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The Washington herald. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1906-1939, November 03, 1912, MAGAZINE SECTION, Image 29

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SH. W. Belnap, Special Investigator, Tells of
Work Being Done to Safeguard Lives
of Traveling Public Trainmen
Blamed for Carelessness.
Thirty-one wide-awake and seasoned
(nen are helping to make traveling- on
railroads safe In the United States. The
public rarely hears any of their name!
yet they are officer of the national kov
ernment and some of them are usually
present before the wreckage of an acci
dent has been gathered up and carried
Officially, these men are known as In
specters of safety-appliances. Under the
law -they are expected to note whether
railroads are working their employes
more than sixteen hours a day and It
their cars are equipped with self-couplers
, and their .trains freight aid passenger
(with automatic brakes. The Invesuga
jtlon of accidents, also. Is an Important
I part of their business.
I Two Inspectors are permanently sta
tioned in each of the fourteen districts
which stretch across snd up and down
,the country. They read the newspapers
for reports of bad accidents and when
one occurs they hasten to the scene and
get the facts, shielding no one. neither
the railroad nor Its trainmen, switchmen,
or telegraphers If found culpable. Often
they are ordered Into action by a tele
gram from Washington. Among them are
those who have been locomotive engi
neers, conductors, superintendents, train
dispatchers, and trainmasters. At a re
cent civil service examination of men
hopeful of becoming inspectors, only forty
one passed out of about 900 applicants.
Over the inspectors and chief among
them in skilL activity and Intelligence Is
H. W. Belnap. once a telegrapher and J
later a brakeman and a conductor. An
inspector must have had eight years of
practical experience on a railway. Mr.
Belnap came to his office after a service
of fourteen years on the Big Four be
tween Indianapolis and St. Louis. From
the track and from the train he brought
to his work an every-day knowledge of
signals, of time tables, and of rules and
orders and likewise of the human ele
ments which must be reckoned with In
the operation of railroads. He Is a com
pact and hearty man and goes straight
to the point of everything. His eyes are
keen, his mind is quick, and he can talk
like a lawyer when such language is nec
essary. TUe Causes of Accident.
"That Is a big and disputed question,"
he answered, when I asked him to name
the principal causes of accidents on rail
roads. "My own opinion is that most ac
cidents are traceable to man himself,
rather than to machinery, broken rails
and defects In roadbeds. We print a bul
letin every three months giving the facts
about serious casualties. Here are the
bulletins covering six mo'rftbs of last year
nnd the first quarter of this year. Co
through them and you will find the de
tailed reports of forty-eight accidents,
thirty-two of which were collisions and
twenty-three of the thirty-two were head
end collisions. Orders were disobeyed, or
wrongly given, or signals wore disregard
ed. Only man is censurable under such
"The bulletins contain reports of none
but the worst accidents. There were
many more collisions during the period
1 have mentioned. Indeed there were 1.
1171 accidents of that kind during the first
three months of this year. Men grow
careless or they try to make up lost
time and trains come together. Then
there are hundreds of derailments every
year rails of car wheels break or the
tracks give way in weak spots. The
I.ehigh Valley wreck near Manchaster.
X. Y in which twenty-nine persons were
killed and sixty-two Injured, was occa
sioned by a new rail that was defectively
"Against my off-hand views on the sub
ject of accidents, I am willing to put the
sworn testimony of F. C. Rice, general
inspector of transportation on the Chi
cago. Burlington and Quincy Railroad,
who has said that 'excessive speed was
the cause of about 75 or SO per cent of the
catastropliies In the last few years.' I .
quote Mr. Rice because he is accurate,
technically. Every man In the train serv
ice of a railroad is geared up to his
highest speed physically and mentally.
The boy who calls a trainman out of bed
Is In a hurry. From the time he gets
up until he is through with his work
the trainman Is pushed by spoken word
and orders by telegraph. Americans In
all walks of life are speed crazy. More
over, I want to say right here that the
railroad managers themselves sensation
ally demonstrated to the public that the
1.00(1 miles between New York and Chicago
could be traveled In eighteen hours. The
people didn't know anything about it un
til they saw it done.
All Trnlna nn High Gear.
"The price of speed, of course. Is loss
of limb, disfigurement or death, to say
nothing of the destruction of property.
