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KEY OF ALL KEYS
Mr. Hugh T. Taggart Dissects the
Tradition of Braddock's Rock.
ASSERTS THAT HE DID RUTLAND THERE
Shows Where the Troops Probably
OF HISTORIC INTEREST
N THE YEAR 17!)!, j
when the surveys
were being made for
the plan of the pro
posed federal capi
tal, a large rock
formed part of the
shore of the Poto
mac river, and stood
about midway be
tween the points
where !i'!d and 2ot 11
streets met its wa
ters. This rock was
of t o n s i d e r a b 1 e
length, and it rose sufficiently high above
the surface of the river to make it a pic
turesque an 1 interesting feature of the
On - portion of it extended for a consider
able distance out into the river, presenting
the appearance of a wharf or landing
place; to this circumstance, and to the
further one that there was a great depth of
water at the rock, must be attributed the
fact that it received from the lirst set
tlers the name of "The Key of all Keys,
that is. the quay of all quays, or the great
est of all landing place?. By that name it
had become known soon after the arrival
of the first Maryland colonists in the year
lfiXi by whom it was christened we know
not. and history also leaves us to inference
and conjecture as to the extent to which it
was used "'or the purposes of which its
name Is sugse.-tive.
It was .inciently described as "a large
reck lying at and in the river Potomak.
cmmonly called the Key of all Ke>s.
and being regarded as an imperishable |
monument it 1 eeame an important boun
dary mark for lands in its vicinity. One of
the earlitst grants made by the colonial
authorities in this section is that of "The
Widow's Mite." which was patented in tl.e
vear lt>?i to William Langworth. as the
son and heir of John Bang .vorth, upon a
certificate dated as early as the year lmH.
This certificate states that a survey had
been made of the tract, and both it and the
patent give a "cedar tree" as its beginning;
in after years, however, it seems to have
been settled that the tract had for its be
ginning the rock known as "The Key of all
Keys," and this was its accepted starting
point in the year 1791. It was doubtless in
tended to grant to Langworth, senior, a \
tract of land in this vicinity, but it is im
possible to read the ridiculous errors of I
geography perpetrated in the description of
the land given in the so-called certificate
of survey without coming to the conclusion
that the lines of the tract were not run on
the ground at all.
A large portion of the GOO acres included
in the grant for "the Widow's Mite" fell
within the limits of the city of Washington;
the tract extended from the river side in
the form of a parallelogram In a north
westerly direction beyond the present
northern boundary of the city, and the
western boundary line of the tract nearly
l>ls?cted one of the reservations made for
public purposes by the government author
ities, of land within the limits of the city,
namely, the reservation between Hid and |
2T>th streets, having E street for a northern
boundary and the river for a boundary on !
the south; this space, called "Peter's Hill,"
was Intended by the founders of the city as
the site of a fort and barracks; it TV as
later determined to locate upon it a na
tional university, toward which President
Washington contributed what was consid
ered to be a "liberal pecuniary donation."
of fifty shares in the Potomac Company,
then engaged in an effort (which promised j
to be successful) to improve the navigation
of the river to a point far above the city j
(and convenient to the western waters),
through the construction of canals around ]
the various falls, the remcval of rocks, etc.
By the improvement it was expected that
th.' trade of "the rising empire west of the
Alleghanies" would be attracted to the Po
tomac. I?iring the war of 181!? the militia
encamfH'd upon it. and Gen. Williams had
there his headquarters, from which it be
came known as "Camp Hill." A naval ob
servatory was finally erected upon the site.
Th" "Key of all Keys" had an undisturbed
existence until the year IT'.M; the commis- ,
sioners of the city, who were then engaged
in the construction of the Capitol and other
public buildings, were embarrassed in that
year by what would be called in this day a
"corner" in foundation stone; they say in
a letter to the President, dated December
?j;;. "the price was risen upon us, nor could
we lately form a new contract or gel an ola
one renewed to our satisfaction." They
w.-re indebted apparently to the "Key of
all Keys" for relief, for in the same letter
they announce "a discovery of foundation
stone" at that place which they expected |
would prove to be valuable, and say (hat ,
they had agreed to let Mr. James Green-1
leaf, who was then extensively engaged in !
building on his own account, have the use |
of a part of It.
Th'' q'.arry was worked at their joint ex
pense un'il July 20. 17!)4. when the supply
of stone for the Capitol became insufficient
through the neglect of its managers; there
upon Cornelius McDerinott Roe.under whom
the work at the Capitol was progressing,
took charge of the qua.-ry and thereafter
operated it upon the public account alone.
The Rock of T???lay.
The opening of this quarry no doubt re
sulted In the disfigurement of the appear
ance of the ancient .ock, and by the con
struction of the Chesapeake and Ohio canal,
in 18.12 and 183S. it was completely demol
ished. The tow path of the canal was con
structed beyond the line of the rock, and in
the channel of the river. This left the rock
In the bed of the canal, and its removal was
accomplished by blasting. The only ves
tiges of It now remaining are thre'S small
ledges, which are still visible on what was
formerly the berm bank of the canal. The
place Is now a dumping ground, filled with
ashes, tin cans, broken glass, mounds of
dirt everywhere and other unspeakable de
bris and refuse of a highly civilized com
munity. On the occasion of a visit to the
spot by the writer a few days ago a greatly (
Inebriated Individual was stretched at length
upon one of the ledgas of the historic rock,
profoundly engaged In sleeping off the ef
fect of his potations. The continued use of
the spot S9 a dumping ground will in a very
short time result in the total obliteration of
even the remnants of the rock which are
now visible. The construction of the canal,
followed by the reclamation of the ilats. ef
fected an extraordinary change in ihe
original shore of the river at this point. The
millVi'jr 'f ?ow uP?ard or a quarter of a
formerlv ,'?m ,,lh?? S|'ot where the tide
iormerlj ebbed and flowed
recenMv'l|hi lh"w?K. rock h*s been revived
socfetv of .h I 6 action of [he local
society of the Sons and Daughters of the
tradeitl^nin teh.?,Utl0n- If has lon* hep" a
trad.tion in this community that the armv
of hfJT" ,Bradd?<*. to which the father
a! an ald ni^ hlS youth was attached
thf and encamped*
Only n Tradition.
