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THHKK LITTLE MAIDS AT SCHOOL.
PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS What is Being Done Now in the Way of Education. SYSTEMATIC ORGANIZATION NEEDED The Pupils Are Unusually Bright and Intelligent. TIIEIR METHODS OF STUDY (Copyright, 1900, by Frank G. Carpenter.) Special Correspondence of The Evening Star. MANILA, August 1, "1900. One of the most important things our government has to do in the Philippine Is lands Is the establishment of a good public school system. At present not more than twenty per cent of the people can read and write. There are districts in which very few of them can speak Spanish and there are hundreds of thousands of school chil dren who have had no school advantages. For the past four years, owing to the trouble with the Spaniards and the Amer icans, many of the schools have been dis continued. In every Island I have visited I have found the school houses vacant, and nearly everywhere they are going to ruin. In some parts of Luzon they have been burned by the Insurgents and in others the tcachers have had to leave because they wore connected with the friars. With the advance of our army every town which has been garrisoned has been given a school. The officers urge the people to open the school Houses and .tell them that they must Support their own schools and that English must be one of the studies. In some places the soldiers are teaching, and everywhere attempts are made to organize a new system of education. Here tofore the Philippines have had nothing like a public school system. They have had schools in most of the villages, but tho tcachers have been appointed by the priests and the studies hav? been controlled by thtm. The chief teaching has been in the catechism and along lines of religious in struction, and today the priests object de cidedly to having the catechism taken out of the schools. The schools were opened with the reading of '-athollc prayers, and until now every school had a crucifix hung up over the teacher's desk. The same pray ers are used now by many of the American ter.chers. one of them telling me that she thought it better to keep up the prayers notwithstanding she was a Protestant her self. In Mnnlla. At present there is no systematic school organization of the islands. Each military official prescribes for his own district, and it is a sort of go-aS-you-please. The only place where there is anything like a bu reau of education is in Manila. Here we have a superintendent of public instruction. This is Mr. George P. Anderson, a Seattle man. the son of one of the leading college educators of the northwest. Prof. Anderson graduated In one of the Washington state universities, and about nine years ago fin ished a course of three years at Yale He carne out here as a soldier in the 2d Ortgon Volunteers, but he has been placed at the head of this department. He tells tn<- that there are now between forty and fifty public schools in Manila, with an at tendance of four or five thousand pupils? not more .than one-tenth of what there should be in this city of *Unmmpeople. The schools, with one or two exceptions, are all of the primary grade. The language used is mainly Spanish, KngiLsh being taught for only a portion of the day. The English tcachers are in most places American girls, the daughters of the officials here. Some few have been school teachers at home, but many are new. experimenting for the first time on the poor Filipinos. Many of quickness and intelligence of the pupils. They are very apt at learning and are the equals, I believe, of children of the same age in the United States. Let me take you into one of the schools, and show you just how it looks. It is a primary school, for as yet little more than the primary grades have been established. The school house is nothing like any you have seen in the United States. It is a one story building, about thirty feet square, bult upon posts ten feet in height. It has sliding windows made up of a lattice work of hundreds of little squares, in each of which a piece of oyster shell not thicker than your thumb nail has been fitted. These shells serve to keep out the hot sun, and they are so transparent that they admit enough light for study and work. The windows are always open, except where they keep out the sun, so that the air may sweep through. There is a little cocoanut tree In front of the building I am describ ing. and we pass through a grove of banana trees on our way to the back yard, where the entrance is found. Going upstairs, we find two or three rooms filled with little children at work. How Filipino School Born Drown. In this school all are boys, for there is no co-education In Manila, and the boys and girls each have schools of their own. The boys are as brown as mu lattoes, and their hair is cut short, so that it stands up like black bristles over their little bullet-like heads. Notice their eyes, j They are black, and the most of them snnp with the Interest they show in the teach ing. How queerly they dress. If our boys wore their clothes in this way their teach ers would send them straight home. Each boy has his shirt tails outside of his trous ers, and each is in his bare feet, or in slip pers, without stockings. Fully half of the number cannot help studying out loud, ac