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The Washington herald. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1906-1939, February 23, 1913, MAGAZINE SECTION, Image 31

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President National Y. W. C. A.
President Housewives' LaagUa
Director School of Mothercraft.
Dean of Radcliffe College, (1894.1909)
President Studio dab.
Chief Scoot Executive.
PROBABLY no branch of common
every-day knowledge Is so vitally
nrv tn men. women, and
children as a practical understand
ing of the methods by which Quick aid
may be given to any one who meets with
an accident or Is taken suddenly 111. But
It Is also probable that no branch re
ceives less attention from the average
That is why we lay such stress upon it
In training our Boy Scouts and why we
demonstrate by frequent drill and actual
example the many ways in which the vic
tim of illness or accident may be aided
Immediately and effectively, no matter
where the emergency may occur or how
few are the means of help within reach.
The principles which underlie Boy Scout
training in first aid to the Injured and
the methods by which it is applied are
just as applicable to Campflre Girls, to
pal ties of school girls and their teachers
camping out, and to women campers, as
they are to the hundreds of thousands
of Boy Scouts, among whom they have
been entirely successful.
The first of these Is embodied in the
Ecout law which declares the boy to be
"a friend to all." and In that section of
the scout oath in which he promises " to
help other people at all times." Thus at
the very start, and in the simplest, most
binding way, the young scout is made to
feel the obligation that is upon him ot
always being willing and ready to show
kindliness and helpfulness to others. The
Boy Scout membership is nearing the half i
million mark, and everywhere and in all i
manner of emergencies these lads have
shown themselves eager to render help
wherever it was needed.
Be Prepared.
Another of these underlying principles m. They are equally applicable and
Is found in the scout motto. "Be pre- doubtless would be just as productive of
pared." Knowing how to give first aid ! E""a rrau.ui in w. irouuiii, ui ,...
In eases of injury Is one of the essen
tials of being prepared. One of the re
quirements to pass from the degree of
tenderfoot to that of second-class scout
Is that he understand elementary first
aid and bandaging, such as the treatment
for fainting, shock, fractures, bruises.
sprains, burns, scalds. Injuries in which i accident that happened not long ago. Two
the skin is broken, and be able to demon
strate the carrying of the Injured and
the use of the triangular and roller band
ages and the tourniquet.
Then to pass on to the grade of first
class scout he must know advanced first
aid. such as the methods of panic pre
vention, what to do in case of fire. ice.
gas. and ele trie accidents, how to help
In case of snake bite, mad dog, or runa-
horse. the treatment for dislocations, ine to a point above the place of the pain. '
fainting, poisoning, sunstroke, freezing,
earache, cramp, chills and be able to
demonstrate artificial respiration.
When thoy go into camp or on hike the
first-aid equipment that Is carried de
pends a good deal on the scout master.
But the genera! principle is to reduce the
equipment to a minimum, and so develop
resourcefulness. The hospital corps
pouch, specially made up by the American
Ked Cross Society, is that which is usual
ly taken- It contains: one shears, one
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First Aid in Drowning Accidents. v ' Zjyr H j
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not to touch the open cut with thelt
fingers, lest they should infect It with
germs. If they had not had this steril
ized dressing with them they wouid Jiava
boiled a clean towel or a handkerchief
for fifteen minutes, squeezed the water
out of It without touching the Inner sur
face, and bound the wound with this.
And, finally, they made the injured boy
keep very quiet, which was perhaps tua
most difficult part of the whole affair,
because they knew that although tha
bleeding had been checked It might start
up again.
A Drowning Accident.
tweezers, one bottle carbolated vaseline,
one packabe safety pins, two wire gauze
pllnts, one two-ounce bottle aromatic
spirits of ammonia, one A- R. C. first aid
outfit, (cardboard.) two one-yard pack
ages sterilized gauze, three one-Inch ban
dages, three two and one-half-inch ban
dages, two triangular bandages, (car
tons.) one U. S. A. tourniquet.