L'pon the assumption that such was the
fac., the society determined that it would
be Proper to mark the spot in a way to
commemorate the event. The assertion or
assumption that Braddock and his army
tended on this rock in their progress west
ward from Alexandria can be establish^
U'n?t r?o ba"iP?r?ry (T?rd ;ln I has tu *us
ta.n it r.o basis of authentic fact; it has not
Thernr<if eVen of Probability to support i<
-.r ? ? >,WJS unJoubtedly there at the time
hav(' been utilized by the expe
. as a landing place had it been re
quired by the necessities of the occasion
n,nr'f t ?ri7'tS3 ,ask t0 <lestro> the n":
n antic legend, but the undoubted facts of
history are utterly inconsistent with such
be ^'jfrvn,e,,yfl!ra(HuCk'S Hlm>- as wiU
at reaj.iy seen from a review nf th^ irv,.?i
situation at that time and of certain facts
preserved ^ arn>y Which ha'" been
In the valuable contribution to the h's
tory of the Potomac valley bv our fellow
uZ7"-Ty- jy"Uam "? Low.lermUk en
/,'e> lhe >i:story of Cumberland." and in
i"led^T^?w by WLn,hroP Sargent 'en"
ti'on" J-n H;s'ory Braildock's Expedi
ext i.it ?n re? i?'i J1" the "formation
* ,' U" re?ard to the causes which led
up to the expedition and of its movements
on this continent. Mr. Lowdermilk's work
contains the Orderly book- of Cen Brad
iriet ifr?m the or|8'nals In Wash
ington s handwriting, which are in the
library of i ongress; and that of Mr Sar
and of?th?lnS tne J?urnals of ?-'apt. Orme.
and ?r the seamen detailed l>v the Brit'sn
admiral to accompany the expedition
,Jhe.story of the expedition, apart from
Real incidents and associations, is one of
Mstory3 ln,erei"lnS chapters In American
?.V'eJr,T'h h*'"8 in P?sse3slon of Canada
,tn?; country at the mouth of the
; iri!..[ a,ni c'aiming the intervening
terri.5r> by r.ght of discovery, began the
hvSn ?.r th^ master>' of ^e continent."
Poin- an i at NiaRara a"d Crown
J?in., and attempting to establish a ciia'n
hL<?i# ai?"g the ohi? and Mississippi to
the Gulf of Mexico. Their aggressive move
nwm k We^e ,viewe,J with alarm by the
hnirH .colon'at3 along the Atlantic sea
board by whom the French pretentions
were denied, but the efforts of the colonists
at resistance were feeble and without suo
thThh^o .e?h reaihtfl junction of
tne uh.o and Mononganela. the site of the
??T<fnnji * U 0f p:ttsburg. and captured a
small detachment of Virginians, who were
engaged there in the erection of a fort
" erected a fort at the spot, to
which was given the name Du Quesne, In
honor of the governor general of Canada.
A movement under the command of Wash
ington culminated In disaster, and after the
."tisli Hag was struck at Fort Nec?s
?Vk' a,n'} Washington's little army retired.
the lilies of France floated over every
fort, military post and mission from the
Alleghanies to the Mississippi."
The English Aroused.
The government of Great Britain became
aroused, and money was appropriated by
parliament to defray the expenses of an
expedition having for its object the restora
tion of English power on the continent.
On September 24, 1754. Sir Edward Brad
dock was commissioned by King George as
general of all the troops to be sent to North
America or raised there; under date of No
vember. -jr., 17iV4, he received his instruc
tions from the king, which read In part as
"1. We having taken tinder our Royal &
serious corsideration the Representations
of our subjects in North America, & ye
present state of our colonies. In order to
vindicate our just Rights and Possessions
from all encroachments. & to secure ye
Commerce of our subjects, We ha\e given
direction yt Two of our Regiments of Foot
now in Ireland, commanded by Sir Peter
Haiket & Col. Dunbar. & likewise a suita
a.e Lt1" of Artillery. Transports and
Store Ships. together with a certain num
ber of our Ships of War, to convey the
same, shall forthwith repair to North
"2d. You shall immediately upon the re
ceipt of these our instructions embark on
board of one of our Ships of War. and you
shall proceed to North Amer'ca. where
you will take our said force under your
We having appointed
Aug. Keppel, Esqr., to command ye Suuad
Statlnn "Ur 1hi,KS ?l War on American
?*a! ?,"? w,e do hereby require & enjoin ycu
to culti\ate a pood understanding & i-or
respondence with ye sd Commander of our
Squadron during your continuance upon
"^vlcV" ";hich are now en
l^ niT . e having given directions of
>e like nature to ye sd Commander of our
resTfinT" W1 /"t-Kard to his conduct & cor
respondence with you."
ilrtnlduok In Command.