cording to tho custom which was taught in the past, but which our American teachers are trying to abolish. As we stand and look at the school the native teacher comes out. It seems queer to us that he keeps his hat on while he is teaching, and stranger still when he pulls cigarettes from his pockets then and there and asks us to Join him in a emoke. He shows off the scholars, but the language is Spanish, and we can hardly say whether they do well or ill. A fiirln* School. Later on I visited one of the primary schools for girls. The teachers were wo men, and among them was an American girl who told me that she found the chil dren quite as bright as our school children at home. "With her assistance I photo graphed some of the pupils, taking three little girls as a sample, and later on made a picture of a class. She had some of the little ones recite Their English lesson, and they did remarkably well. The teachers are doing all they can to inculcate Americanism. Last Fourth of July there was a school celebration at which pyrotechnic speeches on liberty were made, and the Declaration of Independence read by one of the pupils. On Washing ton's birthday American flags were put IX A HOYS I'ltlMAIlY SCHOOL. th> in >r under the disadvantage of not knowing the Spanish language. bui they .ire nil learning rapidly, and, considering their laek of normal school training, are doing remarkably well. They are very well paid, each teacher receiving a salary of $1,440, or ST'Jo in gold. Thi* is, I ihink. for a year of ten months. WIiiit Ik Seeded. What we need here is a bureau of edu cation, officered by practical American teachers, who will take charge of the edu cational system of the whole archipelago and direct it from here. There should be a supply of American teachers so that there could be at least one English teacher in every village and school district, with a corps of general superintendents, who could go from district to district and see that the children are beir.g properly taught. The best educated of the native teachers should be retained and the work for years will have to be continued in Spanish. The children should be compelled to go to fchool. They need new school buildings find new school books, and. In fact, a borough reorganization ot their educa tional system. They are, 1 am told, in foearly all places anxious to learn and per fectly willing to pay for the best school vantages, but In order to have these here must be Americans at the head of he school system and enough _ merlcan teachers scattered throughout the whole to leaven the lump. I have visited a number of the public Schools of Manila. I am surprised at the over all the school buildings for the first time, and there were appropriate exercises in co?nm? munition of little George and his remarkable hatchet. I doubt whether the hati het story lias a.-! much force here as in America, for the Filipino child has thus far not been taught to reverence the truth. It seems funny u> think of Jesuit priests, in their gowns, acting as teachers of the public schools of a I'nited States posses j si'in. This is the case here, but it is a necessity for the present at least. The only high school of the islands is the Ateneo, or Jesuit College. It has about 800 pupils boys, from fourteen to eighteen, all well dressed and bright-looking. The profes sors are dark-faced, black-haired Spanish | priests, and, as far as 1 could judge from ! my conversation with them, well-educated | men. Their college building is just next to the Church of San Ignacio, one of the finest churches in Manila. The college Is very large, comprising many rooms, floored with mahogany, and a theater, which is to be finished in native woods carved by the Fili pinos themselves. The carving of the church interior was done entirely by na tives, apd it equals in beauty, I venture, any cathedral of Europe. One of the fea tures of this college is its musical instruc tion. During my visit I found about twen ty boys seated at pianos, all hammering away at their exercises at the same time and each on a different key. In other rooms the boys were engaged In sketching, and in others they were carving. They show considerable artistic ability, and are, the priests say, very good at all things along the lines of the beaux arts. This school received, I understand, the most of its income from the public school funds. Manila Colleges. There are several colleges here in Manila managed by the different clerical orders, but none which will compare with even the second-class colleges of the United States. Each has a long list of studies in it curriculum, but as to practical educa tion along modern lines it is unknown. One of the largest colleges, St. Thomas, is older than any college in the United States, having been founded at least ten years be fore our Pilgrim Fathers landed on Ply mouth Rock. St. Thomas belongs to the Dominican friars, one of the richest of the clerical organizations, and one which has caused a vast deal of trouble in the Philip pine Islands. The Dominicans also own the College of San Juan de Letran, which was founded in the middle of the seven teenth century. It was at this college that Aguinaldo was educated, but he does not seem to have carried away pleasant memo ries of his school days, for he has been one of the chief enemies of the friars