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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, August 03, 1901, Image 8

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The Original Philadelphia $
Foot Form Boots|
Formerly Sold by ?
Now at Edmonston's.f
The boot for
Adopted by $
women in all i
p r o f e ssions, X
teachers, wo
men of affairs *|*
generally. ?
Close f i t
through the tjl
heel and over *t
the instep? ?
broad at the
fore part. X
?Made of the
softest black
kidskin, with X
inner sole of ?
No. 709?54. the finest**'
leather used in ?
bicycle saddles. Flexible, easy
?the neatest "common-sense" ^
yet produced. ^
No. 709 Button $4 X
No. 709X Lace $4
These are only 2 of the 16
original Foot Form Boots. A ?
boot for every want. Y
Edmonston's, |
1334 F Street. ?
? n i
With my scientific treatments, spe
cially prepared for sach individual
case. I speedily and permanently euro
blackheads, large pores, pimple?, and
all disorders affecting the skin, th?
scalp and nerrous system. Consul
tation in person or by letter Ir free
and strictly confidential. Call or write.
26 West 23d SL. New York.
Or. Slegert'a Genuine, Imported Augustur? Bit.
Convicted of Rnnntng His Car at Ex
clusive Speed.
Joseph Newton, a motorman on the Ana
costla street car line, was in Judge Mills'
court this morning, charged with having
violated the law relating to the speed of
street cars. It was alleged that his oar
figured in a collision at 10th and Q streets
southeast about 11:45 o'clock Sunday night.
The car In question was crowded, It was
stated, and was going In the direction of
Anacostla at the time the accident hap
pened. Witnesses living In the neighbor
hood of 10th and G streets were called by
Policeman Dent, who had made an Inves
tigation of the affair. It was stated by the
witnesses that the oar was going at the
rate of about twenty miles an hour.
"I noticed the car was crowded, and was
going so fast," Bald J. H. Pool, "and called
the attention of a neighbor to It. The
neighbor remarked, 'It looks like It was
shot out of a cannon.' An Instant later the
witness heard a crash, which aos followed
by Bcreaming and shouting."
The next witness told the oourt that the
conductor was unable to .^top his car until
11th street was reached. A horse that was
struck by the car was carried almost the
entire length of the square. The fender
was smashed by the weight of the aniniHl.
"Witnesses said the car did not stop at Oth
street and none of them heard the bell
Newton denied that he was guilty of fast
running his car. He said he stopped at
9th street and his car could not have at- 1
tained the speed of twenty miles an hour. I
It was his belief that his car was running
at the rate of about ten miles an hour
at the time the collision occurred. He ex
plained that his brake staff was damaged
by the collision and he was unable to stop
the vehicle until 11th street was reached.
J. H. Johnson, conductor on the car, also
gav# testimony. He declared his car made
a stop at i?th street and said he knew It
was not making more than twelve miles an
Superintendent Ballinger explained the
damage to the car. The brake staff, he
paid, was so badly damaged that It could
not be operated.
At the conclusion of the hearing of the
testimony Judge Mills reviewed the case
and fined the defendant $5, which was paid.
Boyd'N and Vicinity.
Bjieclal Oorreaponderipe of The Evening Star.
BOYD'S, Md., August 2. 1901.
The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Com
pany, it Is said. Is curtailing the number of
clerks in many of its division offices. The
clerical force at Cumberland has already
been reduced.
The wheat raised this year and which Is
now being fast threshed out is showing
only a small average crop in this section of
the county. Much of it la of fair quality.
Many of the farmers will not be able to
save all their hay owing to the rains The
corn crop will be the largest known In the
history of the county.
It is reported that Mr. Jas. K. Williams
of this pla/^e, who owns a largo farm here
and runs a large dairy, will rent out all
of his farms, aggregating nearly a thou
sand acres, this fall and live a retired life.
Misses Anna Byrd, Mary Byrd nnd ElMe
Byrd of Dawsonvllle, accompanied by Mr.
Stewart Ellis of Washington, left here this
morning for a ten days' outing at Atlantic
Miss May Rawllngs of Washington has
returned to Boyd's for the summer and will
stop with Di. and Mrs. W. M. Hunt,*who
have the Meigs cottage here.
Lieut. F. W. Bassett of the United States
navy arid his family left yesterday for Ntw
Bedford, Mass. It Is understood that the
lieutenant will report for duty to the North
Atlantic squadron.
