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The Great Events Which. Have Happened During' the Year.
I Tin- events of tlie year i8<>8 will ! piark a notable page in the world's fcstory. War between the United ptate- ami Spain resulted in the al ki"st entire loss 1>} the latter country |gi its colonics and tin destruction of tne larger part of<t- fleet. Commo dore Dewey at one brilliant stroke annihilated the Spanish fleet at Manila and Admiral Sampson's fleet inflicted a similar defeat t<> the Span ish squadron at Santiago. den. ^jliafter in a most gallant land attack ? Santiago drove the Spaniards back Wto their last trenches and forced a ^Hbendcr. Gen. Miles achieved a Hbmilar success in Porto Rico. These ?victories won in the short space of three months made Spain sue for peace. The Czar of Ru?ia issued an ap peal to the great powers of the world asking for an alliance in the interests of peace. I lis appeal was practicallv a plea for the disarmament of the militar- establishments of the world. W hat is known as the Dreyfus 1 ca^e agawi became a disturbing fac tor in France and nearly resulted in bringing about a revolution in that country and created dissensions ( which extended to other courts in , Fur ope. The meeting of a F.ritish and a French expedition on the terrltor\ of the upper Xile nearly precipitated a war between those two countries. The year was also notable for many rumors of alliances between the variolic powers of Europe, chang ing In some instances in a most im portant wav those now existing. THE Win WITH SPUV The troubles between Sr.a in and her re bellious subjects in Cuba, which had result ed in constant Irritation between Spain and the United Urates, fir <\\y culminated in a declaration <?f war by the I'nited States on April i?? This cam*4 about by a demand on ? the part of our government that Spain | should withdraw her troops from Cuba, and j thai at n??on of April '?\ was ihe time when she must give an answer -?s to her inten tions in the m.Kit*. The reports of tht cruel and inhuman tie-atm* :.t by the Spanish of th ? peacefully : iiicine.: p?-:pie of Cuba was the sourcc ot i a great deal of irritation to th people of ! the I'nited Slates. This irritation wus car- ! ried to a climax by the destruction of the i buttle ship Maine m the harbor of Havana on the nigiit of February ir>. The battle ! ship had been ordered to that point by ; th 1'resident to protect American citizens, who.-'- lives w* re thought to be in danger j through the riotous demonstrations which j had occurred in the Cuban city on several | occasions just previous. Owing to the j strained relations between the two go* :rn- | m?-nls. gre.it paius were tak it to emphasize j the peaceful mission oi tn? battle ship. j The report of her sudden destruction i came like a thunder clap to the people of j the l*nit? i States and settled th>- con vie- j tion in the minds of the great majority of j the people that war witb Spain was in- I evi table. Two officers and of tbe crew j of th.' ship lost their lives in the dtatster. | As the lull details of the awful catastrophe \\ > r learned a great wave of in?iignation ! sw? yt over th?- country', and an almost uni- j v- r>. i demand was rnadi upon the Presi- j dent to seeK revenge upon Spain for the disaster. on February IT a board of naval officers was appointed to investigate the disaster. This board consisted ot Capt. \V. T. Samp son. Captain F. K. Chad wick. Lieutenant Commander \\ ? T. 1'otter and lieutenant Commander A?ioipli Manx. Spain made a i reqiost lor a joint inves ligation of the J wreck, which was declined by the United j Stat-s. On March -s the President sent to i C? ? gr ss a report of the findings of this court of inquiry. The verdict of th'- court to tin effect that th< Malm hnd been ti.^tr>>yed by a submarine mine. Nothing v. >ai'i. l.-.wever, as to the l >ponsibility fur the disaster. Bfl ? mtHne (b ; ions between the two g \ ''.rn^nts v\ bei.-:'tiling more and more sti lined from other causes. When the S; . n:sh government hear*! that the Maine fcad been ordered to Havana the cruiser Viscaya was immediately dispatched from < s to the United States, arriving in New Y rk bay on February threi days after the destruction of the Maine. The warship 1; v in harhoc i-v. days and even pre c.iat: : was tak-n by officials ?.f the gov ernment to prevent any acts of aggression ?a th- part >t the |>eople toward the Span ish ship, and the officers of the latter re tr- tte.i with marks of somewhat formal consideration. The l)e Lome letter. Previous to the Maine incident wide spread indignation had been aroused among the !??'?? pie of the I'nited States by the pub lication <>f a letter written to Senor Canale in Cuba, by Senor Dupuy ele Lome, Spanish minister to the I'nited States. Stum Canaitjas had been sent on a special mison by his government to investigate matters in Cuba. It was generally con sidered that the purpose of h:> mission was ! to make a report denying or offsetting the | reports published in the I'nited States re- i garding the awful condition of affairs on j that island. Sen<>r De Lnine's letter con tained serious criticisms ??f the President, I describing him as "a weak man catering to j the rabble and moreover a low politician i wh ? w.shes to leave a door op* n for him- ! Self and to stand well with the jingos of his party." The incident resulted in the immediate resignation of Minister De Lome. lie was succeeded by Senor Polo y Bernabe, who presented his credentials to the* President on March 12. \ By this lime it became apparent that war was inevitable. Spain objected to the use of American men-of-war to send supplies to th- starving reconcentrados under the direction of the Rei Cross Society. She ob jected to General Lee being retained as j consul general at Havana and sought to ' have him recalled. On March H Congress, by unanimous vote, placed at th** j absolute disposal of the President for the nation's defense. The act brought out, a j ft w clays later, a strong remonstrance from the Spanish government, tn which objec tion was also raised to the presence of the United States fleet Key West. On April 11 President McKinley addressed to C. .ngress a message, in which he asked for authority to intervene for the purpose of stopping the war in Cuba between the Spanish and the insurgents. On April 19 the two houses of Congress c. .rr> d in the following resolution, which was sent to the President and by him ap pioved the next day: ??Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled: "1 That the people of the Island of Cuba are and of a right ought to be free and Independent. ?J. That it is the duty of the United States to demand and the government of the United States does hereby demand that the government of Spain at once relinquish its authority and government in the Island of Cuba and withdraw its land and naval forces from Cuba and Cuban waters. That the President of the United States be and he is hereby directed and empowered to use the en lire land and na val forces of the United States, and to call into the actual service of the United States the militia of the several states to such extent as may be necessary to carry these resolutions into effect. "1. Th 't the United States hereby dis claims any disposition or intention to exer cise sovereignty Jurisdiction or control over said island, except for the pacification thereof, and asserts its determination when tl at is accomplished to leave the govern t,- nt and control of the island to its peo ple." On April IS matters between the two governments had reached such an acute stage that Spain issued an appeal to the powers, in which she denied the reports of cruelty to the Cubans by her troops in tl?e island., and asserting innocence of any complicity in the Maine disaster. She also announced that under no consideration would she surrender her sovereignty in Cuba. Diplomatic* Relations Severed. Two days later came the memorable an nouncement by the United States Con gress. demanding that Spain should, with draw her troops from the island. On the day of the passage of the act Senor Ber nnbe. the Spanish minister, requested his passports and started for Canada. The government of Spain responded to the act of our Congress by an order from the queen regent convening the cortes and appealing to the Spanish people to defend their rights. The next day Spain severed diplo mats* relations with the United States by handing Minister Woodford his passports. A blockade of the principal ports of Cuba was proclaimed by the President April 22. This order marked the actual beginning of the war. and resulted in the immediate cap ture of a number of Spanish merchantmen ..s prizes by the United States fleet. The Spanish government responded on April Aith a decree that a state of war existed between Spain and the United Slates. In this declaration Spain reserved the right to commission privateers, up holding its right to grant letters of marque to a force of auxiliary cruisers to co-oper ate with h^r navy. Our State Department had previously is sued a declaration which said: "In the event of hostilities between the United States and Spain it will l>e the pol icy of this government not to resort tn privateering. The government will adhere to the following rules: "1. The neutral flag covers enemy's goods with the exception of the contraband of war. "2. Neutral goods not contraband of war are not liable to confiscation under the em my's flag. Blockades In order to be binding must be effective." On April 'Si. the President issued a procla mation calling for volunteer soldiers to serve for two years unless sooner dis charged. A second call for volunteers was i -a. i May 25, for TTi.ooo men. Th first attack of the American fleet v i ma< e at Mantanxas April 27. in which Admiral Sampson, with th* NTew York, Puritan and Cincinnati, bombarded some earthworks which the Spanish garrison at that point was engaged in constructing. The Spanish batteries were silenced with out loss on part of the fleet. The Spanish loss as reported officially consisted of the destruction of one mule. On May 11 the torpedo boat Winslow and the r?-venue cutter Hudson and the gun boat Wilmington entered the harbor of Car rms for the purpose of destroying three Spanish gunboats anchored within. A -hell from ono of the shore batteries struck the Winslow, rendering her help less. and while the Hudson was prepar ing to tow the disabled vessel out of range a second shell exploded among the crew ? f th?