ever since his graduation. In addition to these institutions is the College of St. Joseph, founded by the Jesu its in HKil and then endowed with three professorships by the King of Spain at each. There are also schools for girls here, taught chiefly by the nuns, such as the Colleges of Santa Isabel, Santa Rosa and La Concordia, so that so far as name is concerned Manila has had no lack of edu cational institutions, although there is prob ably not a city of its size in the world so wanting in educational advantages of real value. The Lord's l'rnjer In Tasain. There are a number of native newspapers published in Manila and at other places throughout the Philippine Islands. Some are in Spanish and others are in Tagalo. A Tagalo paper looks very strange to Ameri can eyes. The type seems to have been grabbed up at random and thrown Into the columns without regard to order .or reason. The language Is harsh, containing many nasal sounds, and rather grating on the ear of the foreigner. 1 give you here a copy of the Lord s Prayer in Tagalo. As you look at it you wi'l recall the story of the man who thought repeating his pray ers every night too much trouble and econ omized his time by writing them out and pasting them on the head of his bed, so that before he went to sleep he had only to point to the paper and say: "Oh, Lord, them's my sentiments. Amen." That man must have been a Tagalo. Anyway, here is the prayer: "Ama namin sung ma sa langit casam bahin ang nagla mo. Napa sa amin ang cahavian mo. Sundin ang loob mo aqui sa lupa para nang sa langit. Higyan mo cama ngaion nang amin canin sa araonas. Pata varin o mo cam! sa dilan masama." In looking over the prayer you will no tice that the most of the consonants are n's and m's and one in every eight Is a g. It is indeed a curious language. Nearly all of the names of the towns in the Island PUBLIC SCHOOL. BUILDING. as sst?ro%w ve* ?< ihi" l"i7:not'm lh" Phll,"P,n?' at feast one comiiuratlwly?fcW'Snk wHtJlf"th?U*h The Vlnaynn Literature. N\xt to the Tagalos come the Visayans Thev aK V are PerhapS two m'"'ons' They aibo have a iangUage and Ilte but the literature Is largely made up of the miss,?narie8 the The Visayan is not unlike the Tagaio as which f 8een,from ^e following extract lvt? ?h Py um one of ,hf ir tracts mere! iSSsssawram ssSS3~S3?: Sg;aK &~f? ^,'if r? The Moron n..,l the Kornn. As to the Moros, the only education which they have had up to now is learning the M?han" T,He U'aChlng is 311 rfone by n th 1 ZW?'lan Pr,ests- The books are in the Arabic characters, and the little ones in "a s1n^n ?" th'* fla?r ?r the ?r,'und and until they have learned them Th ,>rayers ly keep a book before them as Thev but as to learning to ? , Astu<^' or as to anv V i ?.s in Arabic 5KmLdanh iLnd^ ar8<u^? In our tion wii/'have"to'beg?n' ttheh,s,an,ls educa SrlTiSVr '5,"" w'"rn.?d;?aS| , r f?* ">any of the books are in Smn chiefhope is in the children and? noAn [ne in Spanish o.rniption.be?n bFed a,Ul raised PRANK G. CARPENTER. Miatook Ilurtflar f?P a Sleepwalker. i- roiu the Philadelphia 1'nblle Ledger The residence of J. Wood Hannold. near ZSSSZ'uT", V,9,ted b>' a burglar early ZnlT , m"lrn,np' and ,ha? the fellow es caped is due largely to a peculiar mistake - Ir. Hannold is one of the best known farmers in this section, and he and his sons arh,8tUr<,y Chalkley ocea^ily tal Tt^SS' ami .he burglar owe, hi, abort, ,? It was shortly after midnight that family was aroused by the barking f t dogs. Mr. Hannold succeed^ ii g ?.f the dSgulsh?[h? form ofin&hf co"d took hold of the fe1h>w"s unl" he i h^ l'Kiuiry, and the burglarTeXd-^1^ I The figure then retreat*,? ie? and Harvey, all unconscious that h! d00r I mate Was a burglar got out n? k room lowed, as he suddo'J*? kV Vf b?d a-nd fol [ stairs. But when the first brother down the stranger took a hurried deiTarti reach*<l | a few minutes later Harv^v I e' and and window open, and it thin ^und a door him that he had actualiv ,JVdAWned uP?n had hold of a robber Nothw*^ with 30(1 from the house. -Nothing was missed Retort Conrteoni, yroin the Philadelphia Press. .nN" ur'L,,'? >OU'V? *?< ??? ?*. r.? Hk. I."?' N?d<?^"" ????? to m. r.m? lecieil ILr^hoS; |tim'|?hTrhiy we se" ?ou?d or your daughter's p?? phSS?"" LONDON! GOSSIP South African Wasr is a Costly Bisk to Insuranoe Companies. ? -j AMERICANS BUSY SIGHTSEEING f Coal Will Be Dear and Currants Scarce This Winter. THE TORN- UP STREETS Special Correspondence of The Evening Star. LONDON, September 4, 1000, The annexation of the Transvaal has caused no stir at all In England. The news Is given In small type In all the pa pers and burled In columns of other war matter. A few editorials mention the fact, but only to dismiss It as inevitable and simply what was expected. The end of the war now seems In sight. Almost the last stand of the Boers has been taken and at best only a guerrilla war fare can be continued. Interest In the con flict is now confined almost wholly to those who have friends among the troops, the politicians and those interested in the mines and other resources of the country. I was talking with an officer of yeomen the other day, and he told me that the men of his troop had been most anxious to go out to South Africa and made all arrangements to stay there, expecting to "tape up" Boer farms and settle In the land. Out of