Girl* in I'ahllc School*.
Fn-m Woman'a Home Companion.
For a century and a half after the pub
lic schools were established in America
girls were not admitted to them at all; In
the latter part of the eighteenth century
they were allowed to attend from April to
October, the months when only little boys
were In attendance, and a cheaper and a
less oompetent teacher was employed. After
the girls were given this extraordinary privi
lege of education the "fathers" of the var
ious towns began concerning themselves
with the amount of learning that the girls
might properly acquire. On the records of
one old New England town Is actually en
tered this bit of report from the annual
town "school meeting:" "It is the sense of
the meeting that the girls should not be
taught the oack part of the arithmetic."
Malaria Cauaei Billoa*ae*a.
Grove's XaatelM* CblU Tonic removes the cause.
The Establishment of Magistrates'
Courts at Police Stations.
Plan Believed to Be Feasible and
Its Necessity Urged.
The prospective appointment of ten sal
aried justices of the peace the 1st of Jan
uary next, under the operation of the new
code of laws compiled for the District of
Columbia, has again brought up a discus1
sion of the subject of magistrates' courts at
police stations for the trial of minor cases.
Major Richard Sylvester, the superintend
ent of police, has strongly urged In the
past the adoption of such a system, and
has pointed out Its advantages In his an
nua* reports. It is reported that he will
renew the suggestion this year with vigor,
In view of the forthcoming appointments
of Justices of the peace, and will urge the
Commissioners to secure such a change In
the method of Police Court trials.
Major Sylvester's suggestion is to set apart
a room in each station house as a court
room. A witness room would be admirably
adapted for the purpose, It Is stated. Twice
each day a magistrate would be required
to visit the police stations and try the
minor cases which have been made In that
precinct. The only cases which would
then come under the jurisdiction of the
regularly constituted Police Court would
be the appeal cases and cases wherein a
Jury trial was demanded. The advantages
of this system. It is stated, are many and
the effects would be far-reaching. The
system has been adopted In many of tha
large cities and has been found to work
most satisfactorily. It Is said to be almost
a necessity in a large city, where arrests
are numerous.
Police Chief* Recommendation,
Major Sylvester's recommendation on
the subject. In his report. Is as follows:
"The detention of prisoners In the several
station houses from Saturday night until
Monday morning, some of whom may be
subjects for acquittal; the transportation
of prisoners from the stations to the court
in crowded vans, and the detention of po
lice officers at court from early morning
until late in the day, at a time when they
should be procuring needed rest or pro
tecting uncovered beats, furnishes abun
dant reason for the establishment of magis
trates' courts at the police station houses
for the trial of minor cases. It is not de
sirable that the present Police Court should
be abolished In the event of the establish
ment of the magistrate system, but It
should be retained as a court of appeal for
the trial of oases by jury.
"While the police force has grown, the
population of the District increased, and
its many diversified interests changed,
necessitating new and numerous police,
building and health regulations, and many
additional laws, which have doubled the
number of arrests, nothing has been ef
fected to facilitate disposition of Police
Court cases. The capital city is behind the
times In this respect. It should set the ex
ample for others. With magistrates sitting
twice a day at eaoh station house, there
would be a prompt disposition of cases, un
ust humiliation would often be avoided,
ustlce would have the advantage of wit
nesses with the facts fresh in their minds,
and the police would be enabled to render
an almost uninterrupted patrol service."
Plan Believed to Be Practicable.
The plan of magistrate courts will be
entirely feasible and quite easy of opera
tion, it is asserted, when the new Justice?
of the peace are appointed. When the new
tenth precinct station house is placed in
commission this month there will be Just
ten stations In. the District. Under the
new code of laws there are to be ten Jus
tices of the peace, each drawing a salary
of $3,000 a year. One Justice, tt is said,
oould be assigned to a precinct.
As Major Sylvester suggests, it is man
ifestly unfair to keep prisoners In a station
house so long, when they may be subjects
for acquittal, and it is also hard on the of
ficers to be forced to attend Police Court
for three or four hours out of the six hours
allowed them In which to rest and recup
erate for their next tour of duty. It is
pointed out that there are too many cases
to be tried In the Polioe Court each dav
to secure anything like the promptness and
dispatch of business which would result
through the trials at the police stations.