The king further directed that the com
plements of the two regiments of foot
should be Increased from 500 to 700 men
each, by recruits to be enlisted in America
and that two other regiments of foot of
1.000 men each should be raised In the
colonies, one of which should be under the
command of Governor Shirley of Massa
chusetts. and the other cf Sir WIn'iam
^PP^"- Sf John St. Clair was ap
The f^cesePUty quartermaster general of
. was given the chief command
r # ",,on 'he recommendation of
the Duke of Cumberland, the British com
mander-ln-chief. from whom he received
othereth nesrU???nS enJolnin? him among
oiner things, to constantly observe strict
dlsc pline in the troops, "and to be ?ar
Irtn o ca,n;f"1 'hat they be not thrown
into a panic by the Indians, with whom
they are yet unacquainted and whom thf
!? rc-nch will certainly employ to frisrhten
innnii shown by the sequel, this in
junction was not regarded by Braddock
for he was ambushed by the French and
stroyed. ?" JU'y 1755' and "is army ^e^
Walpole describes Bmddock as a man
desperate In fortune, brutal in his be
hixvior and obstinate in his sentiments "
,. l-nlTep,tJ and capable." Shirley de
scrlbe<l him as "a general most judiciously
chosen for l^ing disqualified for the sendee
he Is embarked in, in every respect."
Lowdermilk, In a review of his character
states that "he was fond of high ming
con\tvial and prone to the laxity of morals
that usually follows excess in those par
ticulars. The gaming table had Its fas
cinations for htm, and he was
bnf?Iif?iVin*r an'J '"temperate. He was
haughty, severe, reserved and full of self
or'dUke."096 Wh? ,nvoked hls resentment"
Landed at Alexandria.
Braddock left England on the 21?t of De
cember, 1754, on the Norwich, C&pt. Bar
rlngton. accompanied by the Centurion, the
flagship of Commodore Keppel, and the
Syren, Capt. Proby. The fleet which trans
ported the expedition to America consisted
of the transports Anna, Halifax, Osgood,
London, Industry, Isabel and Mary, Ter
rible, Fame, Concord, Prince Frederick,
Fishburn, Molly and Severn. There were
also two ordnance ships, the Whiting and
the Newall, the whole under convoy of two
men-of-war, the Seahorse and_ Nightingale.
Upon the arrival of the vessels In Hamp
ton Roads they were directed to proceed to
Alexandria or Belhaven, where the troops
disembarked and went into camp. .
Sir John Sinclair advised the general that
by making two divisions of the troops Fort
Cumberland on Willis creek (the site of
the present city of Cumberland) might be
reached with more ease and expedition.
He proposed that one regiment with all
the powder and ordnance should go by way
of Winchester and the other regiment, with
the ammunition, military and hospital
stores, by way of Frederick, Md.. and he
assured the general that boats, batteaux,
canoes and wagons were prepared for the
service and also that provisions were laid
in at Frederick for the troops.
These recommendations were approved
and acted upon, and on the Oth of April,
17.V). Sir Peter Halket, with six companies
of the forty-fourth regiment, marched to
Winchester, leaving I.,ieut. Col? CJage with
the other four companies to escort the
artillery. Capt. Orme states that boats
were not provided for conveying the stores
to Kock creek and the general was obliged
to press vessels and to apply to the commo
dore for seamen to navigate them, and that
finally and with the greatest difficulty they
were all sent up to Rock creek and an offi
cer with thirty men of the forty-eighth
regiment was sent thither with orders to
load and dispatch all the wagons as fast as
they came in.
At Rock Creek.
The officer was directed to send a party
with every division and to apply for more
men as the others marched, "and all the
boats from that part of the river" were
ordered "to assist in transporting over the
Potomack the forty-eighth regiment." On
the 14th a council was held at Alexandria,
at which were present (Jen. Braddock,
Commodore Keppel, Gov. Shirley of Massa
chusetts. Lieut. Gov. Delancy of New York,
Lieut. Gov. Dinwiddle of Virginia, Lieut.
Gov. Sharp of Maryland and Lieut. Gov.
Morris of Pennsylvania. On the 18th the
forty-eighth regiment marched to Freder
ick, leaving thirty additional men with the
officer at Rock creek.
The business of the council being over.
Capt. Orme states that the general would
have set out for Frederick, but few wagons
or teams were yet come to remove the ar
tillery. Of this he advised Sir John Sin
clair, and a few days thereafter set out for
Frederick, leaving Lieut. Col. Gage and the
four companies of the forty-fourth regi
ment with orders to dispatch the powder
and artillery as fast as horses and wagons
should arrive. At Rock creek the general
called for a return of the stores and gave
orders that such as were most necessary
should be first transported.
On April 11 a detachment of thirty sea
men from the fleet were provided with
eight days' provisions and ordered to pro
,j L a?1*
cred on the morrow to Rock creek, eight
miles. In the boats of the Sea Horse and
Nightingale; In their Journal It is recorded
that they arrived at the creek at 10 a.m.
of the 12th, and, finding Col. Dunbnr there,
placed themselves under his orders: on the
13th they were employed In getting the
regimental stores into wagons, the situa
tion is said to have been pleasant, "but
provisions and everything dear;" they be
gan the march at 0 a.m. of the 14th, and
camped at 2 o'clock In the afternoon at the
ordinary of Lawrence Owens, "fifteen miles
from Rock creek and eight miles from the I
rpper falls of the Potomack;" on the 17th
they arrived at Frederick, which, although
"r ot settled above seven years," It Is said,
had "about 200 houses and two churches,
one English and one Dutch," and that the
inhabitants, chiefly Dutch, were an "In
dustrious but imposing people."