over 1 a hundred he knew well all but three are back in England, swearing that they never want to hear of South Africa as long as they live. They are heartily sick of the country, and would not have taken Boer farms even if they had been as easy to obtain as they had supposed. Every one I have seen who has been out there lis tirfed of it and heart ily glad to be back. In a general way everybody knows that the South African war has been an ex ceptionally deadly one for the officers en gaged. but the result of working the sub ject out Is not a little astonishing. It would have surprised no one to be told that in a war against a people, Including a large proportion of competent marksmen, the risks of officers were twice those of the men; but it will excite some surprise to learn that the relations of risk were three and a half to one. The mean total of offi cers engaged is put down at B.tttO, and of these 380 were killed or died of wounds. This yields a death rate of 72.1 per 1,000. The number of non-commissioned officers and men who were killed or died of wounds was 3,580, which Is equal to a death rate of l'J per 1,000 of those engaged. The men suffered slightly more than the officers from disease, which slew more than the Boers, the death rate of the former being 31.8 per 1 .<100 and of the latter 30.0. Taken together, the risks of battle and of disease have been greatly beyond precedent, and those very cautious people, the actuaries of the in surance companies, have been completely deceived in their ca!pulations. They have been accustomed to charge otHcers from 5 to 7 guineas per cent on their war risk premiums, whereas a premium of 10 guin eas per cent would barely have paid ex penses when the death rate was 1<m.7 per 1,000. The ^totals are rather large, 281 officers and 2,500 men have thus far been killed in action; seventy-nine, and 732. respectively, have died of wounds and ir>o officers and 5,*.15 men have died from disease. The grand total of losses from all causes, including prisoners now in captivity and not counting those released, is 40,501! The American VlMitatlon. London swarms wltn American visitors of both sexes. They seem to have taken pos sess^pn of the town. They are much more numerous about places of interest than her majesty's subject*. In the streets of the West End nearly every third person one meets is an American man or woman. Yes terday afternoon six Americans descended from an omnibus onto which I climbed at ( haring Cross. It was an ordinary experi ence. You hear the accents of Uncle Sam in ail the shops, all the restaurants, and very much in all the more expensive hotels I Our country Deople seem to like London nowadays much better than Paris. It is more comfortable. It is less expensive. It is quite as full of amusements and the civility of the London police and of Eng lish servants Is delightful. A Regent street shopkeeper said In an in ter\ lew. I should say tha.t for one Ameri can customer last year we have had five this year. We are already having many customers who have been to the exhibi tion and appear to have reserved much of their shopping for London. Americans have of late years gone about the English counties a good deal. Where they used to confine their travels to Scotland and Shakespeare s land they now have learned to appreciate the gentle and lovely scenerv of England. J Repair* ("ongeNt Street*. Fleet street, Oxford street, Ludgate Hill, Victoria street and other thoroughfares which converge citywards are in a dis tressingly congested state at the present time. By one of those strange freaks of officialdom not only is the Victoria em bankment by the Thames undergoing re pairs, but the streets running at right angles, which would have taken much of its traffic, are also closed to the public by the road menders. The post office peo ple have also seized upon this moment to dig up the roads, in order to lay telephone cable conduits, with the result that the greater part of the traffic of London has now to pass along the few main thorough fares. The result can be imagined It took me yesterday just half an hour to get from Fleet street to the Mansion House about half a mile. At that point mv progress seemed debarred so effectually that I dismissed my driver and proceeded on foot to my destination. Certainly the quickest way to set about the streets Just now is not by means of the favorite han som. or the more popular omnibus, but by using: the sidewalks. August and Septem ber are the months for this sort of thing (n London, but this year it is worse than 1 ever knew it to be before. Sir Walter Scott Relics. Admirers of Sir Walter Scott have a rare chance of securing some interesting relics of the great novelist. They are advertised for sale by a Arm of booksellers, who state that they were "recently the property of the Rev. T. Scott Hunley, great nephew of Sir Walter. Among them is a relic of Scott's great-grandfather and namesake, described in the novelist's own indorsement as fol lows: "A lock of the beard of Walter Scott (Beardie), my great-grandfather, who swore never to shave till King James the Second was restored." Another of the relics Is a lock of Sir Walter Scott's hair In a wrapper inscribed (by his niece Janet) "the hair of my beloved and revered uncle. Sir Walter Scott, given me by his servant, John