- Winslow killing Ensign Worth Bag lev and four others of the crew. A number of bombardments of towns on the Spanish coast by the fleet, under the c immune! of Admiral Sampson, took place at various times during the month of May and June. On May 12, a more serious ac tion was engaged in by the lK>mbardment of the forts of the harbor of San Juan. Porto Rico No material results so far as injury to the fleet or the permanent re duction of these forts was accomplished. Dewey at Manila. In the meantime, however, a signal vic tory had l*-en won by the American arms in another part of the world. When war was declared Commodore George F. Dewey was in Chinese waters in command of the Asiatic squadron. This fleet, which had rendezvoused at Hong Kong, in the latter part of April was notified by the English government that under the neutrality law it could not longer remain in that port. Commodore Dewey was ordered by Secretary Long of the Navy to proceed to Manila and capture or destroy the Spanish fleet which had gathered at that point. He sailed from Hong Kong on April IK with the following ships: The Olympia. Baltimore, Boston. Raleigh, Con cord. IVtral and the revenue cutter Mc i CuHough, carrying a total personnel of 1,6m officers and men. | The Spanish naval force in Manila, under command of Admiral Montejo, consisted of the following ships: Reina Cristina, Cas ; tilla, Velasco. Don Antonio de Ulloa, Don , Juan de Austria and the gunboats General I Lezzo. El Cano, Margues de Klredo, Isla 1 de Cuba and Isla de Luzon, and the mail i boat Isla de Mindanao, comprising a total persoai . i of LHI officers and men. The result of the action was summed up in the following telegram to the Secretary of the Navy: "MANILA. May 1.?Squadron arrived at Manila at daybreak this morning. Imme diately engaged the enemy and destroyed the following Spanish vessels: "Renia Cristina. Castilla, Don Antonio de Ulloa, Isla de Luzon, Isla de Cuba, General Lezo. Marques del Duera. Cnno, Valaseo, isla dj Mindanao, a 2u4 n. water battery at Cavite. The squadron is unin jured and only a few men are slightly wounded. Only means of telegraphing is American consul at I long Kong. I shall communicate with him. (Signed) "DEWEV," A second dispatch was received in Wash ington nu May 7, and was as follows: "CAVITE. May 4.?I have taken posses- . sion of naval station at Cavite on Philip- I pine Islands. Have destroyed the fortifica ! tions at bay entrance, paroling the garri- I . son. I control hay completely and can take I I city at any time. The squadron is in excel i lent health and spirits. Spanish loss not fully known, but very heavy. One hundred and fifty killed, including captain of Reina Cristina. I am assisting in protecting Span ish sick and wounded; '17+> sick and wound ed in hospital within our lines. Much ex citement at Manila. "Will protect foreign residents. (Signed) "DEWEV." Surprise to tlie World. The news of this splendid victory was a surprise to the world. Nothing like it had over be.?n accomplished before. It at once established the superiority of the American arms and had a wide-reaching effect in changing the attitude of some of the Euro X>ean powers whoso sympathy for Spain had almost taken the form of aggressive interference. The Secretary of the Navy expressed to Commodore Dewey, his officers and his m^n the thanks of President McKinley on behalf of the American people for the splen did achievement and overwhelming victory, and added: "In recognition he has appointed you acting admiral and will recommend a vote of thanks to you by Congress." Interest Revert* to Cuba. Interest was again turned toward Cuba in the latter days of May. On May It) a i Spanish squadron, under the command of Admiral Cervera, entered the harbor of Santiago. This squadron had lain for sev eral weeks at the Cape de Verde Islands, and the continued reports of its sailing and rumors of its having been sighted at a number of points along the coast served to keep up considerable excitement in cities along the coast and the keenest interest on the part of Admiral Sampson's fleet, which was watching for its arrival. About this time the whole worid was again astonished at the splendid perform ance of an American warship. On March VI Captain Clark left the Mare Island navy yard with the battle ship Oregon, under orders to proceed by way of Cape Horn and join Admiral Sampson in the West In dies. He reached th-- Straits of Magellan April 17. and at Punta Areas picked up the United States gunboat Marietta, thi two vessels arriving at Rio de Janeiro de Brazil April 30. At Rio he picked up the Nictheroy, a cruiser lately purchased from Brazil. In the run from Rio to Barbados in the West Indies the battle ship made some remark able records; < >n the way to Bahia th<* i Oregon ma'it ::7."? miles in twenty-four j hours, the greatest speed ever attained by | any warship for so ureat a distance. The I run from Bahia to Barbados, West Indies, li,."?7S miles, was made in nine days, an other unmatched record. On May 24 Cap tain Clark reported to the Secretary of the Navy at Washington from Jupiter Inlet, on the Florida coast, that he was ready for duty and awaited orders. On May Commodore Schley, who was patrolling the southern coast of Cuba with I his squadron in search of Admiral Cervera, : discovered the hitter's fleet in the harbor of Santiago and immediately established a close blockade of that port. The govern ment at once bent all its energies to the capture or destruction of that fleet. In pursuance of this object it was decided to land a force in the vicinity of Santiago and attack the fortifications there from the land side. A corps comprising a: out 20,000 men, of all arms, was organized and placed un der the command of Major General William It. Shafter, at Tampa, Fla. This force was successfully landed at Baiquiri, a j>oint 011 the Cuban coast about twenty miles east of Santiago, on June 11. Almost imme diatel> an advance was begun in the di rection of Santiago. Several minor skir mishes took plare in the next ten days be tween the invading army and the Spanish troops. The Battle of SnutiuKO. On July 1. the Spanish forces were found intrenched in a strong position on the hills north of the city of Santiago, and battle was immediately given to the enemy all along his lines, the heaviest fighting oc curring at the little town of El Caney and a strong redoubt known as San Juan Hill. As a result of the first day's