Rotate of the Expedition.
From the "Orderly Book" It appears that
on April 7, 1755, Col. Dunbar's regiment
(the forty-eighth) was directed "to March
at 6 o'clock on Saturday morning for Rock
cieek," and "all boats on that part of the
river near Rock creek are ordered to at
tend to carry the troops over." The route
of march was prescribed: To Rock creek,
1 eight miles; to Owen's Ordinary, fifteen
miles; to Dowden's Ordinary, fifteen miles;
| to Frederick, fifteen miles.
It further appears from the "Orderly
Book" that on April 8 an officer and thirty
men were directed to remain at Rock
creek "till all the stores of the train and
hospital are put Into the wagons," and
then "to march and form a rear guard for !
the whole;" that on April 0 two sergeants
end twerty men were ordered to the creek
'to reinforce the officer there;" on the 11th
the fact Is noted that boats had been pro
vided "to carry Col. Dunbar's regiment's
b?ggage to Rock creek;" the time of the
march was postponed, and by the orders ]
of April 25 the regiment were directed "to
hold themselves In readiness to march by
the 20th;" there is no entry for the 29th,
but doubtless the regiment marched on
that day agreeably to the orders; under
date of the 28th are entered the final or
ders to Ensign French, the officer at Rock
Washington seems to have had no con
nection with the expedition, and did not
accompany either of the columns on their
march from Alexandria; his name is first
mentioned In the orderly book on May 10,
1755, at which time the army was encamp
ed at Fort Cumberland. The entry Is as
follows: "Mr. Washington la appointed
aid-de-camp to his excellency General
Braddock;" it was evidently after this that
he entered the orders of a previous date.
The Journals of Capt. Orme and the sea
men show that Braddock did not accom
pany Col. Dunbar's regiment when it
marched to Rock creek, and, as has been
indicated, Washington only became con
rected with the expedition after its ar
rival at Fort Cumberland, and was not
with It on the march from Alexandria to
Rock creek; they further show that the
movement of the regiment was overland
from Alexandria to a point somewhere on
the Virginia side of the river nearly oppo
site Rock creek, from which it was trans
ported in boats to the Maryland side, and
that the baggage was transported to Rock
creek by water.
Where the Landing Wm Made.
It only remains to be determined whether
the landing upon the latter side of the
f river of either baggage or men or both
was made at "The Key of all Keys."
There is historical evidence, the authen
ticity of which Is beyond dispute, and by
I which the question la settled conclusively
In the negative, as to both baggage and
The act of the Maryland assembly which
provided for th? laying out of Georgetown
was passed in December of the year 1751;
It recites that several Inhabitants had rep
resented to the legislature that there was
a convenient place for a town on the Po
tomac river, above the mouth of Rock
creek and "adjacent to the inspection
As early as the year 1040 the colony had
by Its legislation provided for the inspec
tion of tobacco, and forbidden its export
until it had been "viewed and inspected;"
the vestries of the different parishes were
authorized to appoint the inspectors, and
numerous warehouses were erected by in
dividuals near navigation, at which the to
bacco was collected and the Inspections
On October 4. 1748, the vestry of Prince
George's parish appointed Capt. Alexander
Magruder, Messrs. Joslah Beall. John
Clagett and Alexander Beall as the in
spectors for "George Gordon's warehouse
at the mouth of Rock creek." Georgetown
was laid out around this warehouse; its
site was known as the "Warehouse lot,'
and upon It now stand the buildings of
the Capital Traction Company, formerly
the Washington and Georgetown city rail
road, which front on the south side of
Bridge street near High street. These in
spection houses, at or near shipping points,
became centers of trade, and the principal
roads in their vicinity led to them and to
the landing places.
Went of the Creelt.
In 1751 the main roads leaiding to the site I
of the town and Gordon's warehouse were |
the road to Frederick and the road to Bla
densburg, the latter of which crossed Rock
creek at the ford and just beyond the pres
ent P street bridge. The road to Frederick I
followed the river for some distance above
the town, and vestiges of It seem still to re
main along the canal, near the present
Cabin John bridge.
The objective point being Frederick. It
was along this road that the forty-eighth
regiment of Foot marched; It could not be
reached by any road from "The Key of all
Keys" without ferriage over Rock creek, or
by a circuitous route by way of the ford.
It must, therefore, be assumed that the
regiment crossed the river west of the
Since 1751 a great space has been reclaim
ed from the water on the Georgetown side
of the creek, but when the town was laid
out In that year Its southeastern corner or j
boundary was very near the creek, and at a
place called "Saw Pit landing." In 1755.
when Braddock's regiment passed,this land- |
ing was still In existence.
The map of Jefferson and Fry, published
in 1777, was based on surveys made between
174S and 1755; It shows Rock creek and a
place on the Maryland side, about opposite
the western end of Analostun Island,
which bears the name of "Magee's Ferry."
All indications point to the road to the fer
ry landing on the Virginia side as the one
traveled by the regiment in Its march from
Alexandria, from which transportation di
rectly across the river alone was needed to
reach the road to Frederick; this road no
doubt extended easterly to Saw Pit landing,
which point would have been the most con
venient one for the landing of the baggage,
and for this reason It may have been used
for that purpose.