The contagion, logically, has got In
among the freights. On a road in the
Middle 'West, the other da-, a freight In
Tour long sections passed a telegraph sta
tion Inside of eighteen minutes and as a
result one of them ran over another. The
figures for last year show that one pas
senger was killed every twenty-five hours
and one employe every three hours on
the railroads of the United States in train
accidents. Ono passenger was injured
every thirty-nine minutes and one employe
every eleven minutes. Only accidents
which cause the death or Injury of one
or more persons or a property loss of JIM
are reported to the Interstate Commerce
Commission. We know that during the
past twenty-tour years 1SS.0J7 persons-
passengers, railway workers, and tres
passershave been killed on our railroads
and that 1,395,618 have been Injured, which
tiieans an annual average of 7.SS killed,
and 5S.130 Injured, a dally average of 181
killed or Injured or, refining the figures
further, one person every seven minutes.
Night and day, year In and year out
death goes walking about.
"The facts are terrible, I admit, but to
those who understand the situation the
wonder is that conditions are no worse.
We sentimentalize about the engineer but
do we actually know what he Is doing in
the cab of a locomotive that Is hauling
the Pennsylvania Special or the Twen
tieth Century Limited? Running at sixty
miles an hour, in a driving storm of snow
or rain or in a fog, he can only see a
short car-length ahead. He must read
and determine each of the signals he
passes inside of half a second. During
clear -weather be can look ahead and In
terpret the signal 'as be approaches It,
but even so he has the busiest and most
nerve-racking Job on earth.
The Engineer In His Cab.
"Let us Imagine that the day or night
is quiet and light and then let us look
at the engineman while he Is at his work.
'. Ufa hand, of course, is at the throttle. He
frxils tha signals aa they flash by.'keeps to the fifteenth or the twenty-fourth tala
t his nlnd on his watch, listen to learn graph pole from tha last ear of Us train.
lt tha machinery la coins; all right, studies 'Whether he gom'm. nSdest dlttanee,' la
the tracks, remembers the schedule bo
as not to go through stations ahead of
time, and is careful to note whether there
is plenty of water in the boiler. If be
turns for an Instant to look at his water
glass be may miss a warning and run
over a' train going in tbe same direc
tion. "In the meanwhile his fireman is spad
ing coal 4nto the furnace sometimes ten
tons to a trip and can give him no help.
A fireman was once asked by an official
of the commission how often he .bent his
back from the time he climbed Into his
engine until he climbed down. 'Just once.'
the fireman replied. Besides the engine
man must watch country crossings for
buggies and wagons and look out for
pedestrians, mostly tramps, who are walk
ing the tracks. Moreover, men and even
women and children pour In and out of
factories all along the way, using the
railroad because" it is the short cut to
their homes and their work.
"Into this tangle of duties, responsibil
ities snd absent-minded humsn beings
the engineer flings himself and his train
and be must be a man of Iron to stand
the strain. It Is 118 miles between Syra
cuse and Albany. At an Investigation of
an accident It was brought out that some
of the trains on the New Tork Central
go the distance In 162 minutes, passing 256
signals, or one every thirty-five seconds.
Suppose It Is a greasy day or a blinding
storm is raging at night! And you must
recollect that the engineer who can't
bring his train in on time must give an
explanation. Any railroad man is profes
sionally disgraced. In his own opinion,
at least, when he hears some such ver
dict against himself as. 'Bill Is a steady
old scout, but he Is nearly always behind
his watch.'
The Risks Railroader. Take.
Why were you late at Squash Junc
tion?- a conductor Is asked by wire. Pos
sibly the superintendent Is only seeking In
formation, but the conductor reads a re
buke Into the question and an hour lat
er may take a chance that piles him up
in the ditch or slams him head-on Into
another engine. And it should be under
stood that trainmen are paid by the mile.
and like other people, want to bustle along
and get through with their work. Natur
ally, too, .some of them become care
less. Nor is it realized that the most ob
scure switchman on the line has his own
individual obligation to safeguard the
fast and luxurious special that steams
dally through the yards where he Is em
ployed. I'd teach railroad men their ac
countability to one another and to the
public A broken ladder on a freight car
in Chicago, It not reported, may cause
tbe death of a brakeman in Pittsburg.
It is a common practice for switchmen to
stand In the center of the track, face to
ward an approaching engine, and nimbly
get on the engine by way of the pilot.