fight the Span ish forces were driven back from the outer trenches, which were occupied by the American troops. Heavy fighting continued all next day between the opposing forces in trenches, and continued until noon of July 3, when General Shatter made a de mand on the Spanish general, IJnares, to j surrender. Negotiations for capitulation continued j until July 14. during which time no further serious fighting occurred, and on that date the Spanish commander signed an agree ment to surrender his forces to the United States. In this surrender he included all the troops in Santiago province west of a line running north and south through a point a little west of the city of Santiago. It was stipulated that the Spanish troops, so surrendered, should be deported to Spain at the expense of the United States govern ment. While these operations were going on on land the naval forces, under Admirals Sampson and Schley, achieved a second naval victory quite equal in brilliancy to that secured by Dewey at Manila. On Sunday morning, July ??, Admiral Cer vi ra attempted to escape from th'? harbor of Santiago with l.is fleet. In a space of about three hours this entire fleet was de stroyed by the American warships on the outside. The wrecks of the flower of the Spanish navy were strewn along the coast for a distance of sixty miles, and their crews after being terribly decimated by the fire of the American ships were all sur rendered. This victory, also like that at Manila, was won with a miraculously small loss of life on the part of any of the Ameri can warships, and little or no damage to the ships themselves. The formal surrender of the Spanish troops at Santiago took place at noon on Sunday. July 17, and this practically ended the war so far as Cuba was concerned. The Porto Riean Expedition. On July 18 (1,000 troops embarked at Tampa for Porto Rico. They were joiued at sea by General Miles on the auxiliary cruiser Yale, and seven days later a de tachment was landed at Puerto de Guan ica, near Ponce, where a skirmish took place between the Spanish troops and tho landing party. Three days later General I Miles telegraphed that the subjection of the Island was only a matter of a few (lays, as the Spanish would surrender, and that the people of the island were overjoyed at tb* arrival of the American troops. There was some sharp fighting as the army marched northward through the island toward San Juan, but the losses were slight as compared with the land operations at Santiago, and the capture of Porto Klco might almost be regarded as a bloodless % in "uie meantime Admiral Dewey had called for land reinforcements at Manila and several thousand troops were hurried over to him by transports, the soldiers em barking at San Francisco. On August K! the land forces under the command of Major General Merntt. sup ported by the ships or Admiral Dewey. made a successful attack upon the Spanish forces at Manila. About 11,000 Spanish prisoners were captured, and Gen. Jauder-b finally agreed to surrender. Pence >r#oliiitlon?. On July 20 M. Jules Carobon, the French ambassador at Washington, notilied Presi dent ilcKinley that he had been requested by the Spanish government to make in quiries as to what terms the United States would be willing to end the war. On July ?*j the President replied to Spain's inquiry, demanding the Independence of Cuba, ces sion of Porto Kico ami Guam, and the re tention of Manila, which was to be dis posed of by the action of a joint commis sion. Oil August 0 it was announced at Madrid that the queen regent had approved the condition of peace offered by America. On August a protocol embodying tile pro posed terms of peaif wus agreed upon be tween President McKlnley, Secretary Day and Ambassador Cambon. ihis protocol was referred back to tin;, Spanish govern ment and was approved August 11, and was promptly signed in tills eity the next daj. on September It the President appointed the following gentlemen i to constitute a com mission which was to mtel a similar com mission appointed bv Spain, in Pans, to arrange the details of the pence: William K Day, who resigned, bis position as Sec retary of State to aaeept the place at the head of the commission: Senator . i u^nrnan K i>avis of Minnesota. Senator W illiam 1. Frye of Maine, Senator U?org? oi Delaware and WhitcUw R*M of the New York Tribune. The** g-ul-men trfet.the Spanish commission in Paris in tin iAJte? part of Septe mber, and, immediately afttr organising, industriously pressed the claims of the Tinted States to ;i suece?teiu! issue, which was attained by the P'gning of a treaty on Saturday. December > American commissioners at once started for hom* and delivered ihe instrument to thL President the day before Christmas. Vnder the provisions of the protocol the Spanish troops in the ^rendered posses sions had already begun to be r"' mok and United States troops gradually took their places. Some disorders occurred in Havana between the Cubans and the di parting Spaniards. The question of the government of the new territories aroused lively differences of opinion among I art "S politicians and publicists of the 1nlted States, and what was termed the rtoctr nc of expansion became a lively political i^u<, noon which Vx.th the leading parties divided son" extent. The ,xpansion st, took he ground that it was the duty ot the 1 States to guarantee to all the people of the acquired Islands a stable form ot gov ernment, while their opponents took the position that all this government should do in the matter was to prevent outside Interference, as had been done in the cases of Haytl and Mexico, and let the people of the islands select their own form of gov ernment and run it themselves. \\hat might be termed a middle party f.nortd the adoption of the treaty as signed, ami proposed leaving the question of govern ment for the islands to Congress. 