Wu*hiiiK?<?n Landed There.
It is quite likely that Washington used
this rocK as a landing place while pursuing
the occupation of his youth, in making sur
veys of lands along the Potomac for Lord
Fairfax and others, or upon the occasion of
a friendly visit to a Maryland neighbor
during the early days of his residence at
Mount Vernon, but "The Key of all Keys"
had no association with Braddock's exoe
dltlon beyond that of propinquity to one
ot Its lines of 'march.
Independently of this, however, the an
cient rock was a historic spot for the rea
sons which have been stated, and for the
further reason that It became one of the
boundary marks of a town laid out In 17'!7
by Jacob Funk, under the name of Ham
burg. but which was more generally known
as Funkstown, and which lost Its identity
wjjon the federal capital was established,
within whose limit's the town was included.
Although In the work of reclaiming the
llats the shore has been pushed far away
from its former-location at this point, a
pond has formed in a depression along the
ledge of rocks, which constitute all that re- |
mains of "The Key of all Keys;'' the pond
Is mostly given oVer to such uses as frogs
and small boys can tlnd for it; the writer
lecently observed one of the latter launch
a toy boat Into this pond from one of the
rrmnanis of the rock; the boat moved over
the surface of the water In the most ap
proved propeller fashion. Closer examina
tion of the boat showed it to be about
twenty-two inches In length, of graceful
outline, and that it was provided with a
rudder and screw, which latter was worked
by machinery: and Inquiry developed the
fact that the small boy. Master Willie Srib
ner, who owned It, was an exceedingly
bright and Intelligent specimen of his class,
and that he was withal of an Ingenious
turn of mind: that he had cut the boat out
of a solid block of wood, and supplied It
with a rudder and screw, also of his-own
manufacture, and that its motive power
was dun to the works of a clock, which he
had adapted to the purpose and introduced
into its hold. The observer could not help I
rraklng a mental contrast between the
pastime of this boy and that of his pre
decessor, the Indian small boy of the re
mote past, whose lessons in the art of nav
igation begin and ended with his bark
canoe; and a cogent reason for the failure
of the latter to maintain himself In the
struggle for existence, which was precipi
tated upon him by his white brother, was
It Is thought that the foregoing furnishes
considerations of sufficient importance,
even In this utilitarian age, to require that
the destructive hand of mar. be stayed,
and that the remnants of the ancient and
historic rock should be rescued from the
oblivion with which they are threatened
and their existence perp^stuated as a me
morial of the past, and It Is to be hoped
that the city fathers may take this view
and at once adopt such measures as may
be necessary In the premises. If anything |
Is to be done circumstances demand that It
be done quickly, in order to save from an
ashy grave what remains of "The Key of I
all Keys." HUGH T. TAGGART.
THE INSPIRED CAMP COOK.
Thtnnra He Mnnt Know to Make Life
Pleimnnt for HI* Comrades.
Outing tells about camp cookery, Includ
ing the cook. The genuine camp cook Is I
an artist in his way. The musician makes
men hear things entrancing and the painter
brings tears to the eyes. If inspired. The
camp cook genius, by the very way In j
which he does his work, makes wen hun
"The camp cook," says the writer, "should ]
take pride In the artistic han.lllng of his
utensils, particularly In the ability to keep
half a dozen things going at once; he must [
keep already cooked things hot, and cook
the uncooked things meantime. To do this I
he has got to understand the kinds of fire
to have, whether large or small blaze, hot
ashes or red-hot embers. He should also
know how to get the most work at the I
least expenditure of labor from his com
rades. Something' many cooks are lacking
In is the way. to keep camp dishes clean
for cooking. An unwashed apple sauctpan
will serve to fry trout In, and give them a
pleasant taste^ but an unwashed fish spider
will scarcely serv? to cook apple sauce In.
In other words, the cook should know when |
and what to wash."
CrookeB Tubes on the Market.
After a long series of careful observations,
one of the principal electrical companies In
the United States has decided to put
Crookes tubes on the market, and tubes of
approved sizes and types may now be pur
chased. "It I# said," says The Electrical
Review, "that very successful results have
been obtained with the tubes already fur
nished. Experiments are being continued.
In order that the most improved forms may
be within reach of the public continually."
"Mai Ma! I've swallered a hairpin."?Truth.
FRENCH HOME LIFE
Especially Among the OlasB of
MOTHERS GIVE UP THEIR BABES
Husband and Wife Obliged to Work
for the Family Support
EVENINGS AT THE CAFE
ESIRING TO SEE
something of the
home life of French
?vornen of the wage
earning class I se
lected as my hostess
a bright, vivacious
voung matron, and
persuaded her not to
? ary her ordinary
?outlne, but to make
me one of the family
for a day or two.
I had easily ac
cepted the comfort
able midJle~i:lass habit of breakfasting at
U or 10 in the morning. It was not a Joy
ful experience, therefore, to be ,-oused at
6 a.m., nor was it pleasant to dress in a
rcoir the cold stone floor and damp walls
of which suggested some ancient dungeon.
However, I had earnestly sought this very
privilege, so I wrapped myself in discreet
silence and a thick steamer rug, and strove
to appear cheerful.
In the kitchen I found madame prepar
ing coffee over a tiny alcohol stove. Mon
sieur, a cooper by trade, was arrayed in his
working blouse and Juat going out to the
bakery. Extreme simplicity characterized
alike the table service and the breakfast.
