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CONDENSED NOVEL SERIES
SCOTT III. Sir Walter Scott's struggle to pay his debts wu a* herofc as any thing in his most heroic novel. He was 55 years old when the printing firm in which he was a secret partner failed and left him responsible for debts of $650,000. His wife died a few weeks later; he himself faced a probable mental break down. as he had had a slight at tack of aphasia, an inability to re member the meanings of words. Yet he refused to go through bank ruptcy. although he had had no part in incurring this mountainous debt. All that he asked from his treditors was time. This secured. he buckled sternly to his task. He wrote, doggedly and well, if not with the old fire. In two years he had paid off more than $200,000. To make money more quickly he turned from novels to a "Life of Napoleon." which brought him nearly $100,000. His mind began to fail, but he struggled on. "Count Robert of Paris" and "Castle Dangerous" were written after paralytic shocks. al sufferings more than half and Racked by physical suffering with hardly more than n brain, he so devoted himself to work that within five years more :han half of the great debt had keen paid. His last year was made happy by * merciful hallucination. He con :eived the idea tha he had paid ivery creditor in full. About $230 - >00 actually remained unpaid at his Jeath. but this was reduced by in surance to $150,000. This, too, was paid from copyrights, and fifteen years later the last claim was discharged. No one had helped him. He had paid in full by his own unaided labor. kenilworth THE SCOTT MEMORIAL MONU MENT IN EDINBURQ. BY SIR WALTER SCOTT (Condensation bv Rev. Dr. R. Perrv Bush. Chelsea. Mass.) There could be no fitter setting for \ ?tory of love and tragedy than that ilfbrded by the court of England dur jig the reign of Elizabeth. ft was the heyday of gorgeous cos tuming and an age saturated with the occult. Everyone patronized the as trologers and the alchemists. The queen coupled with the dignity and itrength of the monarch the foibles *f the weak. It was her policy to May one favorite against another, and thereby secure the working of her >wn strong will, but she often gave" iray to furious temper, and she was most suscept.ble to flattery. She was forever undecided between her duty :o her subjects and her attachment to Robert Dudley, the Earl of Leicester, ?hom it was commonly reported that ihe really Intended to marry, for he iras a courtier par excellence, and his imbition to share the throne over powered every other purpose of his life. He had. however, been secretly wedded to Amy Robsart, and so, to further his chances to be King, he consorted with one Richard Varney, &nd plotted the murder of h.s wife, which was accomplished at Abingdon Manor. , These threads of fact, with many others of fancy. Scott wove into the fabric of "Kenilworth." To him who would listen to those who make fu| K?me compliment and laudation a fine irt?to one who would understand the subtle poisoning of the mind by in rinuation?to such as are interested in the machinations of men and women anxious to mingle in high society; to iH who would be regaled by the con trersat.on? of lords and ladies and have .infolded for their edification a phase >f history which never appears In the rextbooks of our schools, at the same :ime that they are reading a romance >f wonderful interest and plot. "Kenil arorth" offers a rare and wholesome :reat. The story opens at an inn kept by ooe Gosling, whose nephew. Michael Lambourne, a swaggering drunk ard. returns after years of absence and finds that Tony Foster, an old crony, who lighted the fires when Latimer and Ridley were burned, is keeping guard over a beautiful woman at Cumnor Mansion. Lam bourne gains admission there, ac companied by Tressflian. a knight of peerless character, who is in search of her to whom he has been betrothed and who has been lured iway from her father's house. Lambourne becomes an accomplice in crime with Foster, and Tressilian meets the mysterious lady, who proves to b#? none other than Amy Robsart. for it was she who was his promised bride. He tries to persuade her to re turn to her father, but in vain. and. in attempting to escape from the piremises he meets Richard Varney, master of horse to Leicester,, a shrewd calculating villain, who is a constant spur to the earl's ambition to be king. Tressilian naturally concludes that Amy is this fellow's mistress iHd. drawing his sword, overcomes i?d would have slain him but for tke timely arrival of Lambourne. vrhen he was obliged to flee, and, knowing the Queen's interest in SB oh affairs, he resolves to obtain ^r intervention