgrims, who came from all parts of the empire, bringlng'oft'erlngs of vicuna and alnaca wool, as well as the feathers of beautiful birds, to lie worked up by the busy v-rglns Also..,nca. was dealt out a, the people re fer the priests, who attended to tl.- b.isi- ,.;,, lt. A for the v!cun tt ness of praying for the crops, they fl-. . ,h. .. ,.. ., , ,'" ""iSLrt.-'iiSLISlf j .V v. . VT .. fji. i. i . y r ,' V ailiiiAl. vt'l ll. al is n ifllUfl t lj J'llllt-, this Island of the Moon. In front of the Palace ,of the Virgins extends magnificent esplanada. from which a se rles of terraces (planted anciently withiwere in the Bronze Age. Their knives! flowers) descends to the water's edge. 'needles, erwarnolnts. lances, an.i .T.-. Thence one may behold one of the mosttvar clubs wer of bronze. The remark- superb views In all the world. Illampu, the "crown of the Andes." upligiitlng in tile background Its summits covered with everlasting snow. South of Lake Titicaca is a vast plain, scattered over which are found the re mains of what appears to be a civiliza tion antedating even that of the Incas. From some of the ruin has been obtain ed the bulk of the material for the build ing of the city of La Paz. the capital of Bolivia, which is situated in a deep val ley sixty miles away. So ancient was this civilization that it seems actunlU- to have disappeared be fore that of tne Incas began. The Peru vian natives. Indeed, told thrt Spanish in vaders that it had existed "before the sun "sho'ne in the heavens." Strangest of all. It was aparently superior, if any thing, to the Inca culture that succeed ed it. Beyond Modern Engineers. Nowhere else in the world arc stones to be found cut with such mathematical precision. Some of them are twenty-five feet lone and fifteen feet wide, and are fastened together with pins and T-clamps of bronze. How they were cut. or by what means transported and put in place. Is a mystery. One of the most Important buildings is known to-day as the Fort ress. The stones composing the floor ef its principal room, known as the Hall of Justice (whatever Its real use may have been), were so massive that modern engi neers were unable to remove them bodily, and so blew them up with gunpowder. carrying off many of the elaborately-cut fragments to pave the cathedral of La Paz. Tradition states that beneath the build ing are great vaults filled with treasure, and that here begins a subterranean passage which leads all the way to Cuzco. more than 400 miles distant. Near by there was a temple, as well as other huge edifices, comprising architectural re mains' as stupendous and admirable as those of Assyria. .Egypt. Greece, or Rome. It Is historically related that one of Plzarro's pilots asked him for the nails and tacks which suporte-1 the plates of silver bearing the sacred name on the walls of the Temple of the Sun at Pach aeamac the holy city twenty miles from Lima. So trifling a request was granted as a matter of course, hut the silver thus obtained by the shrewd pilot amount to no less than CC0O ourfces. All of that neighborhood is one vast cemetery, tlie dead being buned tn stratum on stratum to save space, mostly in link- vaults roofed witli sticks and rus-hes. and of a size to contain four or five bodies, al ways -In a siting posture, enveloped in wrappings. Sometlme-j ornaments of gold and silver are found buried with the bodies. Ruins of Temple. A short distance to the south of Lima are the ruins of a temple which is said to have been hardly less rich in gold and silver than the shrine of Pachaeamac Here there was an oracular idol called Rlmac meaning "He who speaks." It was hollow, so as to afford room for oc cupancy by a priest, who responded to questions asked by believers coming for advice and offering suitable gifts. From this .divinity, through a corruption of speellng. the city of Lima takes Its name. There Is good reason to believe that the earliest Inca rulers, occupying, to start with the cup-shaped valley of Cuzco, gradually extended their sway from val- I ley to valley by a process of progressiva conquest. At length they came to the 'AMd . ot the Chlrous, ths center of whose power was near Truxlllo. and found them selves opposed by a people quite aa war like as themselves, and even more ad vanced In soma respects. History records that YupanquL son of the ninth Inca. demanded that the Chlmu King should become a vassal of the Inca. and aban don, the worship of fishes and other ani mals. A -defiance being; returned, a great bat-; tie followed. In which Yupanqul was Tie' torious. To confirm tlie story, ths sandy soil of the ancient battlefield Is found to-day literally "stuffed" with skeletons all of adult men. and mostly bearing marks of violence, such as cloven or battered skulls. This Is near a ruined fortress. Inside of which Is a cemetery containing none but the skeletons ofi young girls, carefully wrapped In finol cotton cloth. Population Overestimated. It Is believed that estimates of thai population of ancient Peru have been greatly exaggerated. In all likelihood It did not exceed 10W,0C0. The people were under the average height, of a light copper color. Industrious and war like. The Inca. so called, was the head) of the government, and an absolute des pot. But the system seems to have been a benevolent despotism on the whole, one) of its essential features being the re quirement that each Individual should own a portion of