Nicholson." But perhaps the most valuable of the lot Is a silver taper stand, with extinguisher and chain. This Is the veritable gift presented to his mother by Scott with the proceeds of his first fee as an advocate. After her death, Sir Walter always kept it before him on his writing desk. When he passed away It came into the possession of his eldest daughter, wife of Lockhart. who mentions the stand in his life of Scott. Such treasures ere not to be picked up every day?and the price Is only 180 guineas, about $7.T0. Householders' Troubles. What with dear coal, a promised scarcity of currants for the Christmas pudding, and the dread of the plague, householders in London are not feeling very happy just now: and to add to their troubles, they are threatened with a strike of servants. The great army of menials Is organizing and demonstrating In Hyde Park, and there are dire threats of what the humble "gen eral" servant and the lordly butler may do in the near future, in the Interim, how ever, masters and mistresses are to be given a chance of becoming more respect ful and less exacting in their ways. It 1? understood that the program of the domes tic will bear among other items the legends "No cold meat" and "Followers not to be discouraged." Few ot the Plnifne. Some anxiety prevails In medical circles here lest the outbreak of bubonic plague at Glasgow should spread to London. The number of steamers plying between the two ports Is very considerable, and for the present at least no quarantine regulations have been Issued. Apart from the injury to trade it might be very difficult to iso late an outbreak if it once got a firm hold In the Cast End of London. The slums about the London docks may not bo so dir ty as those of Gla^ow, but the population Is terribly crowded, and where eight or nine eople simetlmes live In one room they on't need to attend a wake to catch the contagion. "Mark Twain" Is now living at Doills Hill, which he Is renting from Sir H::gli Cllzean Reld. He is working very haid, but he is enchanted with his English home and declares that he can write be'.ter ihero than anywhere else. L. H. MOOIIE. HAS A SIXTY-DOLLAR U1I.L. A Spokane Man'* Piece of Money That the Treasury Han Pronounced Good. From the Spokane Chronicle. Spokane has the only paper bill in United States currency known to be in ex istence. It was Issued at the first session of the Continental Congress in 1778, and carries with It all the crudity of that age. It Is a peculiar-looking document, being a piece of greenish paper of much the same material as the present paper money, except that it Is heavier. In shape it is almost square, with dimensions of about four by three and a half inches. On one side of the bill Is written the re ceipt. which la as follows: "This bill entitles the bearer to receive 00 Spanish milled dollars for value received In gold or silver, according to a resolution passed by Congress at Philadelphia, Sep tember 2*t, 1778." On the back of the bill Is drawn a bow with a set arrow. Along the margin the value of the bill Is again printed, and at one side the words "Printed, Hall & Selers, 1778." At the bottom of the face Is the sig nature of some one In authority. The let ters have so faded out that It Is almost impossible to follow the characters. Some have Imagined they could trace the signa ture of George Washington upon those lines, but others could not Imagine what authority he had to distribute money at that date. This rare bill Is the property of Otto Flechtl of the Flechtl Quartet of the Coeur d'Alene. It was presented to him at the Charleston earthquake In 18X6 for the sav ing of an Irishman's life. The open-hearted act of the big German toward his heredi tary enemy so overcame the man from Erin's Isle that he gave him the only arti cle of value he possessed. Mr. Flechtl was desirous of ascertaining the true value of the bill, and In 1893 sent it to Washington, where it was kept for six months while the Treasury Department In vestigated the issuance of the bill. It was adjudged legal, as the Issue of $00 bills at that time was known to have been made, though this Is the only one which has not been returned to the Treasury Department. The piece of money has considerable value outside of the amount upon Its face. The Spokane man now In possession of the relic has refused an offer of $1,000 for it, and says no price could induce him to part with it. Xeeded, But Not Wanted. Prom the Catholic Standard and Times. "I see yer movin* out, boss," remarked a very disreputable-looking Weary Willie, who had stopped to watch the operation. "Is dey anyt'lng you don't need 'at I might take?" "Yes," snapped the crusty suburbanite, tossing a bundle Into the van, "a bath." Enthusiastic Lady Blue Rtbbonite (collecting material for her next lecture?to Brewer's drayman)? 'Br?I understand there are some men lh /our calling whoee Sole liquid nourishment'consists of a quart of beer a day. Is thai oorreotT" Drayman?"I puddent be at all surprised, lady. Them teetotallers is acrotopln' into ?Very Job.naradays!"