1 resi dent M. Kinley in his message to Congress had practically recommended this course of procedure. WAli INVESTIGATION. Soon after the close of hostilities in the war with Spain a great popular clamor was raised for an investigation of the con duet of the war. It was charged that se rious abuses and mismanagement had oc curred in the medical department and in certain branches of the quartermasters IT generally wherever it appeared that information was to be obtained. This commission is still at work. THE ('/.All'S PEACE PROPOSAL. On August 24 Count Muravlert, the Rus sian minister for foreign affairs, handed to each of the diplomats at the court of Rus sia a note signed by the czar, proposing an international congress for the purpose of bringing about a practical disarmament of the armies and navies of the world. The note, after presenting the desirability of peace based upon international suffrance and for humanitarian;principles, says: "lhe danger which lies in,,the continual massing of war material is transforming the armed peace of our days i#o a crushing burden, which the peoples luuve more and more dilil CUrhlsimomen"ous proposition Cell on Eu rope like a thunderbolt. Nothing like it had ever before been, proposed by the ruler of any great country. Coming from the ruler of a country with the strongest army in point of number hi the world; with a war chest which hfls been accumulating gold until all its neighbors hail become tightened at its wafiike proportions: com ing at a time when.the eyes ef the world were turned towartt* the conflict between Spain and the United)States; at a time when all Europe was listenSng for a shot, which, tired in some remote spot where rivals were struggling for supreinacy. would set half the world to fighting the other half, it was little wonder that this anti-climax in the form of a universal peace proposal fairly stunned the rulers of the Interested coun tries. Many questioned the czar's sincerity In making the proposal; some, mostly mili tary men of high rank, doubted Its prac ticability. but none questioned Its wisdom or Inherent humanity. The press of Eu rope commented at some length upon the proposal. In a general way the newspapers of England favored the proposition and urged the government to take the czar at his word and appoint commissioners to the proposed Internationa! peace congress The London Times hailed the proposal with something akin to delight, and most of the other London papers were equally well dis posed toward it. In Germany the tone of the press as well as the reported comment of men in public life, was tinged with, cynicism. The propo sition was regarded as cliimerieal and the sincerity of the proposer was questioned. Not riiexpected by Some. One curious phase of the comment In the English and German press was an intima tion that the proposal was not unexpected by the court circles of those countries, an! the assertion was made that Emperor Wil liam would have made the proposal him self on his trip to the Holy Land if the czar had not forestalled him. In France the czar's note fell with most stunning effect, as there It was apparent no previous intimation of its deliverance had been received even in governmental cir cles. Public men and the newspapers were slow in passing opinion on the proposal. The public mind immediately turned to Alsace-Lorraine, and by some the proposal w;?ft denounced as a scheme on the part of Russia and Germany to forever settle that question, so sensitive to the French heart, by international indorsement of the present status. In Italy, Spain and Austria the proposal was regarded either with indifference or cynicism. With few exceptions public men and the press of those countries were dis posed to question both the practicability and the sincerity of the proposal. In the I'nited States, then in negotiation with Spain to end the war existing with that country, the czar's note was treated with most respectful consideration. Its sincerity was accepted without question and its wise and humane purpose com mended. Several governments so far conformed to the wishes of-the czar as to appoint com missioners to the proposed conference, whose definite time of meeting has not yet been decided upon, but several suggestions have been made for the meeting to take place in the coming spring. ACTION 111 CONGRESS. While the situation in Cuba and prepara tions for the war with Spain occupied a great deal of the attention of Congress dur ing the past year, time was found to enact legislation of a general character. The most important was the enactment relating to Hawaii, and resulting in the an nexation of that republic to the United Slates. When it was found impracticable to ratify the treaty with Hawaii for the cession oi that country, owing to the fact that a two-thirds vote was required in the Senate for ratification, it was determined to accomplish the purpose by a resolution of annexation. To pass this only a majority was required, and it was easily obtained. A commission was sent to Hawaii to study conditions and recommend legislation to Congress for the government of the new territory. The commission has reported and committees of Congress are at work on a plan of territorial government for Ha waii, which is now possessed by the United States. The legislation connected with the war with Spain included authority for the issue of .