Three earthen ware bowls and a loaf of
ccarse bread were set on the bare table. I
can still taste that bowl of black coffoe. I
had readily adopted the custom of drinking
a tiny glass of "cafe noir" after dinner,
but it tastes very differently in the morn
ing. I thought it worse than the cheapest
brand used in the United States, and i'nere
was neither milk nor sugar available to
modify the flavor However, I managed to
take my bowl with due politeness, and fur
tively looked around for some butter to
make the bread more palatable. Hut there
wasn't any. The loaf was broken in three
portions, and we breakfasted by dipping
the tiread In the coffee.
Madame disposed of the kitchen work by
simply rinsing the bowls and coffee pot in
cold water. She said we would "make" the
chambers at the noon intermission. As vie
were clearing the table I said to madame:
"Don't you like coffje with milk and
"Oh, yes. yes; It is very good," she said,
quickly, "but we cannot afford it. Sugar
ccsts twelve cents a pound and milk four
cents a pint. Coffee alone is very dear.
We pay sixty cents a pound."
I simply gasped when she mentioned the
price; but I afterward paid *1 a poun>l
myself, In a vain attempt to duplicate the
quality sold in the United StaU-s for thirty
live and forty cents.
Sensible Working I)rcii?.
Madame had no coquetry about her per
sonal appearance on working days. The
severely plain dress of common, dark cot
ton was made with a loose jacket and
skirt. The small, tight sleev-rs were ex
plained thus by madame; "I have balloon
sleeves in the latest mode for my best
dress; but they take too mu-'h cloth for a
She made so much noise clattering over
the stone floor that I was curious about her
shoes. Truth compels me to say that they
were not entirely of wood. l,eather tops
and wood soies made a durable though
not an elegant foot covering. Shoes of
this sort cost $1.40 a pair. My friend wast
ed no money on headgear for^every-day
wear. A sort of woolen hood was put on
the head, and the ends fastened about the
waist. Yet, madame. being young, pretty
and tolerably neat, looked rather attractive
in this coarse attire.
Everybody takes two hours at midday
for "dejeuner," and the family returned at
My friend's flat consisted of three tiny
rooms on the fourth floor. There was
neither city water nor sewerage. The nar
row streets and tall houses eff?ctually shut
out the sunshine, but madame did not
seem to care about that.
The house seemed rather lonesome, and
I remarked to madame:
"You have no children?"
"Oh, yes; a little boy, two years old."
I hadn't seen or heard him anywhere,
so I said tentatively: "He is not here?"
"No. no; he is at a village in the Mari
"On a visit to some relatives, perhaps?"
With an impatient shrug at my stupid
ity, madame explained: "It's the custom
to send our children away to be reared di
rectly after birth. Almost the only ex
ception is when one has to support an
aged mother at home. In that case she
may care for the child.''
It took me some time to fully assimilate
this remarkable piece of information.
"You see the baty often?" I ventured.
"No," said the mother, briskly. "Once,
maybe twice, a year. It is expensive to go
"Are you not lonely for him?"
American Home Life.
Madame assured me placidly that she
was not lonely, and found her factory
companions more interesting than a tiny
child. It cost 17 a month for the child's
care; and while this was a heavy expense
in proportion to the wages earned by the
couple, they evidently never questioned the
wisdom of the plan. Madame grew hilari
ous when I tried to describe American
"So droll! So very extraordinary." she
exclaimed, "for a married woman to stay
at home with her children, instead of
earning wares to help her husband. Any
how, it would be impossible here, for a man
does not earn enough to keep a wife and
The latter remark really explained the
custom. It is an absolute necessity for
the wife to work every day and supple
ment the husband's earnings. The fami
lies are usually very small, one or two
children is the usual number. Of course
there are exceptions. One woman in the
tobacco factory had six children, the
eldest only seven years old; yet she had
never been absent from the factory more
than seven weeks at any one time. The
women regarded that matron and her
family with stern disapproval.
"Why do you marry when you have
neither home life nor the companionship
of your children?"- I asked.
"It is the custom to marry," replied
madame. "An unmarried woman over
twenty years of age is not well regarded."
She either could or would not give any
further explanation of the marriage cus
I was now getting too hungry to con
tinue inquiries about domestic life, and
madame invited me to go shopping with
We bought a quart of "vln ordinaire"
for eight cents, a loaf of bread at the
Boulangerie for four cents, a quart of
bouillon at the Boucherle for ten cents,
and a plate of hot spinach at the Char
cuterie for six cents. The bouillon, heated
over the alcohol stove, formed, with bread,
the first course. The tiny bowlful of
soup merely whetted my appetite. The
plate of spinach made about two bites
apiece. A glass of wine finished the meal.
Madame and her husband had evidently
made a very satisfactory meal, and were
quite unconscious that I had not done like
wise. As a sacrifice to politeness I said
that I had an excellent meal and that
everything tasted very good. So it did.
My mental reservation was that I had
only had a taste.
The AliMintlie Habit.
The working day closes at 6 o'clock.
Beforo going home we stepped Into a cafe,
where mensieur and madame had their
evening glass of absinthe. A spoonful Is
diluted with a glass of water and the mix
ture sweetened. The cafe was crowded
with people, all of whom ordered absinthe.
It is very cheap, costing only three cents a
glass. I did not like the stuff: It re
minded me of a cheap soda fountain mix
ture. It has no alcoholic flavor.