The Bed Cross Manual of First Aid Is
the basis of all the Boy Scout training in
first-aid work. The boys practice upon
one another and really do. upon sound
limbs and bodies, the work of bandaging
and of carrying the injured This training
i has made the Boy Scouts more manly.
more alert, more resourceful, more kindly.
more helpful, and of more use In the
The first thing that is impressed upon
the Boy Scout In case of accident is that
he must keep cool. He must first find out
what is the matter, and. if it Is neces
sary and possible, send for a doctor. If
not. he must do all that he can, quickly,
coolly, efficiently.
A good example of this was found In an
call. One had a string, and Immediately
they tied this tightly around his leg above
the bite.
Some of them dispatched the snake,
and one, whose lips and mouth were free
from any cut, scratch, or other raw place,
sucked the wound. They were near the
camp and another scout quickly got hot
water and soaked the wound, after which
it was sucked again. Then it was burned
with strong ammonia, of which they hail
a supply in the medicine kit, and aromatic
srlrlts of ammonia in water was given
him as a stimulant.
They left the string in place for an his back.
hour, but they knew It must be loosened
then for a few moments, as there would
be danger of mortification If the circula
tion was cut off too long. They watched
the young man anxiously and as he did
no: seem to be much affected by the
loosening of the string, they repeated
It In a few minutes, and kept this up un
til the band could be entirely removed.
He recovered with no ill results. The
scouts knew that If he had shown the
effect of tbe poison going Into his body
after they loosened the bandage, they
would have had to leae It In place and
take the chance of mortification.
New Jersey lake a young man
who could not swim was out in a canue.
He upset the canoe and was in danger
of drowning. A number of peop'.o were
bathing not far away, but either they did
not understand his danger or were .too
, excited to go to his assistance. A boy
scout, 17 J ears old. was swimming across
J the end of the lake and heard the youni;
man cry for help, lie swam out and
reached the young fellow as he rose to
1 the surface the second time. He kept
cool and remembered that he must try
to prevent the other from catching hold
of him, but the drowning man gave a
lunge toward him and gripped him around
the neck.
With one hand the boy covered the
other's mouth, clasping the nostrils
tightly between his first two fingers, and
with the other hand in the smad of his
back pulled the man toward him, tread
ing water in the meantime. Then, tak
ing a full breath, lie pressed one knee
against the other's stomach, thus forcins
out the air in the lungs and at the same
time preventing him from taking in more
by the pressure on his mouth and nos
trils. This quickly broke the drowning
man's "death grip," and the scout was
able to place his hands at the sides of
the other's head and to tow him out float
ing on his back, he himself swimming on
of the members of a party of scouts on
hike dropped behind their comrades and
were taking a short cut through the woods
to overtake them. They heard a loud
cry for help, and, following It up, found
a boy somewhat older than themselves
lying on the ground under a tree. He
had trusted his weight upon a dead limb,
it had broken, and he had fallen to the
ground. He said there was much pain in
the middle of his thigh, and he thought
he had felt something break when he fell.
The two scouts quickly ripped his cloth
They thought it was probably a bone
fracture and knew that the safest way
was to treat it as such. They gently
stretched out the Injured leg. being care
ful not to pull or haul it about. Into the
same position as the sound one. Then
they broke some limbs of a tree and made
splints. -This being a thigh fracture,
the outer splint was made very long, ex
tending from the armpit to below the
feet, while the Inner one reached below
the knee. The splints they tied on firmly
with handkerchiefs and strips torn from
their own shirts, putting leaves under
neath the splints to serve as padding.
Then one of them ran after their com
rades, and soma of these came back and
Improvised a stretcher from two coats
and a pair of poles. Tbe coat sleeves were I
turned wrong side out and the coats were
placed on the ground with the lower sides
touching each other. The poles were The bearers broke step in order not to
passed through tho sleeves and the coats jolt the Injured boy. the one In the front
buttoned up with the button side down. I starting off with the left f.wt and the
one In the rear with tbe right, and so they
carried him through the woods and over
the fields to his home.
One party of boy scouts was In camp
In a region where there were rattle
snakes. Hiking along a trail, they fell
In with a young man who was taking a
vacation tramp. They warned him about
the snakes, but he rather laughed at the
Idea that It was necessary to be cautious.