"All cars are now equipped with self
couplers still S7 men were killed or injur
ed last year while adjusting couplers with
their feet as the cars came together. The
cars would Have coupled mechanically:
kicking was wholly unnecessary. It is
these little unnecessary risks that habit
uate men to take all kinds of chances
and some day a passenger train goes into
a siding and is ground to pieces. All
railroaders, from the Italian who repairs
the roadbed to the president of the com
pany, should have the fact driven Into
their heads and then clinched that they
are the custodians of the lives of hun
dreds of human beings. That, It seems to
me. Is the first principle of railroading.
Furthermore, the railroad Is no place for
booze lighters, poker players, dreamers or
reckless lads who like to experiment with
hazards. The service calls for steady, re
liable and conscientious men and for In
telligent men whose minds act Instantly
and accurately."
The Speed of American 1 rains.
"Should passenger trains be permitted
to run at a speed of fifty miles an hour?'
I asked.
"No person in the world," Mr. Belnap
replied, "can give an answer to such a
question and make it of general applica
tion. Fifty miles on some roads may be
oarer than thirty miles on other roads
it Is a matter of roadbed, weight of rails,
cars, signals, and management. Very few
American trains, however, reach an aver
age of fifty miles an hour. The fastest of
the extra-fare specials between New York
and Chicago average fifty-four miles for
the trip, but at places reach the speed
of eighty-five miles. But those are the
most scientifically operated trains In the
country they are operated for speed and
for safety and steel cars give some as
surance that the worst thing which can
be Imagined won't happen even If a rail
gives way or a wheel breaks down In the
middle. Steel cars, I want to say, are a
great protection to life, as was shown on
the Fourth of July, this year, near East
Corning, N. Y. A standing train of one
buffet car, seven sleeping cars, and two
day coaches,, all made of wood, but one
of the coaches, which was the second car
from the end of the train, was run Into
by an express going at a high rate of
speed. Thirty-nine passengers were killed
and eighty-six passengers and two em
ployes were Injured. The wooden coach
was pounded Into splinters. The steel
coach was bent at the ends, and after
telescoping the sleeper Just ahead for
two-thirds of its length, was torn from its
trucks and turned over. Only two fatal
ities occurred In this car. It was placed
on new wheels and was sound enoua-h to
be taken to the repair shops. The wooden
coach and sleeping car. or what remain
ed of them, were gathered no and de
stroyed by fire at the side of tjje track.
Hon- Trains Are Protected.
"What are the duties of a flagman?"
"You have touched another great sub
ject connected with the safe running of
trains," Mr. Belnap said with energy.
"The duties of flagmen have not been
standardized, that is to say. rules govern
ing them are not the same on all roads.
A flagman Is supposed to be a trained
and careful man, the best brakeman, in
deed, on the train. I have known cases,
however, where green hands were given
the job. Theoretically, and actually on
some lines, a flagman Is only required to
protect his train against rear-end col
lisions. On the other roads flagmen are
also brakemen. When a train stops, if
tbe stop is not on the schedule of that
particular train, the flagman is required
to go back 'a sufficient distance' and.
with a lantern by night and a flag by -day.
together with torpedoes or fuses; signal
any other train that is going the same
way, and on the same' track.
"The words, "a sufficient distance. Smt-
mlt the flagman to use his own Judgment
and the'phrase is found in the rules of a
great many railroads, big- one aa well aa
lime ones, -mere are roads, however.
which direct that a flagman shall go back
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his opinion, or for a specified distance,
measured by poles, he Is to stop any
train that Jeopardizes his own. When his
train is ready to move, the engineer sig
nals him In with a whistle and then he
sprints over the ties ns fast as he can.
leaving. It is supposed, one or two torpe
does on the rails behind.
"The flagman, the engineer, and the
conductor are In a hurry. Time is so
precious with them that every fraction
of a minute counts. The farther the
flagman walks away from his train, the
farther he will have to run when he re
turns. 1o is a human being like the rest
of us. Maybe the sun Is pretty hot- Per
haps it is a cold or rainy night. And 'a
suflli-Ient distance' gives him latitude in a
matter of life or death! Many a flagman
has wrecked a train.
-Where One Flaamnn Failed.
"The flagman of the Overland Express,
on the Chicago. Burlington and Quincy
Railroad, was to blame, primarily, for the
accident at "Western 8rrings, 111., on the
14th of List July. The train was stopped
by signal early during the morning in a
fog. It was being followed by the Fast
Mail. The trains, so our investigation
showed, were about nine minutes apart.