in Amy's behalf. ^And here Scott makes use of a j superstitious bent of the age. Tres ! Lilian's horse loses a shoe and a blacksmith cannot be found until i an imp of a boy leads the way to a mysterious farrier, named Way land Smith, who is thought by those who know him to be an emissary of Satan and who turns out to be an alchemist with a laboratory un derground. and who is persuaded to enter the employ of Tressilian and with him visits Sir Hugh Robsart, who signs a warrant of attorney to help to secure Leicester's powerful influence in persuading the queen to free Amy from Varney. Tressilian and Wayland soon after this make a visit to Lord Sussex, and when he. for a seeming dis courtesy to the queen's physician, is called to court for explanation, they accompany him. The depicting of this trip to Oreenwich Is fascinating. The obei , sance to royalty; the first step in j Sir Walter Raleigh's career when ? he submits his elegant cloak for I Elizabeth to walk upon; the boat; the river; the discussion of Shaks l pere and a. hundred touches of gen I ius?it must be read to be appre [ elated. 1 Sussex, upon examination. Is fully ? exonerated, and thereupon calls tne ! Queen's attention to the fact that, , Amy Robsart is cruelly h*ld pt?s-j I oner, and forthwith Varney and i 'Leicester are summoned into the 1 royal presence. And before the lat- j J t* r has opportunity to s^jeak. Varney ; j affirms that Amy Is his wife; and, as ! 'everyone is cognizant of Leicester's ( , confusion, Varney assures Elizabeth ? I that it is due to the earl's trans cendent love for her gracious self.) The case is apparently settled, and i Varney is ordered to appear at the ? coming festivities at Kenilworth, and j I to brine with him the woman wnoj ' has been the occasion of so much j trouble. Here is a problem! Amy will never ; consent to be received as Varney's [ wife. She must somehow be detain- i I ed at Cumnor! | It resolves into a battle of tne, | alchemists. Demetrius, in Varney's employ.! i prepares a drug for Amy. but Way- i land, as Tressilian's servant, enters j her apartments as a peddler ind I provides an antidote for the pols< n. j (He also apprises her of the enemies r j by whom she is surrounded and with him she flees from Cumnor. The time of the great carnival at> j Kenilworth is near at hand. Multi-I . tudes are on their way thither.,1 , Every avenue of approach is crowd- | |ed. Wayland and Amy attach them- j I selves to a group of strolling piay | ers. and after many interesting exper- i I ienres. reach the castle .where she) | Is by chance lodged in a room in ? Mervyn's Tower, which had been aa 1 signed to Tressilian. Here she writes a letter to Leices ter. beseeching him to come to her *nd. after tying it with a true love knot of her hair, intrusts it to Way land to deliver, but it is stolen from him. Meanwhile Tressilian has occasion to return to his room, and is dum- t founded to And Amy there; *1)111 as she expected I^eicester would come in answer to her letter, she bound Tressilian not to speak c-r act in her behalf for the next twenty-four hours, and he departed to witness th. coming of th. Queen. Accord ing to history it wn ? wonderful preparation that Leicester made for the reception of Ellaabeth at K'ml worth. Money wai lavl.hed without ?tint, and the detail, of pageantry gleam Tividly before u. when touched by the descriptive genius of Scott. At Warwick there is music, a salvo of smaller arms, a round of artillery and a roaring welcome by the multitude Th* cavalcade is Illuminated by 200 wax en tapers, borne by men on nor.s h^he Queen is adorned with count less Jewels and attended by the ladles of the court and valiant knights magnificently attired, among whom Leicester glitter* Jlke a golden Im age The procession advances over a bridge built for the occasion and here the courtiers dismount; a float ing Island reaches the shore and the "Lady of the Lake" announces that this is the first lime she has ever risen to pay homa<e. but she could not refrain from obeisance to ner gracious majesty. Then, as the queen enters the castle, there is a discharge of fireworks. new and wonderful In that age, and she moves on through pageants of heathen gods and heroes of an tiquity to the great hall, which is hung with gorgeous silken tapes try, where she is seated by Leices ter upon a royal throne, who after kissing her hand and eulogising her most profusely. retires and shortly reappears apparelled from head to foot in dazzling white. The queen very shortly after sends for Varney. and asks why his wife presumes to disobey the mandate of her sovereign and ab sent herself from the festivities, and he replies that she Is indis posed