?Punch. THE HOTTEST EVER Summer of 1900 in Washington Has Broken All Records. EXTREME AHD LONG-CONTINUED HEAT List of the Days When the Mer cury Went Above Ninety. SOME AMAZING FIG U RES Look!r.g backward over the summer of 1900, which has about determined to close its caloric career. Washingtonians will (ind much in the official thermometric ligurfs recorded at the United States weather bu reau to astound them. It is an interesting fact tQ note at this time, when the danger zone of torridity has been passed, that the final summer of the nineteenth century has been the hottest known In the capital city since the establishment of the government weather service. While tho mercury did not climb to the record for an individual day during the past months of malevolent heat, for a consistent and continuous effort this has been a banner year. During the period beginning July 1 and extending to the 12th of the present month, September, there were 45-days with a maximum of 90 degrees Fahrenheit or more, leaving of the 74 days but 29 when the thermometer did not attain to the mark where begins a special record at the weather bureau. On many of these "off days" the thermometer recorded 88 and 89 degrees, so it is safe to say that nearly 00 of the 74 days were In the 90-degree class. However, it is not necessary to branch into conjecture to make the story of this record-smashing summer extraordinary. The readings of thermometers on the street level which recorded 110 degrees and more during August might also be brought In to give additional testimony to the recent reckless, rampant play of the mercury, but their figures are not accepted as official, and hence havve no place In the statistics of the country. The weather bureau's rec ords tell the Intensely interesting story, for interesting it is to contemplate alter survival, although at the time of the enactment the record-bound strides of the heat seemed absolutely unbearable. The nearest approach to the continuous performance record of the season just closed was in 1872, when, during the same period of 74 days there were 42 with !H> de grees and more- as their maximum. The July of 1900 was not so remarkable either as to "top score" or "uninterrupted run insomuch as the maximum, reached on the 18th. was only 99 degrees, against the rec ord of 103 degrees recorded the_ same day of the month in the year 1887, and _the number of 90-degree days was_only li as against 21 such days in both 1872 and 18<N, 20 days in 1873 and 18 in 1S76. AiiKUNt Won a Wonder. It remained for August to eclipse all former heat periods and to pull up the sea son average, when combined with July and September, sufficient to distance all pre vious terms of high thermometer readings. During that mad August there were eigh teen days of 90-degree weather and four teen of the total number came consecu tively. From the fith to the 12th of th^ month. Inclusive, the seven days elapsed made up the hottest period ever known to Washington. During these seven days the lowest maximum recorded by the weather bureau was 90. That figure was the limit for three of the seven days, the remaining four registering 97, 98, 99 and 101 degrees, the latter being the highest point reached during the past summer, and equaling the August record of the bureau, the same maximum having occurred August 13, ISM. In that year, however, there were but four teen days above 90 degrees. Prior to this year the highest number of 90-degree days In this city in August was a record held by 1872, that year standing second only to the present one. In 1*72 there were sixteen days when the ther mometer reached more than 90. September** Heat. The current month of September has proved Itself somewhat of a record smasher Itself, and It is due to these efforts of the first autumnal days that 1900 was enabled to carry off the hot weather prize. Out of the first twelve days of September there were ten with 90 degrees and more. This is the record for the period mentioned, its nearest competitor among the Septembers having rolled up In 1881 a total of but six 90-degree days out of the first twelve of the month. In this connection it might be stated that the distinction of having recorded Washington's extreme high temperature belongs to a September day. It occurred the 7th of the year '81, when the outrageou figures "104" were marked in red ink .in the great cloth-bound record books of the weather bureau. Concerning the antics of the mercury In street-level thermometers that day of a heat Intensity never before or since officially known, the "oldest Inhabi tants" may have something to say. It is not for this story to relate. The thousands and thousands of Wash ington people who have escaped the heated term at their country homes and various cool resorts must count themselves indeed fortunate, while the hapless workers com pelled to remain and keep burning the fires of municipal and national machinery and the ever-present poor, suffering alike in summer and in winter, must also feel themselves blessed to have withstood an ordeal such as they may never know again In this life. The long-continued heat, the excess of humidity and the relentless beat of the summer sun were attended by a number of losses of life. The poor laborer was not the only one to succumb to the Intense heat; an eminent scientist of the government was one of a number of those in the commonly termed leisure classes tailed as a victim. The Early Summer. An exceptionally late spring and an ex traordinarily cool June aroused in Wash ingtonians the belief and hope that the summer of 1900 would prove a record