*i;oo,imh),O(j0 worth of bonds and the en actment of a system of internal revenue taxation, which is still in operation. Other legislation of importance was the enactment of a bankrupt law, which had long been demanded. An act was passed prohibiting the killing of fur seals in the North I'aciflc ocean. A commission was authorized to consider problems relating to labor and capital and is now sitting in Washington. Important legislation relating to the organization of the army and navy was enacted during the war excitement. THE ItRKVI'lS CASE. What is commonly known as the Dreyfus case continued to be a most seriously dis turbing factor in French politics during the year. 11 was made a religious as well as a political question, and finally became a contest between the civil and military au thority of the republic. The case of Drey fus was practically reopened by the court martial of Count Esterhazey which began January lit. The friends of Dreyfus had charged that Count Esterhazey had ad dressed a note to a representative of a for eign power (unnamed), but well understood to be Germany, giving away the secrets of the French national defense. The trial was a prefunctary affair behind closed doors and a unanimous verdict of acquittal ? was rendered on the second day. The an nouncement of the verdict created the wild est excitement, which extended from the court room throughout France. The feeling between the friends of the army and the friends of Dreyfus became greatly embittered as a result of this trial, partaking of the character of the bitterest animosity against the Jews and denudation of protestantism, as some prominent pro testants were found among the champions of Dreyfus. The following extract from the Eclair a newspaper of Paris will give an idea of the extent to which this religious bigotry was carried. "The movement in favor of Dreyfus is solely a pretext on the part of the English. German, Jew-Protestant syndicate to es tablish for good their rule in France." Serious tumults and riots in Paris and in several of the cities followed. In Paris the students of the Latin quarter were the most prominent of the anti-Dreyfus demon strationists and the so-called socialists and anarchists their noisiest opponents. When ever the name of Dreyfus was mentioned in the chamber of deputies, it was the signal for high tumults. Members of the chamber and the people In the galieries frequently engaged in fighting and general rioting so that troops were frequently called in to suppress the disturbances. Trial of Erail Zola. Directly after the trial of Esterhazey Emile Zola, the novelist, addressed an open letter in the Aurore to President Faure pointing out the Irregularity in the court martial and accusing several high officers of the French army of perjury and challeng ing the government to prosecute him. The government took notice of the challenge and announced its purpose to prosecute both M. Zola and the publisher of the Au j rore. The trial began Fehruary T. From the beginning to the end there were scenes of disorder and violence almost throughout I France which had not had a parallel since the stormy days of the French revolution. ( The trial ended February 15. and after de liberating a few minutes the jury rendered a verdict of guilty, and the court sentenced Zola to twelve months' imprisonment, Per reux, the publisher of Aurore, to four months' imprisonment, and each of them to pay a tine of 3.0U0 francs. On April 2 the court of cassation quashed the sentence imposed upon Zola upon technical grounds. A second trial against Zola was begun In the assize court in Versailles on May 22. On this second trial Zola and Perreux were both convicted and sentenced to pay heavy lines, besides submitting to one year's imprisonment. Zola fled to Switzer land to escape the punishment. Mystery and sensation culminated In the i celebrated case when Lieutenant Colonel Henry of the French military intelligence bureau confessed to having forged one of the documents tending: to show the guilt of Captain Dreyfus. Soon after being placed under arrest the confessed forger took his own life, though it was hinted a'.so that he had m^t with foul play in his cell. As a result of the confession of forgery by Colonel Henry the friends of Dreyfus began a movement to reopen the case, which is still pending and which promises to meet with success. A\*EXATIO\ OF HAWIU. On July 0 the Senate >f the Vnitod Slates by a vote of 42 to 21 passed what is termed the Newlands resolution for the annexation of the Islands of Hawaii. The same reso lution had been passed by the House on June 15 by a vote of -Oil to ill. 'I bus ended a controversy as to a#question of national policv which hud been ?:i with more or less inteiruption since the administration of President Harrison, it narh..j the be ginning of what has become termed the policy of expansion of the LnUed btates. the resolution, by virtue of which the islands become a part of the I ntted Slates, provides lor the cession by the Hawaiian republic of all rights of sovereignty over the islands and their Indepeiuieiie. and the cession and transfer to the 1'nited Males of all public property, and assures the Ha waiian public debt to an amount not ex ceeding $4.0ou.ouo. It prohibits further im migration of Chinese and provides foi the appointment of five commissioners two of whom at least shall be residents of Hawaii, to recommend necessar> legislation. It provides thai special laws shall be en arted bv Congress for tile management and disposition of public lands and all levenues arising from sale of such land to be applied to the use of the Hawaiian government f'*r educational and other public purposes. It provides that