The flagman, at the official hearing of the
case, said that he went back as far as he
could and that he ran part of the way.
He put down two torpedoes, ijno feet
from the rear end of his own train. On
his way back, the Fast Mail passed him
at fifty miles an hour, and a moment
later ran Into the Overland Express, which
had not begun to move, killing eleven
passengers and two employes, and In
juring twenty-six passengers and two em
"The trains, remember, had been about
nine minutes apart. In a test, after the
accident, it was found that a flagman, at
a brisk walk, could have gone back 2.177
feet In six minutes. It was learned, also,
that the flagman of the Overland Express
put two torpedoes on the rail, which was
simply a cautionary signal, whereas he
should have used but one torpedo, which
would have been a signal for the Fast
Mall to stop.
"There should be drastic and plain rules
governing the conduct of flagmen. Under
the most favorable circumstances of day
light and a straight track, they should be
required to go back not less than iOOO
feet and when signaled In should Invari
ably leave torpedoes on the track. Trains
on the way would be slowed down In con
sequence and trains waiting for the re
turn of flagmen would be delayed in get
ting started again, but safety to life and
property would be Increased. Torpedoes
are not always used, simply because it
takes a little time to place them on the
rail. The engineman has blown his whis
tle, the conductor. Is impatiently looking
down the line and the flagman, catching
the first note of the signal, beats It back
as quickly as his legs will carry him.
And death. In many Instances, is thereby
Invited to take his sickle In hand and go to
How Travel Can Be Made Safe.
"Summed up." Mr. Belnap went on to
say, "the safety of travel depends funda
mentally on a realization by railroad men,
from the highest to the lowest, that they
are the guardians of the lives of those
w ;Nkia'aaUlanr
wafca-re the
-KmtKHisea- nigarlaa
who travel In their trains and also of
the lives of their comrades: next, on plain
and workable rules, enforced to the latter
with penalties attached for disobedience,
not after the disaster, hut before It hap
pens, and lastly, on a reasonable reduc
tion of speed, both of engines and of
"As I said at the start, much depends
on the individual employe. Block signals
should be on every American railroad,
but they have to be "worked in conjunc
tion with men with Intelligent, nlert. and
conscientious men otherwise they are of
little value. It Is natural. I suppose, for
most people to oppose progress. If It were
not so, we might go forward too fast and
bring on trouble. The suggestions I liavo
made with respect to safety may not be
acceptable In same quarters, but they will
b adopted finally. I believe. It was de
clared that railroads could not be oper
ated If the law said no man unless there
Were An srrlnn nn thj. Iln np mnrmm nfli
act of God causing delay should work
for more than sixteen hours contlmiously
l have been out on the road for fifty
hours at a stretch without sieen or rest.
I have seen flagmen doze standing up
with lanterns in their hands. In the old
days, engineers often napped at their
posts. Rut the slxteen-hour law came
and ii has actually been an economic bene
fit H. the railroads themselves. In 189J.
the number of tons carried by the rail
roads for each trainman was u.0K: In 151 1,
it was 8.041. Moreover, there has been an
Increase In tlie number of train miles run
by each trainman employed. Then. too.
the preventable dangers of accidents have
been lessened.
The outlawing of the link and pin. bit
terly fought, and the unwilling adoption of
automatic couplers revolutionized our
system of transportation. Links and nins
could not hold a modern 7,000-ton train to
gether. The safety-appliance law of 1S33
was vigorously opposed, but It was a
financial blessing to the railroads and of
Immense commercial and industrial value
to the country."
(Corrnitit, llt by June B. Morrow.)
Morgan Likes Old Photos Best.
J. P. Morgan's reluctance for posing
for the camera was explained by Fred
erick Gutekunst. the well-known artist
and photographer, who celebrated his
clghty-flrst birthday In his studio at
work. Speaking of some of the noted
men whom he has snapped. Mr. Gunte
kunst told some delightful stories of Gen.
Grant. Wu Ting-fang. Phillips Brooks.
Henry W. Longfellow. Walt Whitman,
and Edwin Booth.
Looking at one of the old portraits of
Mr. Morgan, the aged artist said:
"It Is not that 3Ir. Morgan hates pho
tographers, but that lie imagines that
he Is not as good looking as he was
years ago. He wishes his old pictures
preserved for future use and taken for
the correct likeness of himself as he Is
to-day, rather than pictures that show
the change that has come over his face
in later years."