Presently he was bitten on the leg. The
When an Artery Is Cut.
Some scouts In a camp in tho Adi
rondack, by a lucky accident, ran across
a boy of the country who had Just cut
his arm. By the red color and the spurts
of the bloodflow they knew that an artery
had been Injured. They knew the course
of the artery, and one of them imme
diately put his fingers against It. above
tne cut, ana presseu it oacK against ine
bone. Another prepared a tourniquet
with a handerkerchlef. tying It loosely
about the arm. with a smooth stone In
It Just above where the fingers were ap
plied. Then a stick about a foot long was put
under the handerchlef at the outer side
of the arm and twisted around until the
stone made the same pressure on the
artery as the fingers, and this boy could
then take away his hand and help in the
other things that were to be done. They
wero careful to loosen the tourniquet in
an hour's time, but were ready to tighten
it again quickly If the bleeding should
start up afresh. They gave the Injured
boy no stimulants, but If ho had been
very weak they would have given him a
teaspoonful of spirits of ammonia, in half !
a glass or water.
When they reached shore many hands
were ready to pull them out. but there
was no one except the scout who knew
what to do and was cool enough ho was
prepared by training and efficient meth
odsto do the right thing. He laid the
man on the ground, face downward, arms
extended above his head, and face a little
to one side, so as to allow the free pass
age of air. Then he knelt astride the
figure, with his hands In the spaces be
tween the short ribs. By letting the
weight of his upper body fall upon his
hands he forced the air out ot the lungs.
Relaxing the pressure, the chest cavity
enlarged, and the air was drawn into the
lungs. By repeating this double process
fifteen times a minute artificial breath
ing was performed. It was ten minutes
before the patient began to show sUns of
recovery. Then circulation was promoted
by rubbing the legs and body toward tne
heart. This .Is the Schafer, or prone,
method of resuscitation. It requires but
one operator and no waste of time in pre
liminaries, while the patient, being face
down, fluids In the air passages will run
or be forced out and the tongue will drop
forward and require no holding. As soon
as respiration began they put the patient
to bed and kert him quiet and warn.
As a precaution, a physician was sent for,
but. as It proved, his services were not
These Instances are typical of the many
uses to which the boy scouts put the
thorough training they receive. It helps
to make a social asset of many a boy
who might otherwise be a social detri
ment. More than this, it gives to eve-y
one of these thousands of boys a form of
practical knowledge which he will re
member throughout life. Nothing couM
be better than the movement to teach the
same kind of thing to girl, who are" the
natural nurses and caretakers of human-
Then they promptly covered the wound Ity. and who will almost lmananiy
Ith a sterilized dressing from their Red " make good " in any emergency If they
boys all came running in response to his Cross first aid outfit, being very careful I know what to do.
nj 31 AY It. VAX AnSDALU,
Director of the Department of Foods
and Cookery. School of Household
Arts, Columbia University.
EVERY woman who makes it her
business to keep abreast of tho
times with regard to household ap
pliances knows that hardly any
other modern invention has caused so
much division of opinion as has the tire
less cooker. Some women feel that house
keeping without It would resolve Into thet
drudgery of our grandmothers' days. J
Others declare that It is an entirely su
perfluous luxury, and. in the long run, is
more bother than It is worm.
Both are right aad both are wrong. The
chief trouble with the tireless cooker is
Jts name. The next Is the energy with
which It is praised by its friends and
nbused by its enemies. In the first place
the Idea Is by no means new. Just as
paper-bag cookery is merely the revival
nnd dcveloDmcnt of a metnoa long in use.
so the most modern of tireless cookers is
only the old Norwegian cooking box In a
new dress.
Unfortunately for the general success
of a most useful Invention, the extrava
pant claims made for the tireless cooker
raised expectations which couiu nave
been fulfilled only by a miracle-working
machine. Misled by its name, an amaz
ing number of women have been frankly
disappointed to learn that the cooker re
quires any heat at all.