an.l presents certificates to that purpose. These Tressillan madly asserts are false, but'remem bering his promise to Amy to keep silent for twenty-four hours, he halts and stammers and the queen orders Raleigh to place him undor 1 Then follows the banquet, served upon a most magnificent scale, and at its Close Varaey seeks Leicester and assures him that the stais promise that he shall marry tho queen, and he also notifies him that Tressillan has a mistress in Mer vrn's Tower. From here events hurry to a climax. The next morning Amy es capes from her room and Is in hiding near the plalsance, when close at hand Leicester avows his love to Elizabeth, and Is given treat encourapement; but. a* they separate, the queen discovers Amy, who declares that she is not th-; wife of Varney. and that "Leicester knows all." , . , Accordintly she is hurried to tr? presence of the earl, where Elizabeth rages violently, but Leicester s mar riage remains still unrevealed. and Amy Is thought to be Insane and she Is placed in custody. Moreover. Lei cester is angry with Amy for coming to Kenilworth and exposing him to the resentment of the queen, and he resolves to see her and Insist that for the present she must consent to t>e known as Vsrney's wife. This proposition is scornfully re fused. Amy. no longer' a child, but with the strength of injured woman hood, calls upon the earl as a man and as her lawful husband to take her to Elizabeth and acknowledge that she is his wife. Leicester yields to this mssterl> plea to his honor and prepares for the ordeal: but Varney. clearly per ceiving that this Involves his own per sonal ruin, concludes that "either he or Amv must die." and Is not slow in deciding which It shall be. He per suades Leicester that Amy is conniv ing with Tressillan and so convinces him of her perfidy that the earl finally consents to her doom. That evening Leicester and Tres sillan meet. The latter still believes that Varnev holds Amy in his power and he begins to plead for her; nut his words and motives are misinter preted. Swords are drawn and they do bsttle. but are interrupted and meet again on the morrow In a se cluded spot, when. Just as Leicester is about to prevail, his sword is seized bv the young rascal. Dicky Smudge, who delivers to him Amy's letter, which he had stolen from \%aylsn<L The tangle of affairs is unravelled and Amy is proclaimed as the Coun tess of Leicester. At this revelation. Elizabeth is beside herself with rage, declaring that "Leicester's stolen marriatre has cost her a husband and Eng land a king." In the violence of her chagrin and anger she forgets for a while her royal dignity, and recovers command of herself only when I^ord Burleigh warns her that such weakness little becomes a queen/ Meanwhile. Varney fatally shoots tho drunken Lambourne and con By EDITH TALIFERRO, Starring In **l*lra?ie C5et Married." Men like bent the "domestic" type of woman. Intellectuality, beauty, and all the other qualities are not so important In attracting the male of the species as "domesticity." j By domesticity I mean ability to create a "homey" atmosphere. Men are just grown-up children, j When they graduate from their ! mother's care there must be some woman to take her place. What is more pitiable than a bach elor of 40?and what Is more terrible than the kind of "den" he keeps for a home. A goo?j woman of the do mestic type would have saved him from his fate. A Compromise. And men like this type best. I don't mean that a woman should LAY FLOWER POT. Purchase a large size bean pot . in the shape of flower pot with : wide rim. They cost about 12 cents. J Now use a dark green glossy paint ' to cover it. When dry dip a small brush in washable gold paint and draw a pretty design around the 1 rim and you have a handsome orna ment for your fern or other flowers! for little cost. ducts Amy to Cumnor. where she i Is confined in Foster's bedchamber, j ; a mysterious room reached by a' drawbridge, which she is admon ished never to attempt to cross; but when Tressilian and Raleigh come to take her to Kenilworth. and she hears the sound of their j i horses' hoofs she thinks it is the earl and rushes from her room, and i Varney has so manipulated the ; drawbridge that she falls to her death. When, however, this vil lain learns how matters have de veloper*. he commits suicide. His ' alch* mist is found dead in his lab oratory and Tony Foster disappears and his skeleton is found long af terward in a secret chamber where he hid his gold. Leicester retires from court for a season, but later is again a favorite in waiting upon the queen, and dies at last by tak ' ing poison he had designed for an other. Copyright, 1019. hy Post Publishing Co. (Ttif Boston Post.) Published by special arrangement with the Wc Clure \>w?i?aper Sjrvlicatf. All rights rtwrTrd. "Trilby," by Du Maurier, as con densed by Alice G. Orozier, will be printed in tomorrow's Herald. 