For dinner we purchased a little plat*
Highest of all in Leavening P<
of boiled beef for fifteen cents, another
loaf of bread and Gruyere cheese for
four cents. The latter Is twenty-five
cents a pound. I quite agreed with the
shopkeeper, who called our purchase a
"petite morsel." I could have eaten the
bread, cheese and meat mysitlf; likewise
the dandelion salad which followed, but It
was supposed to make a meal for three.
Madame generously offered to "encore"
my portion of meat, and thereby deprive
herself, but I Heroically refused. I wanted
to live for one day as they did always.
The French are accustomed to scant food
and small variety. This family's bill of
fare varies very little from week to week.
It is a good illustration of the standard of
living among the best-paid workers; there
are many forced to exist on much less.
1 estimated the day's living expenses for
three thus: Breakfast, 6 cents; dejeuner.
28 cents; dinner, 'M cents, making "-i" cents
for each, or 40 cents for the usual family.
To monsieur's and madame's daily ex
penses were added absinthe. 0 cents; alco
hol (for fuel), 5 cents, and 15 cents for wine
and cigarettes In the evening at the cafe,
giving a daily total of 00 cents for living
Madame was a very acute little person
and managed to see my calculation. I fear
ed that I had given offense. On the con
trary, she kindly showed me her account
of Income and expenditures for the previous
Meals and wine $20.10
Care of child 7."o
Child's clothing 1 o<>
Madame, 70c. per day I1K.20
Monsieur, Soc. per da> 20.80
Monsieur sometimes earned $1 a day,
but had so many idle days that the da'ly
wages that month only averaged Sn cents.
So they had $2.:U cents a month for cloth
ing and Incidental expenses.
At the Cafe.
We adjourned to the cafe after dinner
and passed the evening there. It was more
comfortable than the home, being warm
and well lighted. All the friends and ac
quaintances gathered there. The air was
soon thick with smoke, and there was a
perfect babel of tongues. The women drliik
wine, but do not smoke. There was mu<h
hiiaxlty and animated conversation, yet r.o
approach to intoxication. The common
wine of the country contains little alcohol,
and a glass or two suffices for the whole
evening. They 'thoroughly enjoyed the re
laxation fro~n the sterner realities of life.
All their evenings aro sp'nt at the cafe.
Often there is music or amateur theatri
cals. The "afe is the one bright spot In the
worker's nartow life; and wirh their viva
cious and pleasure-loving temi>eramert
amusement and social diversion Is a real
necessity. To them the cafe atones for
many olhtr privat'ons.
A CYCLIST'S OPES MOI TH.
He llegnn the Study of >ntarol His
tory in tlie Wruuit Wnjr.
From tlie N>\v York Sun.
Wheelmen do not begin the study of nat
ural history like ordinary people. Dovvr. on
the Brocklyn cycle path on Tuesday night,
rather late, a white sweater scorcher came
whoopir.g along. It was a few minutes
after 10, rather dark in spots, more es
pecially just beyond the graveyard where
the woods are thick. There was one re
deeming feature about the scorcher's out
fit. He had a very bright light, and his
mouth was wide open ready to yell. There
were a lot of insects In the air over the
path, among them several large and hard
These insects, on perceiving the scorcher s
light a-comtng, flew toward it at good speed
to Investigate. One of them, an especially
large and strong-winged l>eetle, flew about
eight inches higher than the lamp, and the
cyclist began his study of the entomolog
ical branch of natural history on that one.
There is no plase where Insects, birds'
eggs and other specimens may be put for
temporary security more conveniently than
the mouth, but It is usually advisable to
kill the specimen first, nor is it a good
plan to close one's teeth onto It, since that
ruins the specimen irretrievably. Not
knowing this the cycling amateur naturalist
spoiled a line specimen of a night-flying
A good many wheel folk have begun the
study of natural history in this Inadvis
able way, using their open nvj'iths as land
ing nets with which to capture Insects
lured by their lamps. Such a method of
procedure is almost sure to cause the be
ginner to give up the study entirely, even
to the extent of wearing mosquito net veils
to shield the lips. The mouth receptacle is
lietter left to the more experiencd natural
Booka for Invalids.
From the Oitic.
It is said that a novelty In books is to be
issued under the title of the Invalids' Li
brary. Each volume Is "to be printed on a
long strip of paper covered muslin, so that
a patient can comfortably unroll it and read
in bed, thus dispensing with the attenlant
fatigue of holding a heavy book." Why go
to all this trouble and expense? Why not
buy from the publisher a copy of a book be
fore it Is stitched for binding? In this way
a handful of pages can be taken up at a
time, and they are so light that it would be
no effort for the weakest invalid to holii
them. Another advantage of these un
stitched sheets is that all the family can
read the book at the same time. l.*-t one get
the start, and the others can follow on. I
gave some of these unstitched pages to a
friend once, and she was delighted with the
arrangement. The pages open out readily,
and have little or no weight; and then, she
said. "It Is so amusing for all of us to be
reading the same book at the same time."
The suggested Invalids' Library would be
expensive, and I do not think that It would
be as practical as the plan that I propose.
>wer.?Latest U. S. Gov't Report
ATHLETICS A*n CHARACTER.
No Proof Tlinf S|wir(? MnUe ? UlUm
Kroin 1bff Spectator.