The Police Court Judges in their esti
mates to the Commissioners, a few days
ago, called attention to the inadequacy of
the present Police Court buildings for
properly handling the large number of
prisoners, and the business of the courts.
Improvement* to Curtis School Butld
ing?General Items.
Considerable improvements are being
made to the Curtis school building, which,
when completed, will greatly add to the
comfort of the children. A new heating
station is being built to the north of the
building, which is designed to furnish
warmth not only to the Curtis building,
but to the Addison school, which fronts on
P street. The new heating plant will oc
cupy the place of the former toilet rooms,
occupying the ground floor. An addition
will be built over the boiler rooms, which
will be fitted up for toilet purposes. A
number of other Improvements are being
made In the Interior of the building, all of
which are expected to be finished by the
time the school term commences.
Quite a colony of Georgetown people are
at Atlantic City, and many others are
preparing to depart for that resort. Mrs.
Manogue and Miss Mary Manogue of P
and Valley streets, respectively, have been
there for several weeks. Mr. Anthony
Hanlon, now at the beach, is expected to
return about the middle of this month;
Charles Staub left at noon today for a
stay of ten days, and Messrs. John A.
Heenan, William J. O'Donnell and G. W.
Cook leave tomorrow to remain several
Beginning tomorrow the congregations of
Christ and St. John's churches will unite
In divine worship, the plan to continue un
til September 8. The first of the Joint i?r
vlces will be held at Christ Church to
morrow, and will be conducted by Rev. ft.
8. Wood. The Sunday following the ser
vices will be held at St. John's Episcopal
Church. Rev. Mr. Barton and Rev. Dr.
Stuart, the pastors of the churches, are
away on their vacations.
The feast of St. Ignatius will be cele
brated tomorrow at Trinity Church, with
a solemn high mass. Rev. J. F. X. Mul
vaney, S.J., the pastor, being the cele
brant. One of the priests from George
town University will act as deacon, and
Mr. Edward Craig will be sub-deacon.
Hayden's second mass will be sung by the
choir. Mrs. Blanche Mattingly Rodgers
rendering several solos. Music will he un
der the direction of Prof. George Herbert
Mrs. Jane Shaw of 32d and P streets and
her daughter. Miss Alice Shaw, have re
turned from a visit to Comus, Md.
Mr. DuFief of Darnestown, Md., who has
been on a visit of several weeks to his
brother, will return home tomorrow.
Mr. S. Thomas Brown, president of the
Farmers and Mechanics' National Bank,
has returned from an extended visit to At
lantic City.
Rev. A. W. McCurdy of Wilmington, Del.,
will conduct the services tomorrow at the
West Street Presbyterian Church.
American Chemistry.
From ETerytxxly'g Magazine.
The chemical industries of the United
States have made wonderful progress in
the past few years. The value of ? their
products in 1880, according to Mr. Henry
Bower, an authority on the subject, was
one hundred and seventy-seven million
dollars, an ?enormous Increase over 1880,
and it is probable that the figures for 1000
will show an even greater gain, especially
through the utilisation of by-products
which formerly were accounted of no
value. This seems to show that the manu
facturers of the country may in the near
future furnish much of the fifty million
dollars' worth of chemicals now annually
One of Uncle Sam's Recent Acquisi
The Reward Bestowed by Spain
on Bartolome Columbus.
Written for Ttie Evening Star.
So far little, If anything, have the Ameri
can people heard of one of the Islands re
cently acquired by Uncle Sam as a sequel
to the war waged against Spain. "Wars, as
a rule, bring to the surface disclosures that
| are not even suspected, and such Is the
case In the present Instance. The little is
land has not witnessed the great achieve
ments of man In this wonderful age of
electricity, nor marvelous palaces, or even
poor, little thatch huts, are to be sought
within Its orbit. Progress has not as yet
extended its beneficent wings to give a lit
tle shadow to this miniature island.
Mona means female monkey, and this is
the name that the island bears today. In
the first chart of America, drawn by Juan
de la Cosa, the island appears with the
name of Amona, and the initial A thus
seems to have been dropped afterward.
Juan de la Cosa, it will be remembered, ac
companied Columbus as the owner of the
ship Santa Maria in his first voyage to
the West Indies. He also came with the
second expedition on the Nina as an ex
pert for the drawing of sea charts.