" We thought It cooked without any
fire." Is the. usual comment, "and why
ehouldn't It If It Is a flreless cooker? "
Others ask such questions as, " Shall I
take a flreless cooker or a stove to my
Summer camp? " Naturally they are dis
appointed to find that the flreless cooker
Js of very little use without a stove, its
function being merely to complete easily
and economically the process that has
been begun by the stove not to do the
whole work of converting raw materials
Into perfectly cooked dishes.
In some cases this may now be done,
because there are at present combina
tions of the gas or electric range and the
Jflreless cooker where heal Is applied di
rectly. Such a contrivance, of course. Is
equal to the whole task of cooking, and
will do all that was claimed In the first
place for the ordinary type of flreless
cooker. By the ordinary type I mean
those which have been evolved gradually
from the first Illustrations of the prin-
baking and roasting can be done by, duties has very little time for. She is
means of "plates" or "stones" heated , demanding and should have, with every
on an ordinary stove and then trans- new device urged upon her directions
fernd to the cooker compartment. explicit enough to yield at her hands unl-
At present the housekeeper must learn I formly good results. Not all flreless
from much experimentation when " fire-1 cookers are accompanied by these explicit
less " cooking may be used to the greatest I directions,
advantage. And experimentation Is Just We are. of course, familiar ih .h.
what the housewife with her manifold i excellent time-tables furnished by soma! tissue
manufacturers, but there seems no rea
son why such as these and even more
elaborate ones should not accompany,
every purchase. The Intelligent house
wife has often to discover for herself
that It makes a great deal of difference
whether she heats her cooker " plates
hot enough to brown manlla paper or
paper. The former degree ot heat
may yield a perfect cake while the lat-ldocs to bake the loaf in the gas oven;
ter may turn out a thoroughly charred so tho advantage of fuel economy can
product, not be urged In this case. Neither Is
This observation leads us to Inquire there less expenditure of muscular en
what possible advantage there can be In ergy involved In the process of prepar-
baklng cake or bread by this method. lug the "plates" for the compartment.
It costs almost exactly as much to heat " But," urges someone. " the kitchen
Is it? We believe fromeouc, experience
with both methods that there is little to
choose between maintaining a moderate
oven for the baking process and the heat
ing of two "plates" from fifteen to
twenty-five minutes over the gas flames
on the top of the stove and conveying
ver gas flames-the "plates" ot the; Is kept comparatively cool during the . "plates "to Jh. cooker f comi-rt.
cooker for baking a loaf of bread as it 'process."
SOCIAL, work is the latest of the
professions which offer a chance
of self-support to women of Intelli
gence and character. It is only
within a few years that this work has
been put on a scientific basis. Within
that period hundreds of college graduates
and other educated women have been
trained and are now earning from 140 to
J 100 a month; In some cases more
The supply Is not yet equal to the de
mand, a statement that cannot be made
In connection with most wage-earning
opportunities open to women. But this
doesn't mean .hat any woman who needs
" a job " end thinks she would rather like
to be a philanthropist into the bargain
can secure a position. Such applicants
are being turned away every day by
charity organizations.
The chance to become a trained social
worker" the only kind in demasal is" open
to almost any woman likely to turn to
that line of work. Schools of philan
thropy have been established In a few
cities and more are planned. The one In
New York was the pioneer and Is still
the leader. Its graduates are sure of
employment. In fact so great Is the de
mand for competent social workers that
even those students who have not taken
the full course are reasonably certain of
finding work.
Girls under 21 and women over S3 are
admitted to the school only for excep
tional reasons. The latter age limit Is
the more likely to be disregarded, for. of
course, maturity of Judgment and steadi
ness of purpose are recognized as quali
fications which are so much clear gain In
a beginner.
While a college diploma Is not required
of candidates, it is expected that they
dple and have at present assumed a shall have made some serious prepare- the sebaceSu, and waste products of trie
Hgent and grammatical exposition of some
theme. Tney must know something of
the history of civilization and of the
physical resources and history of the
United States. They must be more or
less familiar with Industrial history and
conditions, and must know something of
civics and economics.