100-Day Lite?ary Feast Coupon THE WASHINGTON HERALD 425 Eleventh Street N. W. Gentlemen: Deliver to me each day for 100 days, and at the regular sub scription price, the Daily and Sunday Washington Herald. My sabscipion is to begin with Monday, June 23, the day the 100 Con densed Novels started in your paper. Name Address . L, itv Women. spend her time in the kitchen, mtkf a slave of herself, or be forever "tidying up" and keeping things "in their places." Men hate that sort of thing. It is Just the compromise be tween the old maid notion of a place 1 for everything, and everything in it> place, and the hopeless mess of a bachelor's rooms that makes the "do mestic type" of woman valuable and attractive to a man. The average man wants a wife on whom he can depend, whether it is for hot water for his shave, or Ills slippers at night, or somebody who knows Just how to tie his best white tie when he wears It. Domestic Type. A wife has prot to be all the things that a mere man is NOT. She has R?t to supply his deficiencies. And j that is what I mean by the "domes- ; tic" type. It is th*? type of woman ? who likes men in general, but her husband in particular. It is the type who believe* in children?one or two, anyhow?and expects to make a home and not a mere boarding place; one who likes to be kissed by her husband better than anybody else she knows, and thinks he looks "Just great" in the new suit that he can only afford to get once a year. It never occurs to her that she needs a "boudoir," and while she hopes some day to af ford a maid, in the meantime she's not too nroud to do her own house work. She's the kind who likes to reach out and hold hubby's hand in the tense moment in the show they jro to see together, and who kisses the baby as he lies asleep in his little crib when they come home that night after "just the dandiest little after theater supper," as ?he describes it. That's the type of woman who has made America what it is. and that's the type men like best. LETTERS FROM ADOPTED FRENCH ORPHANS TO SOLDIER GODFATHERS kike invisible cords linking: France i to America are the expressions of gratitude the children of France daily are writing: to American soldiers wrose generous contributions or money are making their hard lives less ] severe. The American Red Cross In France has just compiled a book of letters from French "Mascots" to American ??Godfathers." A few of them follow: "I am so young yet, and so ignor ant." writes a little French boy to his godfathers of Company A. 16th Engineers. Railway. A. E. F.. "that 1 do not know how to express my grati tude. but I thank you a thousand time* for your kindness. I loved you even before knowing you. as our school teacher often talked about the kind Americans, the dear friends of France. You had already a lar>;e place in my heart. "Now my father is dead, and as you are willing to love me a little. I feel very happy, ami I should like to be able to kiss you. "Thank you axain. dear godfathers; I will work ? well at school, and will comfort mother as best I can. and will love tenderly my little sinter." Letter to Aviator. The naive heart of a little French girl is photographed in a letter of gratitude to 467 Aero Sqaudron. Third Aviation Instruction Center. A. K. T. "It has given me so much pleasure to hear that I was going to become your little protege." the childish note read. "As it may give you some pleasure to know about my occupa tion. games and progress at school* I will now give you these details: "I am nine years old. and. while working hard at school, I help my mother with the housework. After having worked at school, I learn my lessons and prepare my home work. I make dresses and clothing for my little dolly, as a good little mother should do for her little girl. I am also learning how to embroider. I can make very pretty little handker chiefs. I have taste for singing and music. I like to play croquet but above all I like to play with my doll.-. "On Sunday I go to Mass with mother, and I pray for my father, my mother and for you, brave sol dierF. who are giving your lives to defend us. "I close my letter in tharkin* you and sending: you my most affectionate kisses." "I Utc Yob AIL** How happy these foster godparents must have been to have received this enthusiastic note from their adopted little daughter: "It is your little Marie-Louise who has come to tell you about her great pleasure. Happy! Oh. yes. I am: your nice letter had already given me such pleasure, showing me how much you loved me. But yesterday, when I received your splendid Rift, I was delighted. How good you are. darling godfathers, and how I love you! I like the dress and the rib bon to match, but my doll is lovely above all. Oh! it is pretty! It has lovely hair, like mine, and a beau tiful frock, and pink shoes: it is too pretty and I hardly dare to play with it. ?