It Is not an uncommon thing, accord
ing to the photographer, for him to re
ceive an order for one of Mr. Morgan's
old photographs, whereupon he Is com
pelled to touclv It up and make It as
modern as possible.
Uraat tne U tfce esn-stssraaf ae -
la atraad advaace, c-talyped wMh'faa cfek
Dr. Hiram Bingham Starts for Plateau of Titicaca, in
Peru Important Archaelogical Discoveries Ex
pected in Realm ot Ancient Incas.
Dr. Hiram Bingham, backed by $15,000
from Yale College and I1O.0OO -from the
National Geographical Society. Is now
starting- on his return to what has been
called the "Thibet of America" I. e., the
plateau of Titicaca, the most wonderful
unexplored region In the new world,
where was developed the ancient civiliza
tion of the Incas.
Dr. Bingham's recent discovery, at
Cuzco. of a human skeleton of ' great
antiquity supposed to lie anywhere from
40.000 to 60,000 years old. Judging from
tlie geological formation in which It was
found has stimulated Interest In the ex
ploration of that little-known part of
the world, where, at the time of the con
quest of Peru by the Spaniards, there
existed the most thoroughly organized,
most widely administered, and most ex
tensive empire of aboriginal America.
To lend an additionally picturesque In
terest to the study of the remains of that
vanished civilization, there are enormous
burled treasures of gold and sliver, which
the Incas concealed to prevent them
from falling Into the hands of the Span
lards. Some nf the tales of these treas
ures are doubtless myths, but certainly
not all. One Is at liberty to deem either
true or false the story which attaches to
the lake of Urcos. sixty miles southeast
of Cuzro. Small but deep. Its bed like
the crater of a volcano, it has no out
let, but repeated unsuccessful attempts
have been made to drain It, In order to
recover tlie golden chain of Huayna
Capac. This chain, according to tradl
tlon. was of the thickness nf a man s
arm. and long enough to extend twice
around the great square of Cuzco.
Wealth la Historical.
The enormous accumulations of prec
lous metals possessed by the Incas are
matter of undoubted history. When
Cuzon. the ancient capital, was looted by
the Invaders, the great statue of the sun
god, taken from Its temple, fell to the
lot of the Conquistador Legulzano, who
gambled it away before morning. From
the celebrated shrine of Pachaeamac
(the mecra of the ancient Peruvian re
ligion! the Spaniards took away, accord
Ing to their own account, about 1,700
pounds weight of gold, together with
an Immense quantity of sliver, without
discovering the hiding place of 2S.009
pounds of the two metals, somewhere be
tween Pachaeamac and Lima, twenty
miles to the north.
Peru, at the beginning of the sixteenth
century, embraced not only the country
now called by that name, but also Ecua
dor. Bolivia, and Chile. It extended from
the fourth degree of latitude above the
equator to the thirty-fourth parallel of
south latitude a distance of approximate
ly 3.0M miles. With an average width
of 400 miles (west to the Pacific Ocean
ani.easi into me .mszoman vaneysi, its
are wait ovr l.nin.OiO square miles, or
equal to that of the whole United Statea
east of the Mississippi River.
Close along the Pacific shore of .South
America there runs for thousands of
miles a mighty ranee of mountains, upon
the feet of which the ocean waves may
actually be said to break. Further in
land are the yet loftier Andes, and be
tween the latter and the coast range
above described Is a long and relatively
narrow plateau, three miles above the
level of the sea. Upon this plateau was
developed the most ancient American civ
ilization a civilization the origin of
which Is to-day wholly a mystery, though
the presumption is that It was derived
from somewhere in Asia.
Warsa in Valleys.
At such an elevation the climate Is nec
essarily very cold. But scattered over
the plateau are numerous, cup-shaped
valleys, which enjoy relatively mild tem
peratures. Thus Cuzco has a delightful
climate (being In the tropics), and with
in twenty miles are other and deeper
valleys wherein 'semi-tropical fruits are
The word Cuzco means "navel" the
city being the very center of the ancient
Peruvian empire. When the monarchs
of Mild made It their place of residence,
the city was strongly fortified, and was
connected with the four divisions of the
four great roads, constructed tor military
purposes, to enable large bodies of troops
to be moved expeditiously.