breaker for coolness rather than be a suc cessful cadidate for the honors that go with the most intense torridity. The first real warm day of the season occurred June 11. when tha maximum was 01 degrees. Im mediately following this initial climb Into the nineties the thermometer receded well down into its bulb, and during a rainy week about the 15th of the month was so deep in retirement that many persons were seen downtown in light overcoats. It was not until the 2->th day of June that warm weather was again experienced. Then 91 degrees was once more recorded. The same temperature prevailed the day following, and the 2i>th produced a maximum of 93, which was also the maximum for the month. It will thus be seen there were but four 90-degree days during June. The record is far above this as to continuity, while a June maximum of 102 degrees made the 9th day of that month in the year 1874 exceptional. July started in with a rush of hot weath er, the 3d day of the month finding the mercury at the !>2-degree mark. During the Ave days immediately following the heated term continued, the maximums being '.*?, 96 97. 95 and 92 degrees. Two days elapsed with ordinary weather, when on July 11 the temperature was 92 degrees and on the day following 90 degrees. There was another two days' respite, and then, com mencing July 15. a week of extreme heat ensued, the thermometer ranging the seven (jays from the 15th to 21st, inclusive, 94. 98, 98 99. 93, 91 and 94 degrees. The 28th the maximum was 92 and the 31st 91, thus com pleting the seventeen days of 90-degree Weather. The highest July temperature this year was 99 degrees, the 18th, against the record of 103, which, as already stated, occurred in "87. Two years ago July was an exceptionally hot month, the maximum of 101 degrees being registered July 2, the day preceding the destruction of Cervera's fteet off Santiago. Angait'i Record. For the first five days of its career record breaking August conducted itself aa might have been expected of any well-behaved summer month, and the thermometer was not taxed beyond the eighties. The sixth jay, however, v.ns marked by the lnaugu 5tton of two weeks of weather surpassing persistency of continuous heat anything heretofore known In Washington. During this remarkable period of fourteen days the range of the official thermometer et Us maximum was as follows: August 6 Ort August 7 U8 August 8 W? August 1) ;?rt August 10 !?7 August 11 lol August 12 S?9 August 13 Kl August 14 | August 10 02 ; August 17 i August In IB ! Aiigust 19 l<3 Tho average maximum for the first seven i days of th?' above period was thus a frac tion more than M71* degrees. After the li? h there was a respite of live days, the mer cury not getting into the nineties again until the 2Vh, when the maximum was just beyond the limit of the eighties. The I 2.:th it stood at !??'.. the 27th at '.'4. and the ? olst at '.'2 August not only beat all rec I or.ls of ht.gthy heated terms, hut equaled | the recorded maximum of lol degree*. From the 1st to the 12th. the present month was consistently hot. I s inaugural day was marked by a temperature of i?2. j followed the next day by J??i Hat. The third ' day was a bit cooler, but the 4th and .Vh brought maximums of W; tho ?;th. 7th, 1 i?4; N:h, !-2; loth, 1?2; 11th, t>7, and 12th, in) degri es. The Kml^Hn* Conic. The weather bureau officials say they feel safe in assuring the weather-wilted folks of Washington that the sumfher 1 as 1 at last winged its llight, and that people ? who are out of town may now return wi h impunity, having nothing extraordinary to fear from the weather. Thus has ended the most remarkable summer in this city's history. While Washington experienced Its hot test season. It was by no means the warm est spot in the country, as many sufferers I were willing to swear. August played the | same havoc with records in many of the other cities as in the capital. Columbia, the capital of South Carolina, distanced all competitors during the month, and smashed its own proud record of heat. Thirty of the thirty-one days of the month were of the 90-degree-and-over variety. A temperature of loo degrees and more pre vailed for twelve days, and the highest point reached by the mercury was 1<H! de grees, August 20. Compared to Columbia, Washington was a model of propriety as regards coolness. Other Warm Towns. Concordia. Kan., and Lynchburg, Va.. each rolled up a record of twenty-three Ito-degree days during iast month, the maximum in the former city being 10.'1 and In the latter even 100. Evansvtlle, Ind., however, ranked next to Pittsburg, having twenty-nine days of more than tti degrees, the mnxlmum : being 1<*?. St. Louis had twenty-four days I of It with degrees as high mercury mark. Down in Georgia. twenty-two *.*?