Hawaiian treaties with other countries must immediately cease and ' replaced by those between the I lilted States and such countries. The municipal legislation not contrary to the Constitution Ot the United Stales was to retnaiu in force until otherwise determined I ntil legislation was enacted extending tie custom laws of the I niied Stales the customs relations then existing on the is land will remain unchanged. THE EASTERN UIKS'I'IOV AGAIN. In the early part o? the present year con siderable friction arose between England on the one hand and Germany, Kussia and France oil the other over the partition of Chinese territory. During the latter part of 18U7 Germany had occupied Kiao-Chau har bor and some adjacent territory. This called forth no protest from the other Eu ropean powers at the lime, as it was noted that China had granted Germany no trade rights exclusive of other nations. A little later the announcement from FeKm thai a .Russian fleet was to winter at Fort Arthur, with China's sanction, aroused the keenest apprehension in British commereial and in ternational relations. The suspicion was expressed that Germany, Russia and France had entered into a combination against England. This suspicion was strengthened when it developed that Kussia and France were endeavoring to prevent China's acceptance of a British loan of turn outi. it was next r. ported in London that the French fleet occupied the important Island of Hai-Nan. But in the latter part of February England gained an advantage in the long competition for the Chinese loan, which was made by German and Eng lish capitalists and guaranteed by the gov ernments of England and Germany. By means of this loan the ports recently ac quired by Russia and by Germany, us well as all other ports, are held open to all na tions. Chinese Emperor Deposed. About the 1st of October the Dowager Empress of China deposed the emperor and dismissed from the Chinese cabinet all his former advisors. Tills was generally con sidered to be the result of the young em peror s effort in the direction of reform and the adoption of the Eutopean question. Serious rioting occurred in lYkm and other cities ot the empire, in whieh Europeans were assaulted. Armed forces were dis patched to the Chinese capital by the pow ers at the request of their representatives there. The Chinese officials at first refused to allow the troops to land, but finally con sented and the troops were permitted to enter the capital and peace was restored. THE IKAH'S lHSASTEHS. The closing year was notable for many disasters. The bubonic plague broke out with unusual virulence in India and car ried away thousands of natives. A tornado at Fort Smith, Ark., killed forty people and caused a property loss of over $1,1*00,000. During the week ending February r> a se vere blizzard swept the north Atlantic coast, causing great loss of lite at sea and doing tremendous damage to properly. The loss in Boston alone win estimated at $2,000,000. Thirty-two persons were drowned in the wreck of the channel steamer Queen, run ning between Plymouth and the Island of Jersey in England. On Monday. July 4. the French liner La Bourgogne was sunk off Sable Island, Nova Scotia, in a collision with the British ship Cromartyshire. Of the 714 persons on board 550 were lost. Of those saved 105 were mem bers of the crew. A great conflagration at Nijni Novgorod. Russia, on August 15 destroyed a good part of the city and caused the loss of many lives. Fearful havoc was caused on the Islands of Trinidad, Barbadoes and St. Vincent by hurricanes during the week ending Sep tember 17. An epidemic of yellow fever broke out in Mississippi during the latter part of September and created a panic among the people of the state. The governor and state officers lied from Jaekson and the greatest confusion prevailed at the state capital. The disease continued with more or less severity until checked by cold weath er. The loss of life, however, by the scourge was not so heavy as during the epidemic of the year previous. A fire in the business section of Pittsburg destroyed $1,500,000 of property, caused the death of eleven persons and injured many others. Fire in Manila, capital of the Philippine Islands, destroyed 200 buildings. The Alaska steamer Clara Nevada sank, with over forty persons on board, all of whom were lost. The steamer Fl&tjep, bound from Mar seilles for Colon, was wrecked on one of the Canary Islands, and thirty-eight of her crew and forty-nine passengers were lost. Disastrous floods occurred along the Ohio river and the rivers tributary to it in Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. A severe earthquake shock was felt In central California in the latter part of March. Several houses In San Francisco were wrecked, including the machine shops at Mare Island navy yard, but no loss of life occurred. . J, A terrlllc rain storm In the Indian terri-1 tory repultid In considerable lo<s of life. A second rise in the olilo and other w-sii-rn river* did cemslderable damage In Indian* and Illinois. Forty-fight members of the crow of the steamer OrH'nltnd perished in a ?torm in north Atlantic lev lloes. Two hundred fishing boat* *prc swept away by a tidal wave at Swat**, iajtao, and !.>*! people reported drowned. Fifty-three live* were lost at sea near Calcutta t>y collision between the British steamer Mecca and the steamer I.indula. which she was towing. The Mecca wag t>unk. Several thousand square miles of moun tain forest lands w- re >wept Ivy tire in the vicinity of Glenwood. Col., during the lat ter part of September, and the damage to ranches and homes wb- rv-ixirted to be enormous. Forest tires also swept a larso territory in Wisconsin, the village of t'um berian ' being almost entirely w\p.