Cuzco occupies the contra 1 one of a
group of cup-shaped valleys (originally
lake-beds, doubtless), and the most eas
ily defensible from a military standpoint
the valleys In question being separated
from each other by relatively low passes
between the mountains. Here were the
palaces of the monarchs: also immense
structures in which festivals were held:
and, most Important of all, the religious
edifices the convent of the Virgins of the
Sun, and the gorgeous Temple of the
Sun, with chapels sacred to the moon,
stars, &c.
The Temple of the Sun at Cuzco was
In Its day the most Imposing structure
in all America. The Spaniards wrote
that there was nothing finer to be seen
In all Europe. Rectangular In shape.
It Inclosed a court, into which opened
Vilxl" it) 1
ual Trfclafc ati-eagHolds, among them I
kit. -
a number of chapels dedicated to the
sacred objects of Peruvian worship, and
from it fell off a series of terraces down
to the river below, forming the famous
Gardens of the Sun. The inner walls
were plated with gold, and at jme end
of the temple proper (which occupied
one side of the court!, was a huge plate
of gold, representing the sun. On the
other sides were the chapels of the
Moon. Venus, the Pleiades, the Thunder,
the Lightning, and the Rainbow. There
were also apartments for the priests, and
a large room for the supreme pontiff.
Largest I.ake In World.
A journey of about 200 miles southward
from Cuzco brings the traveler to the
northern shore of one of the largest
bodies of fresh water In the world the
celebrated Lake Titicaca. which, of a
very Irregular oial shape. Is 1 miles in
length. It has eight Islands, the largest
of which Is the sacred Island of ancient
Peru. To it the Incas traced their origin.
For here it was that Manco Capac and
Mama Ocllo. children of the Sun, were
commissioned by that luminary to go
forth and Instruct in arts, religion, and
government the savage tribes which at
that time occupied the country.
On this Island are still to be seen the
remains of a temple of the Sun. as well
ss the ruins of a royal palace and other
once-magnificent buildings. At the north
end is a rock the most sacred spot In
all Peru. Upon It (according to the an
cient belief) no bird would alight or anl
ma! venture, nor human being dare to
place his foot. Tradition said that its
hollows gave to tbe children of the Sun
their first shelter after their arrival on
the earth. To-day It bears the aspect
of nothing more than a weather-worm
mass of red sandstone, but In early days
It was plated all over with gold and
silver, and was covered, except on oc
casions of most solemn festival, with a
veil of cloth of richest color and ma
terial. Six miles distant la the Island of Coatl.
sacred to the Moon (the wife of the Sunt,
on which Is the palace of the Virgins of
the Sun one of the best preserved and
most remarkable remnants of aboriginal
architecture on tills continent. Within
It are two chambers, which contained,
reepeetlvelj". the golden statue of the
Sun and the silver statue of the Moon,
which were unveiled on occasions when
the people came to worship. There still
remain the walls of an Interior court
wherein the vestals wove garments of
vicuna wool for Peruvian royalty, for
the high priests, and for themselves, as
well as hangings for the holy temples.
Meern of Pilgrims.
Coati was second only to the It-land
of the Sun (already described) as a re
sort for pious pilgrims, who came from
all parts of the empire, bringlng'oft'erlngs
of vicuna and alnaca wool, as well as
the feathers of beautiful birds, to lie
worked up by the busy v-rglns Also..,nca. was dealt out a, the people re
fer the priests, who attended to tl.- b.isi- ,.;,, lt. A for the v!cun tt
ness of praying for the crops, they fl-. . ,h. .. ,.. ., , ,'"
j .V v. . VT ..
fji. i. i . y r ,' V
ailiiiAl. vt'l ll. al is n ifllUfl t lj J'llllt-,
this Island of the Moon. In front of
the Palace ,of the Virgins extends
magnificent esplanada. from which a se
rles of terraces (planted anciently withiwere in the Bronze Age. Their knives!
flowers) descends to the water's edge. 'needles, erwarnolnts. lances, an.i .T.-.
Thence one may behold one of the mosttvar clubs wer of bronze. The remark-
superb views In all the world. Illampu,
the "crown of the Andes." upligiitlng in
tile background Its summits covered with
everlasting snow.
South of Lake Titicaca is a vast plain,
scattered over which are found the re
mains of what appears to be a civiliza
tion antedating even that of the Incas.
From some of the ruin has been obtain
ed the bulk of the material for the build
ing of the city of La Paz. the capital of
Bolivia, which is situated in a deep val
ley sixty miles away.