One would like to know. If it were possible
to fid out. what the prec se effect of their
devotion to gymnastics wis upon the Hel
[ lenlc people. It mty l?e reasonably doubted
whether It enlarged their blent*] powers, for
all Greece sh&ted In thla passion. and the
triumphs of Greek thought and art are al
most confined to Attica. One does not even
owe Intellectual gratitude to Spartans or
iloeotians. It did not make them exception
ally heroic, for the Macedonians, who con
quered them and the worm, were not spe
cially devoted to sport, anil were, we fancy,
I till the time of Philip at all events, excluded
from the contest* at Olympia. It did not
save the nation, for Greece was utterly sub
dued by the Romans, who gained their
physical prowess In another way, and It did
not keep them alive, for, al hough the Oreek
may fairly be held to have survived the
Roman, whom he Indeed in a way ahsorbed,
the Jew. who abhorred and still abhors gym
nastic training, survived both Roman and
Greek. Except an extraordinary feeling for
form, we cannot trace any result from the
games upon the Creek character, and it t*
doubtful whether this was universal or con
fined to a few rich citizens in Greece gen
erally. and the 4o,<mo sitveholders of At
tica, who, for most purposes, are to modern
Europeans "the Greeks."
That question of the Influence of these
games on character lias some Importance for
the modern world, for the passion for com
petitive athletics has caught hold of It. and
everywhere, especially In England. France,
the I'nited Slates and the great colonies,
they begin to play a more irrpoitant part in
life. Fifty th >usand Englishmen go at a
time to see a foot ball match, cricketers are
watched as carefully as statesmen, and an
International running match exci:>-s almost
the Interest of a battle. The papers are
everywhere crammed with the reports of
athletics, and a man who can make a
"record" Is as mu<h honored among the
younger g?-r eratlon as ever le was In Gr.-ece.
It is probable, as prosperity Increases and
the workers gain more leisure, that the pas
sion will develop further, and we shall !>e
curious to see what Influence It has upon the
national sentiment. It neeJ not be a bad
one, for we susi>ect thai a -ertain barbarl
clsm?we want that w;>rd greatly, as distin
guished from barbarism s ess.-ntiil to
the vitality and fighting prowess of any
race that dwells in cities, but we can see no
reason for believing that It will be specially
good. One can hardly affirm that the games
preserved the manliness of the Greeks, and
they certainly did not preserve them from
incessant Internal war. International ath
letics, we see in newspapers, are to furnish
. "new bonds to bind together the nations,"
] but if tlwy are only bound as the Greek
states were the advantage will not l>e con
| spicuous. The probability Is that Olympic
! games, ancient and modern, had and will
have the effect of games merely, that is. of
distractions, innocent or otherwise, accord
ing to circumstances, from the peremptory
work of the world. They are not worse than
other amusements, and, l>ein?. enjoyed in the
open air and under thousands of eyes, they
are probably better than some of them.
Rather a population of foot ball p]?y<rs than
a population devoted, like the Chinese, to
cards, or, like the Uengaiese, to gossip, but
that is about as much as it s as yet justi
fiable to say.
Kiiflier Mrithcvv'* Miwalou.
From the Nl'iiiml Review.
The accounts of Father Mathew's mis
sion from 1KIK to 1842 read like a fable He
made teetotalers as the great powers make
soldiers?by the million, only inueh fas;er;
and. if there had been any staying power
In the business, the liquor question would
have been settled out of hand. Wherever
he went a veritable fury of sacrifice ap
pears to have seized the people of Ireland,
though the estimated numlx r of converts
must l>e discounted by the equal fury of
exaggeration which seized the chroniclers
of his progress. Thus in IXin he is said to
have administered 30,'kiu pledges in one day
at Clonmel, and from to lfsi.tioo in
two days at Limerick. Unless pledges were
taken by acclamation. It would l>e physical
ly impossible to administer 01 e-quarter the
In 1S4?I he ie said to have added T4S,<k?i
to the ranks, or an average of over 2. UK I
per diem for every day in the year, and
by 1M1 the number of total abstainers In
Ireland was reckoned at or con
siderably more than the entire ad..it pop
ulation. Any one may believe il who l.kes,
but. whatever the exact truth may be. It
Is certain that this homely village priest
did for a time meet with a success besides
which the united efforts of til he other
advjeates of temi>er?ncc before r.nd after
him fade into it.significance. In thr?e years
he actually reduced the cor sumption of
spirits in Ireland from Iii.M.*.<m? gallons
to ri.29n.4M* gallons, and prie I ir ally abol
ished drunkenness. An eld-'ty lady de
scritKvl to me the other day how she trav
eled through Ireland about th.it time with
out seeing a single drunken n an. find how
striking was the contrast between the per
fect sobriety of Cotk and the rolling Irtox
ication of litistol, which met her eye on
It Meant Everything.
From the Chicago Post.
The n.an In the bicycle suit laughed
"Very ft r.ny." he said.
"What?" asked the man with a large sec
tion of skin gone from his nose.
"Why. tl ese 'Don'ts' for- bicyclists," re
plied the man In the bicycle suit.
"Let'* s<e them," said the man who was
short of skin.
The man in the blcyclc suit bended him
"The best or.e isn't there." s?id the man
with the ft ntastie rose, shortly. "If It was
the rest wouldn't be necessary."
"What do you consider the best one?"
asked the man with the bicycle suit.
"Don't ride," answered the man whose
nose stood in need of grafting, and then he
carefully put a large piece of court plaster
where it would do the most good.
Paris *t Night.?Sketch.