*Mv little godfathers. T must say good-bye. in a shower of long and fond kisses. Thank you from the bottom of my heart and 'Vivent TAmerique et mes bons parrains" I kiss you all as I love you." Little Shepherdess "Just now I am living in the roun try and am a little shepherdess." write* a little city child to the mem bers of the base hospital staff. Base Hospital IS. "Every day I lead my flock of sheep out on the heath, ffnd while watching them I do all man ner of manual work?knitting and mending. At nightfall I return home and busy myself about the house. I help mother with her tarks. This is the way I live. "I close, dear godfathers, by send ing you with my thanks my best wishes." LAUNDRY SOAP The thrifty housewives who pur chase laundry soap In large quanti ties in order to thoroughly dry it and make it go farther can econo mize still more by removing the wrappers. This will greatly aid the drying process. PURELY PERSONAL Jack Dudley Is ?pending the week at Atlantic City with his parent* the Rev. and Mrs. George F. Dud ley Lieut, and Mrs. Kenneth C. Mc Gregor. of this city, have removed to New York City. Lieut. Herbert Jones is en route ] to France with other members of | the graduating class of West Point. | Mrs. Bertha Murray, who has! been visiting relatives in this city., has Joined her husband in Baltl-I more. Capt. Murray is stationed at Fort Hunt with the Motor Trans port Corps. Dr. Clarence J. Owens has been making an extensive tour of Latin America In the Interests of the Southern Commercial Congress. Miss Sarah Anderson is spending her vacation in the West Virginia mountains. Alfred Black, formerly of the Treasury Department, has returned from overseas. 8enator Ball, of Delaware, re turned to Washington yesterday. Richard Hodgklns. formerly ad vertising manager of The Wash ington Herald, left the city yester day for Texas. Raymond Neudecker left Wash ington Saturday for an extended trip through the South. Sergt. James E. Brady, in charge of the third relief guards of the Surgeon General's office, had as a guest his son. Lawrcnce Brady, who recently returned from ? overseas. After spending several days at his parent's home near Brightwood. the son has returned to his ship. Clifford R. Allen, a member of the Army and Navy Veterans, who is now In the U. S. navy, has returned to his station at the Hampton Roads naval base after a visit to his uncle. William A. Hickey. cus todian of the Hyde Public School building. Georgetown. Sergt. MaJ. Hugh McDermott, of Potomac street, near N street, for merly desk sergeant of the Seventh police precinct, who resigned at the outbresk of the recent war to enter the Marine Corps, hss been placed in charge of the Marin* re cruiting station at Union Station He also is a veteran of the war i with Spain. THE TOWN CRIER. The Delaware Ssclety, which wa* recently organised, will meet tn I night at 8 o'clock in Room 242. Senate Office Building. Delaware pecple are invited. Repreaentatlve J. if. Sinclair and Representative John M Baer. both of North Dakota, will be the sp<-ak ers at the lecture in the Labor Uni versity League course at the Public Library this evening. The subject will be "The Nonpartisan League? Its History and Purposes." George Washington Pont, No. 1. American Legion, will meet tonight at 8 o'clock at the War ramp Com munity Service Club No. 8. ?18 Tenth street. Col. R. G. Cholmeley Jones. director of the Bureau of War Risk Insurance, will speak. Mem bers interested in the formation of a band are requested to cuff with Comrade L. Clarkson Hines at 7:30 o'clock th* evening of the meeting. Mia* Katberine Haghe*. of the Irish National Bureau, will address the Central Labor Union tonight on labor questions in Ireland and upon the subject of independence for Ire iM*. BEAN PORRIDGE. Wash and soak two cupfuls of navy beans overnight and next morninq boil until tender, adding a pinch of soda to the water. When water first boils, drain off. add cold water and boil again slowly. Soason with salt and one teaspoonful of butter. When the beans are tender mash thoroughly or put through the po tato ricer. To the bean puree add one quart of whole milk and bring to a boil. Serve hot with toasted cheese crackers, and canned or fresh fruit for dessert. BREAKFAST TREAT Instead of cereal serve now snd then plain bread and milk in attractive small bowls. Have the br?