land. The entire coun try waa divided Into three parts one for the Sun. another for the Inca. and the third for the people. This, being trans lated, meant that one-third of the in come of the state was expended in sup-j porting the established religion; one-third maintained the government, and the re maining third was for the use and bene fit of the commonalty. Scattered up and down the country were granaries. Into which were gathered all sorts, of agricultural products, to be dealt ul tu me icuiiic hb iiiej were rpquiren. i food. In a wild state no bigger than a hazelnut. It was developed In ancient Peru Into as fine a tuber as the best system of modern gardening knows. Of corn thera were at least thirty distinct varieties, i each valley having its own kind. In the! valley of the Plura River was grown a, peculiar kind of cotton, so like unto wool as to bs scarcely' distinguishable from the latter. Within the last few years, by the way. this "wool cotton." as It Is called, has come Into extensive, use for making women's fine "merino" underwear and stockings. On the pampas along the east shore of rake Titicaca the aboriginal herders pastured their flocks of alpacas. Just as they do to-day. The ancient Peruvians dressed In garments of alpaca wool, which was made Into yarns and fabrics of varying degrees of fineness. It Is a beautiful animal. When the young on Is a year old its wool is a foot long and as soft and fine as silk. The llama was likewise domesticated, partly for Its wool, but mainly to carry burdens. It was. In fact, the only lieast of burden employed In the New World up to the tim- of the Introduction of European civilization. To kill one was punishable death. At Intervals the Hmss and alpacas were collected and shorn, and hi U rtrtT trMoh yteam ,& ....... . .1 I"'-. .? " " " W.1 Wood was" petmitted to use it save onlv the high Pnesn and vestals of the Sun. Aborigines In Bronte Age. Th ancient Permlans. at the time of the discovery of America hv Cnlumtit! able bronze pins and T-clamps used for fastening stones together were a pro etution against the overthrow of bulld irgs by earthquakes, which in that part of the world are frequent and severe. In the sciences these people of antiquity seem to have leen considerably ad vanced. They had observatories for as tronomical purposes, with cylindrical columns whose shadows were used for sujustlng the calendar. Apparently the knew the law- (as the Romans did not 1 which causes water to seek Its own level. and utilized this knowledge to carry water below the bed of the river at Cr.zco by inverted siphons to supply th great temple and some of the palaces. The climate In that part of tlie world is so dry that there Is no putrefaction. Walled up in caves or buried In the sands, bodies thousands of years old arc to-day In as perfect a state of preservation as the mummies of ancient Egypt. In fact, they are natural mummies. Amongsthe mest curious and Interest ing objects found with such mummies are toilet impllments and accessories used by young women of Peru in prehistoric times. These include short lengths of hollow bird-bones, made to serve as bot tles by stopping them with wads of cot ton, and containing various pigments. There are also cotton "dabs." for apply ing the pigments to the face. A small stone with a cup-shaped hollow on ths upper side. In which Ms a round stona answering for pestle, shown how the pig ments In question were ground fresh when wanted. Hut how did the Peruvian belle of long ago get on without a mirror. In which to see her pretty face? Th answer is that her mirror was a piece ofi iron pyrites, the shape of half an egg. with the flat side highly polished. BEXB 11ACHC Pictures of Galloping Homes. From thj Tall Mali (.(.lette. The tongue hanging from a gallopin-f horse's wide-open mouth, which a corre spondent has added to the list of "funny things" for which artists are responsible, might be supplemented by another quito impossible posture usually given by art ists to a. galloping horse. Thousands of pictures exist In our galleries showinir horses at full gallop with the front legs extended forward and the hind legs ex tended backward, and no one ever sus pected anything wrong with these repre sentations of galloping horses until In stantaneous photography made visible movements quite beyond the power of the human eye. A series of cinematog raphic photographs of a galloping horse, if shown slowly on the screen, would astonish most people. Each time all the legs were seen off the ground they would be actually folded tip under tha animal's body and the artistic full stretch gallop would never once mate rialize. Carrier Pigeons. Firm th London Chronicle. Pigeon racing, in which some of tho most important of the year's events are Just now being held. Is a comparatively recent sport. For though the use of homing pigeons for carrying messages Is as old as Noah, and the birds wers. used to carry home the names of tha winners of the Olympic games to tha cities of ancient Greece, pigeon radng did not begin until 1S18, with a match ot ICO miles In Belgium. Three years later saw a race from London to Belgium, where the sport still enjoys Its greatest popularity. The first regular races in England took place in. ISS1. tha birds flying to London from Exater. XljnMatlii and Penxanoa, t V MMMmMdMMM y ZlP, .3SSga.fca; WSS'.irf.i .... K. 3ij.i,T i2Hl&M&--?, tsengAt-M; ? -i i f K' "W .-nr s.