These are all questions with which any
Intelligent woman can acquaint herself
by reading conscientiously for a few
months. She ought to be able after such
preparation to take successfully tne test
examination required for entrance. Of
course, character Is a most Important
consideration. It Is on this scoro that
many applicants are dissuaded gently.
Not on the ground that they are deficient
morally, but because they show lack of
poise. Judgment, and purpose. Merely to
to be sorry for-the unfortunate does not
qualify a person to analyze conditions and
to contribute to their Improvement, al
though many women appear to think so.
The full course of training occupies two
academic years. A diploma Is awarded
only on the completion of the full course.
If the 'student takes only one year's work
she receives a certificate covering that
period. The tuition fee is SIM for the full
time of two years. Other Incidental ex
penses come well within r0. so that for
J20O at the outside not counting living
expenses a woman can fit herself for a
profession where she will at least be sure
of earning a living.
To women of high Ideals and philan
thropic Instincts it will probably be
demand than a younger one, even though
the latter may be a college graduate and
the former not. "
" The student who enters the School ot
Philanthropy fresh' from college usually
finds It necessary," said the head of that
institution. " to begin the actual work
outside In a subordinate position, work.
source of great satisfaction to feel t!at, Ing for a year or two under direction
In addition to achieving self-support, they ' while gaining experience."
are a factor In the great work of lmprov.
ing social conditions. The demand Is
greatest for persons of resourcefulness
and Initiative." For this reason a mature
woman who takes the course is In greater
1 head. These substances ot only Impede r two hands meet at the nape of tho neck.
B the health and luxuriance of ur,Wt&t&$W2!Si
r , Ity fermentation, be the cause of extreme
, lrriiaiion. ine trrcitt tirK&itv for rann.
from Ins the hair Is Imperative from every
richness nf the snll
vt,i.h i n.iM- j t i IHJlnt oi view, as much for health am fur
"-ll IL BlUtilltO, ISA UUCB IIIC Kllta '-. ..... ." ". . 7 - " . - --"
j i . . .1 cieanuness, Mnce ine nair ana schid can-
and sheen of our hair depend upon the ot ! healthy any more than the skin
state of the scalp. The hair Is denendent unless they are thoroughly cleansed of
upon the nerve supply and circulation ot '"IR""?' , . . . . . , .
th ,.! nrt ..hf.v., ,h,.. ,L Vigorous rubbing, but not to break the
, ... , --.- i,nair. wim inc. ups or the lingers Is far
stimulation and sustenance of these must more beneficial than brushing, although
of necessity promote the strength of the ,""' Fusi, ?ot De .neglected, uentie rjrush
The quality and condition ot the hair,
as well as the color, varies with the dif
ferent periods of life. There are certain
hereditary constitutional predispositions,
but slightly understood, which make
the members of one family' lose their hair
without any apparent cause at .an early
age. An excess of brain work, anxiety,
and grief are all causes of baldness.
For a healthy head ot hair the scalp
must be kept scrupulously clean and thor
oughly ventilated, as tne growtn of the
hair is much more luxuriant when un
covered. The secretions of perspiration.
(Ing for five or ten minutes at night will
aoo tusire 10 ine nair ana Keep tne nat
ural oil equally distributed, a? the friction
excites the sebaceous glands and forces
them to pour out their nourishment. The
frequency of shampooing the hair de
pends largely upon the condition of the
scalp, and Individual taste. Some heads
of hair become oily and damp and must
be shampooed oftener than the dry, thin
heads of hair.
Shampoo mixtures are various as to In
gredients and mode of use. but there Is
nothing better for the scalp and hair than
an egg well beaten with about an ounce
ot water and rubbed thoroughly into the
scalp. Massage the egg Into the roots of
the nair with a rotary motion, starting In
front over the forehead and going back!
to the crown, then forward to the temples '
The hair mu&t then be thornturhlv
rinsed in several waters, the last one as
cold as can be endured. Wipe the hair
viin warm lowcis, men let it nang until
absolutely dry.
Nothing Is quite so good for the hair
as scalp massage. The object is to
stimulate the circulation of the blood of
me scaip. ana tnts is done bv moving
portions of the scalp back and forward
wnn me. lingers, to De of any benefit
tho massage should continue for ten min.
utes at a time twice a day if possible.