*ad cut in perfect half-inch cubes, and the milk or milk and cream suited a bit Boston brown bread and rich milk is very delicious. !i PETER'S ^ ROMANCE By THE STORY LADY. It had been decided that Aunt j Grace, who had been making h., j two brother* a long Ttalt, wa? to |U J borne th? ftrst of June. .?d p?? [ waa to co with her. Peter was per. I fectly happy except for one thin,. Aunt Grace waa not happy ,t all I and the lieutenant never came any I more. Peter decided that even I though Mr. Henshaw had .topp^J j acting like he owned Aunt Grace. I she waa too proud to aak the lieu | tenant to come back and he waa too , proud to come without being aaked I ** Mr' and Aunt , Phoebe were concerned things were I going beautifully. Hal wee perfect i ly craay about her and she waa very sweet and motherly to htm It war '**> to aee that Mr. Henahaw waa very much (rone on her. too. but she waa quite ahy. All they need to gel engaged, thought Peter sag?ly, |* 4 I right good chance, and he kept hia eye peeled for that chance. One evening Mama and Papa and the little kide. aa Peter called them went for * long walk. Aunt Grace waa In the grape arbor. Peter >u on the front porch looking at the funniea In the evening paper when Aunt Phoebe came up the walk "Sit down.'* he aaid hospitably, j "Here'a the paper and I'll aee if 1 I can find Mama." He ran around the back way to Mr. Henshaw's house. Mr. Henahaw was watering the lawn. "Hello," called Peter. ? Msma and Papa over here? Aunt Phoebe >( over home and winli to aee Mama " Mr. Henshaw waited to hear no more. He departed in haste to tt? Palmer'a leaving the water running. Flfton minutes later Peter peered caustiously around the corner of the ponh. Mr. Henahaw and Aunt Phoebe were aeated on the railing in tt>? darkest corner behind the red rambler Peter Slipped into the library "Six-six-nine-seven." he told central. "Hello, Lieut. Harley* Well, this is Peter Mr. Ilenshaw is kissing Aunt Phoebe on the front porch. Aunc Grace is in the arbor alone. Go to it. The phone clicked and in abo-'t seven minutes Peter heard the purr of the lieutenant * car HELEN CARPENTER MOOKti. HOROSCOPE. lOXDAT. JILY IT. |?|*. iCVtUTight. :TJ h> -i? MeCtuie Nresmj 4 ? j This is a fortunate day. accord! 4 to astrologv. Jupit?-r and the 1 rule strongly for human sood tun# is advert. M All the signs seem to indicate ^ period of great prosperity with mu< I 1 work for persons of every class. 1 | Jupiter j* in an aspect r?*ad aa inJ ' dicating high prices for all the neces i j varies of life, but wa^es will lncreas i rather than shrink. | The see rs declaie that whatever I: , j made of the skins of animals will t?e . come very costly. For that reason ?hoes, cloves and furs are likely tu rise greatly in prtre. This day is one of lucky direction for bankers. brokers and financier*, but they will meet with gr^at anxiety, owing to some new world condition, astrologers predict. Envy and jealousy will breed un<W 1 the sway of the stars that will preva I during the coming weeks. These in pulses will be betrayed in ofllcta' military and naval organizations One of the anomalies of the nex. few weeks will be that women wi< occupy less attention from the public than in recent years At the lima when they gam political equality the/ will appear to retire from notice Increase of crime foreshaUowe months ago will arouse new anxiet. next month, owing to a Strang tragedy. Children should be safecuarrtea against disease for the coming weeks will be more than usually trying to them. Reversals of established customs will mark the coming months. Radical movements of many sorts will gain in numbers, but they will not reach a dangerous ? strength, as trologers declare, although propa gandists will be found in high posi tions under the government , Persons whose birthdate It is have a busy, prosperous year before them with much happiness in the famll>. Children born on this day are I ike l v to be keen of mind, unselfish and af fectionate. These subjects of Oincer are likely to have eventful lives. GAS ECONOMY When putting water on the r*s , Move for tea or coffee do not put j more water In the kettle than .s re j quired. This precaution will keep j the gas bill low. CLANCY'S KIDS (Copyright 1S1J, by the McClurs Newspaper Syndicate.) By PERCY L. CROSBY The Moss-Lessner Co. 917 F St (Near 9th) Stylet of Tomorrow Shown Today. Dainty Summer Frocks That Sold Up to $30 NOW $19.95 EXCEPTIONAL VALUES which presage brisk selling today, so come early to avoid being disappointed. Models in plain and flow ered Georgettes, Satins and Taffetas, typifying the most popular style variations.