-d out. At the launching of the Itritish Iwittle ship Albion, near kondon. a heavy wave, caused by the displacement of the water a* the ship" left the ways, resulted in the drowning of about fifty people. KIOTS 111 KIM. THE VK.tK. The past year was notable for several serious riots. The white people in several sections of North Carolina had become very restive under what was termed by them local negro domination. As the fall elec tions drew nigh organizations known as ??Red Shirts'* were formed for the express purpose of keeping the negroes away from the polls. It was asserted by the whites that they had no objection to the negroe* voting for members of Congress and state officers, but that 'hey should not vote for candidates for the county offices. As the election approached, the situation became verv siriou:-. and Governor Russe.i was urged to call for federal troops, but as no open outbreak had taken place this se med to be impracticable. In the city of Wil mington. where the situation seemed to l>e the most desperate, the danger of a race conflict was thought to have been averted by an agreement between the representa tives of the lending parties to withdraw the county ticket In that county. When the elections cam- along the dem ocrats gained an overwhelming \lclory, but the mole radical white element was not satisfied with this. They demanded that the objectionable office holders should at once resign. The feeling of hostility toward the negroes an 1 the republican office hold ers had been greatly intensified by the publication of a scandalous article regard ing the women of the south by a negTO edi tor of Wilmington. Moll Element in Command. The more conservative element of the whites were soon swept along with the popular clamor. A demand was made on the mayor and other municipal officers of the city, as wvll as the sheriff and other officers of the county, to resign, ami a dale set upon which they would be forcibly ex pelled if th. ir resignations wore not forth coming. The officers in question responded promptly by complying with the request of the mob, and prominent citizens of the place were immediately appointed to take their places Notice was also served on the negro editor that within a certain time lie must leave the state and remove ail of his printirg presses and material. Friends of this man who had already left the state agreed that the demand should be complied with within the specitied time. By some miscarriage this answer never reached the revolutionary party in the time specified and the mob elen.ent among the whites be came uncontrollable. They burned his print ing office and destroyed his nvat-ri i . In the genera 1 lawlessness and confusion a clash took place between armed whites and negroes and several lives were lost on both sides. The latter, however, suffered much the most severely. Fortunately, however, the counsels of the more conservative element prevailed, and what threatened to be a most b oody race war ended with this single selie-us resort to force. The Yirden It tots. Tho union miners employed In the coal mines at Virden, 111., went on strike early in the summer. As the fall seasoi. came on, and the question of wages, over which tbo difficulty occurred, not having l?een settled, the owners of the nines undertook to start up by importing colored miners from the south. The strikers bitterly resented this | action and prepared to make trouble. Gov ernor Tanner, in an interview, had op-nljr expressed himself In favor of tile strikers. ! Serious rioting began on the arrival some what later of a ear load of newly imported mine-rs. A number of men were killed on 1 both side-:!. State troops were called out, however, and an end was Bpredily put to tile conflict. \er?llct of l.nttimer Jury. The verdict rendered early in M.irch In the case of Sheriff Martin and his deputies, charged with the killing of striking miners at Lattimer, Pa., in September. lv>7. was one of acquittal. Seinie of the strikers hav ing been subjects of the Austrian govern ment. the authorities at Vienna sought to securo indemnity for the families of the victims. The case was dropped, however, when the I'nited States government dis claimed all responsibility In the- matter. Strikes of serious proportions e>ccurre<l during the year among the cotton mill op eratives and she?e workers in several of the New Kngland manufacturing towns and these differences, mainly as to a question e>f wages, have not yet been settled. THi: Pll.LAe.KK INDIAN W IH. Barly in October trouble arose ame>ngthe Pillager Indians, living on Bear I^ake, Min nesota. United States marshals, who had attempted to arrest some members of the tribe for violating Internal revenue laws, were driven off by the Indiana. On Octol>er 5 Gen. Bax:on, with a detachment of the Infantry, went to Bear Islanel to bring the recalcitrants to terms. They arrived at the island the next day. and were fired upon by the Indians in ambush. Mai. Wilkinson of the 3d Infantry, six privates and one Indian policeman were killed. It was reported that thirty of the Indians were killed. After a heroic tight the little bajid of regulars finally repulsed the Indians. Reinforce ments were immediately forwarded to Gen. Bacon, and the uprising was put down without further loss of life. THE FAI.L KLBtTlOll*. State and congressional election* wcr? held in November, the only states not electing officers being Maine, Vermont and Oregon. The result in both the ?tat* and national phase of the election was a mark ed triumph for the republican party. Thg