-degree j days were reported. There were eight in t New York, fifteen in Cincinnati, five at Bos | ton. and ten at Chicago. New Orleans, La., was a comparatively cr>ol spot during Au ; gust, the maximum reached b-.'lng '.?! de ! grees, with but a few days bey >n<l the itO j mark. At Buffalo, N. Y., where the Pan American exposition is to be held next year there were no itO-degree days at all. The records for August from far western stations are not all in, but daily reports show the prevalence of no remarkable weather in that section. SOLOMON'S >1 I \ KS. Speculation iim to Tlirlr Discovery and Richness. From the London Slaii. This Is a story quite on the modern liter ary lines, for it ends with a note of inter rogation. It begins with the scene of Dr. Carl Peters, the German explorer, rummaging about in an old German castle a few years back. In this ancient Teutonic schloss Dr. Peters came upon a musty volume, to gether with a quaint old map, published in France in 1719 or thereabout. This work and map, according to one of Dr. Carl Peters' associates, dealt with the doings of the Portuguese 200 years earlier, in the country bordering on the Zambesi, and are to form the key to the whereabouts of gold mines in the heart of Africa. The course of the Zambesi was shown on the map roughly, but accurately, and on the south bank of the river appeared Mount Fura. Now. concerning Mount Fura, a thirst for science and a thirst for gold had already bred in the good doctor certain suspicions. So he set to work, it is recorded, in svs tematic fashion to get all the works 'he ! could find on the subject. He is credited | with possessing a wonderful memory, and < of being capable of recollecting minute de tails for years afterward. S.ime of the o!d writings thus hunted up went back to the seventeenth century, and for two years was the trail followed up. says an admir ing chronicler, through the dim and (lust strewn realms of centuries-old booklaud. The recent works were studied, too. and at the end of two years, in July, ls:iS. the German traveler promoted in London a company?the Dr. Carl Peters' Estates and Exploratiort Company, Limited ? for the purpose of purchasing properties and rights which had been acquired by him in southeastern and central Africa, and for the conduct by Dr. Peters of a well-equip ped and carefully selected expedition to tho district where he hoped to discover Mount Fura, and to test his surmises about that mysterious locality. The vendors took 75,000 ?1 shares In part payment, and the expenses of this expedi tion and suffloient working capital would be provided, said the prospectus, by the issue of 25.000 shares. Well, the expedition, with Dr. Peters at Its head, and the clues afforded by the old writings and the old map In constant use, duly discovered the mountain of Fura, by the middle of 1899. and l>r. Peters was con vinced his cherished hopes were well found ed. Those hopes were nothing more nor less than that Fura was Ophir, the Biblical land of gold, the source of Solomon's fabu lous riches. Fura, the good doctor contended, was the native corruption of the word Afur, by which name the Arabs of the sixteenth I century knew the district. Afur was the Sabaean, or South Arablun, form of the Hebrew name Ophir. As Dr. Peters after ward assured a representative of Keuter's Agency, for the information of the world at large, he had ample proof that the Fura which his expedition had discovered and explored in the summer of 1899 was tho Ophir of the Old Testament ? the Ophir whose incalculable wealth Is referred to in the first Book of Kings, in both Books of Chronicles, in Job, in the Psalms and in Isaiah. A chief, the doctor said, gave him valua ble. information regarding the position of ancient ruins and workings, which he at once Investigated. Going to the spot indi cated he found ancient ruins of undoubted Semitic type. Fura Itself he found to pos sess a formation of quartzitic slate and diorlte. between which gold reefs were running. The ancient workings which lie found were not only surface workings, but there were also, he declared, shafts and roads hewn into the rock. How the shareholders must have palpi tated when they r< ad, in a iepir: Dr. Peters presented to the directors. that when the Portuguese arrived in East Africa about the year 1500 the Arabs called the district Afur, and told the Portuguese It was the Ophir if the Old Testament. For a giance at 1. Chronicles, Chapter xxix., verse 4, would show them that David gave to over lay the walls of the temple talents of the gold of Ophir, and upon the au thority of F. W. Madden, M. It. A. S., au thor of "History of Jewish Coinage," etc., they would know that a talent of gold was worth ?0.000. Here, then, was fl8.000.o00 worth of gold from Ophir. and the inexhaustible nature of the supply would b ? apparent when they pursued their Biblical researches to find In I. Kings, chapter ix. verse 28. that there was brought from Ophir to Snlomcn 420 talents of gold, equal to a modern value of ?2,520,000, and that, again, in II. Chroni cles, hcapter viil, verse 18, mention Is mads of another din by Solomon into the Ophir mines to the extent of 450 talents of gold, or ?2,700,000. But by now cold shivers of doubt may have succeeded to the first warm thrills; for a year has passed since the wonderful discovery was made, and two years since the company was formed, and no millions of pounds, nor hundreds, nor tens, nor even units have yet come the way of the expectant shareholders. But Instead come unexpected whispers that what purported to be King Solomon's mires are not works thousands of years old. hut just a mere ordinary collection of sand and rock hills. Is It veritably the Land of Ophir, and If so, have David and Solomon left much gold for the shareholders in Dr. Peters' Estate* and Exploration Company? Ifoeea' annual September sale?Adrt.