So ancient was this civilization that it
seems actunlU- to have disappeared be
fore that of tne Incas began. The Peru
vian natives. Indeed, told thrt Spanish in
vaders that it had existed "before the
sun "sho'ne in the heavens." Strangest of
all. It was aparently superior, if any
thing, to the Inca culture that succeed
ed it.
Beyond Modern Engineers.
Nowhere else in the world arc stones
to be found cut with such mathematical
precision. Some of them are twenty-five
feet lone and fifteen feet wide, and are
fastened together with pins and T-clamps
of bronze. How they were cut. or by
what means transported and put in place.
Is a mystery. One of the most Important
buildings is known to-day as the Fort
ress. The stones composing the floor ef
its principal room, known as the Hall of
Justice (whatever Its real use may have
been), were so massive that modern engi
neers were unable to remove them bodily,
and so blew them up with gunpowder.
carrying off many of the elaborately-cut
fragments to pave the cathedral of La
Tradition states that beneath the build
ing are great vaults filled with treasure,
and that here begins a subterranean
passage which leads all the way to Cuzco.
more than 400 miles distant. Near by
there was a temple, as well as other
huge edifices, comprising architectural re
mains' as stupendous and admirable as
those of Assyria. .Egypt. Greece, or
It Is historically related that one of
Plzarro's pilots asked him for the nails
and tacks which suporte-1 the plates of
silver bearing the sacred name on the
walls of the Temple of the Sun at Pach
aeamac the holy city twenty miles from
Lima. So trifling a request was granted
as a matter of course, hut the silver
thus obtained by the shrewd pilot amount
to no less than CC0O ourfces. All of that
neighborhood is one vast cemetery, tlie
dead being buned tn stratum on stratum
to save space, mostly in link- vaults
roofed witli sticks and rus-hes. and of a
size to contain four or five bodies, al
ways -In a siting posture, enveloped in
wrappings. Sometlme-j ornaments of gold
and silver are found buried with the
Ruins of Temple.
A short distance to the south of Lima
are the ruins of a temple which is said
to have been hardly less rich in gold and
silver than the shrine of Pachaeamac
Here there was an oracular idol called
Rlmac meaning "He who speaks." It
was hollow, so as to afford room for oc
cupancy by a priest, who responded to
questions asked by believers coming for
advice and offering suitable gifts. From
this .divinity, through a corruption of
speellng. the city of Lima takes Its
There Is good reason to believe that
the earliest Inca rulers, occupying, to
start with the cup-shaped valley of Cuzco,
gradually extended their sway from val-
I ley to valley by a process of progressiva
conquest. At length they came to the
. ot the Chlrous, ths center of whose
power was near Truxlllo. and found them
selves opposed by a people quite aa war
like as themselves, and even more ad
vanced In soma respects. History records
that YupanquL son of the ninth Inca.
demanded that the Chlmu King should
become a vassal of the Inca. and aban
don, the worship of fishes and other ani
mals. A -defiance being; returned, a great bat-;
tie followed. In which Yupanqul was Tie'
torious. To confirm tlie story, ths sandy
soil of the ancient battlefield Is found
to-day literally "stuffed" with skeletons
all of adult men. and mostly bearing
marks of violence, such as cloven or
battered skulls. This Is near a ruined
fortress. Inside of which Is a cemetery
containing none but the skeletons ofi
young girls, carefully wrapped In finol
cotton cloth.
Population Overestimated.
It Is believed that estimates of thai
population of ancient Peru have been
greatly exaggerated. In all likelihood
It did not exceed 10W,0C0. The people
were under the average height, of a
light copper color. Industrious and war
like. The Inca. so called, was the head)
of the government, and an absolute des
pot. But the system seems to have been
a benevolent despotism on the whole, one)
of its essential features being the re
quirement that each Individual should
own a portion of land. The entire coun
try waa divided Into three parts one for
the Sun. another for the Inca. and the
third for the people. This, being trans
lated, meant that one-third of the in
come of the state was expended in sup-j
porting the established religion; one-third
maintained the government, and the re
maining third was for the use and bene
fit of the commonalty.