If there Is an excess of dandruff. It
should be removed by a wash made of
equal parts of tincture of green soap
and alcohol, rubbed Into the scalp, then
thoroughly rinsed from the hair until
ine nair ana neau are periectlv clean.
If the scalp Is very sensitive this wash
will be too strong. Use In place of It the
following ca3tile shampoo:
White castlle soap, t! ounces.
Potassium carbonate, V- ounce.
Water. 8 ounces.
Alcohol, S ounces.
Tincture of quillaja. 2 ounces.
Oil of lavender. 2U drops.
Dissolve thoaoao and potassium car
bonate in the water and add the other
Ingredients. Rub well Into the roots.
much imsroted form in which bojh lion. They must be able Jo write an Intel- epidermis, constantly, .collect upon tha and tack and forth. Jill tfte lingers, .oiJis JftW rinsg insrougUly. In several watexa,
Some idea of the nature of tho openings I
offered to these social workers may be
had from the statement of the New York
school that former students are now
found In the follownlng positions:
Executive secretaries of charity organ'
lzatlon societies, children's aid societies,
societies for the prevention of cruelty to
children, societies for the prevention of
tuberculosis, housing commissions,
rcaus dealing with the handicapped, tbe
unskilled, or the homeless, religious or
ganizations, industrial and Immigration
departments of the Y. M C A., civic
associations, societies for work among
Italians, Jews, negroes, and other special
groups; head workers and assistants In
social settlements and institutional
churches: directors of boys' and girls"
clubs, supervisors of playground and re
creation centres: administrative officers
in reformatories, orphanages, and other
institutions: staff Investigators for Fed
eral and State commissions and depart
ments, consumers' leagues, child labor
committees, bureaus of research, finan
cial secretaries of hospitals and relief
agencies; teachers In colleges and univer
sities, nurses' training schools, theolog
ical seminaries and missionary Institutes;
parish visitors, factory inspectors, tene
ment house Inspectors, probation officers,
visiting nurses: visitors for State boards
of charities, departments of public char
ities, and every l-ind of relief society and
organization for the Improvement of so
cjaj condUionsp v
ment with the attendant loss of licit and
expenditure of muscular energy. Tho
only other argument that could be urged
for this method of baking would be that.
. In the end. It would produce a. superior
product. But while we have seen many
good loaves of bread baked in a variety
of flreless cookers, we have never seen
one that was more excellent than good
loaves baked by the ordinary method.
Again, some housewives consider that
the greatest advantage to them In the
use of the cooker lies In the claim that
food, after It is done, may bo left in
it an indefinite length of time without
detriment to it. But we believe that of
many things this Is not at all true: cer
tainly not of a loaf of bread.
Unfortunately, the cooker has been
much abused by those who have consid
ered Its chief value to lie In the assump
tion that the " silent servant " could
evolve a course dinner done to a turn
while their minds and Interests were
otherwise engaged. Such have often
and rightly been doomed to disillusion
ment as well as to a very indifferent. If
not absolutely, impossible meal. With a
clever Intelligence behind it the flreless
cooker Js Invaluable for the uses to
which It Is adapted. Why should It ho
required to take the place of other tried
and satisfactory methods?
Experience seems to show that when
ever long cooking is either necessary or
desirable every advantage Is on the side
of the cooker. Comparative quantitative
experiments show that In the cooking of
cereals, dried fruits, fowl, beans, stewed
meat, &c there Is great economy of fuel
over the ordinary metnoa ana tne
economy lies not only In the reduced
Initial cost but often In more thoroughly
cooked food, better adapted to the pur
pose for which It Is Intended.
We question whether one factor urged
by many as the greatest advantage ot
the "flreless cooker" may not after all
be its chief disadvantage that of cook
ing In a tight compartment. Until it has
been thorougnly demonstrated that It Is
desirable or even harmless to have re
absorbed Into the food those products
which escaping are considered so ob
jectionable, we cannot conclude that
cooking without ventilation is necessarily
desirable for; al food,

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