Scattered up and down the country were
granaries. Into which were gathered all
sorts, of agricultural products, to be dealt
ul tu me icuiiic hb iiiej were rpquiren. i
food. In a wild state no bigger than a
hazelnut. It was developed In ancient Peru
Into as fine a tuber as the best system of
modern gardening knows. Of corn thera
were at least thirty distinct varieties, i
each valley having its own kind. In the!
valley of the Plura River was grown a,
peculiar kind of cotton, so like unto
wool as to bs scarcely' distinguishable
from the latter. Within the last few
years, by the way. this "wool cotton."
as It Is called, has come Into extensive,
use for making women's fine "merino"
underwear and stockings.
On the pampas along the east shore of
rake Titicaca the aboriginal herders
pastured their flocks of alpacas. Just as
they do to-day. The ancient Peruvians
dressed In garments of alpaca wool,
which was made Into yarns and fabrics
of varying degrees of fineness. It Is a
beautiful animal. When the young on
Is a year old its wool is a foot long and
as soft and fine as silk. The llama was
likewise domesticated, partly for Its
wool, but mainly to carry burdens. It
was. In fact, the only lieast of burden
employed In the New World up to the
tim- of the Introduction of European
civilization. To kill one was punishable
death. At Intervals the Hmss and
alpacas were collected and shorn, and
hi U rtrtT trMoh yteam ,& ....... . .1
I"'-. .? " " " W.1 Wood was"
petmitted to use it save onlv the high
Pnesn and vestals of the Sun.
Aborigines In Bronte Age.
Th ancient Permlans. at the time of
the discovery of America hv Cnlumtit!
able bronze pins and T-clamps used for
fastening stones together were a pro
etution against the overthrow of bulld
irgs by earthquakes, which in that part
of the world are frequent and severe. In
the sciences these people of antiquity
seem to have leen considerably ad
vanced. They had observatories for as
tronomical purposes, with cylindrical
columns whose shadows were used for
sujustlng the calendar. Apparently the
knew the law- (as the Romans did not
1 which causes water to seek Its own level.
and utilized this knowledge to carry
water below the bed of the river at
Cr.zco by inverted siphons to supply th
great temple and some of the palaces.
The climate In that part of tlie world
is so dry that there Is no putrefaction.
Walled up in caves or buried In the sands,
bodies thousands of years old arc to-day
In as perfect a state of preservation as
the mummies of ancient Egypt. In fact,
they are natural mummies.
Amongsthe mest curious and Interest
ing objects found with such mummies
are toilet impllments and accessories used
by young women of Peru in prehistoric
times. These include short lengths of
hollow bird-bones, made to serve as bot
tles by stopping them with wads of cot
ton, and containing various pigments.
There are also cotton "dabs." for apply
ing the pigments to the face. A small
stone with a cup-shaped hollow on ths
upper side. In which Ms a round stona
answering for pestle, shown how the pig
ments In question were ground fresh
when wanted. Hut how did the Peruvian
belle of long ago get on without a mirror.
In which to see her pretty face? Th
answer is that her mirror was a piece ofi
iron pyrites, the shape of half an egg.
with the flat side highly polished.
Pictures of Galloping Homes.
From thj Tall Mali (.(.lette.
The tongue hanging from a gallopin-f
horse's wide-open mouth, which a corre
spondent has added to the list of "funny
things" for which artists are responsible,
might be supplemented by another quito
impossible posture usually given by art
ists to a. galloping horse. Thousands of
pictures exist In our galleries showinir
horses at full gallop with the front legs
extended forward and the hind legs ex
tended backward, and no one ever sus
pected anything wrong with these repre
sentations of galloping horses until In
stantaneous photography made visible
movements quite beyond the power of
the human eye. A series of cinematog
raphic photographs of a galloping horse,
if shown slowly on the screen, would
astonish most people. Each time all
the legs were seen off the ground they
would be actually folded tip under tha
animal's body and the artistic full
stretch gallop would never once mate
rialize. Carrier Pigeons.
Firm th London Chronicle.
Pigeon racing, in which some of tho
most important of the year's events are
Just now being held. Is a comparatively
recent sport. For though the use of
homing pigeons for carrying messages
Is as old as Noah, and the birds wers.
used to carry home the names of tha
winners of the Olympic games to tha
cities of ancient Greece, pigeon radng
did not begin until 1S18, with a match ot
ICO miles In Belgium. Three years later
saw a race from London to Belgium,
where the sport still enjoys Its greatest
popularity. The first regular races in
England took place in. ISS1. tha birds
flying to London from Exater. XljnMatlii
and Penxanoa, t
WSS'.irf.i ....
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K' "W
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