The Island of Mona is located in the pas
sage that bears its name, between Porto
Rico and St. Domingo, at about fifty-five
kilometers west of Porto Rico. It Is a
rock of some 100 square kilometers of sur
face, cut down straight on nearly all its
This island is of a *Volcanlc origin. The
rock has been probably formed In the bot
tom and afterward raised over the surface
of the sea through an elevation due to vol
canic action. The powerful work of waves
and tornadoes and the strong dissolving
action of the ocean waters on the carbo
nate of calcium first sapped the monster,
giving it the shape of a sponge, which can
still be seen in the shelves of its coast.
The excavations thus made at the sea level
were afterward changed into deep caverns
by a new cataclysm, which made at once a
part of the rocks tumble and new earth ap
pear. These caverns are partly closed, due
to the precipitation of the surface. The
sea, beating Incessantly the flanks of the
rook, gave birth, through its mechanic and
dissolving action, to new caverns brought
up to the surface by successive elevations.
These caverns present a magnificent sight,
where stalactites and stalagmites united In
splendid pillars seem to support the weight
of an enormous vault. It is believed by
some that the whole Island is an immense
cavern, here and there divided Into several
compartments through the precipitation of
the rocks.
Dank* of Corals.
In 18G8 a Spanish engineer, E. Churruca,
reported to the authorities in Porto Rico,
after & careful Investigation, that the
whole Island of Mona Is a bank of corals,
madreporeB and shells and detritus of a
great number of zoophiles and mollusks
adhered through a calcareous cement.
There are still a great number of shells In
a very good condition, as also medrepores
of large dimensions and corals. The fact
that all these specleB grow on a large scale
,n surrounding sea holds good the
theory that the geological formation of
this island belongs to the latest part of
the tertiary period.
Though it is said that the Island Is but a
volcanic rock, on the ground that its ap
pearance resembles very much the appear
ance of all rocks, full of cavities, which at
first sight seems to be an igneous rock,
greatly spongy; yet, an authority says, a
careful examination shows that all these
cavities have been occupied by mollusks.
which have disappeared by the action of
the surges. Furthermore, some of those
mollusks are yet to be found incrustat
ed in the cavities. The great number of
caverns are of about the same height
which accounts for the belief that the ele
vations have occurred at different times.
Vegetal I,and.
The limy surface of the Island is covered
by a cape.of vegetal land, where many
plants and trees of comparatively largo
size grow. The top of this island is a
plain thickly covered with brambles und
briers, and llthaphytic plants, rich in this
tles and thorns, and In such a way Inter
mixed that a fishermen's legend says it Is
impenetrable; that no man has ever been
able to make hla way through this vegetal
wall, and that even dogs pursuing wild cat
tle, once in the trap, never return to the
outside. The story goes that a captain of
the French merchant marine once tried to
explore this place In pursuit of a treasure
said to have been hidden there by the
pirates, and thaj, in spite of the strong
Incentive of his strange adventure, he was
compelled to give it up. It is said that the
north coast of Mona still shows volcanio
features; of snowy whiteness, this coast is
out perpendicularly to the sea, which, at a
short distance, is fathomless.
Fishermen avoid this northern coast. A
rough sea, the look of that stone wall that
seems to rise over an abyss, and the peril
of clashing currents make it a very risky
enterprise that few. If anv, ever dare to
embark in This accounts for the name of
Tempest that a cape on the northeast
There are several springs of potable
water, which has In some of them a min
eral taste. The number of caverns is writ
ten down as twenty-three.
Its Plr?t In habitant*.
The chronicle goes that from its discov
ery until the middle of the sixteenth cen
tury, the Island of Mona was always in
habited by one farmer and some Indians,
whose business it was to till the soil and
care for the cattle. It is at least well
known that when in 1551 the Spanish em
peror was requested to fortify the island,
after the fashion of those days, Jt was
reported that the population was made up
of twenty-five Indians, all married and
good Christians. Ten years later, in 1561,
It was reported duplicated. Soon after,
however, the island was entirely abandoned
and left to the mercy of the pirates and
Corsairs, who, in great number, and for a
long time, were the unquestionable com
manders of those seas. Many a story Is
8t!ll heard from the western people of
Porto Rico of the great Cofresi, a Porto
RIcan pirate of those days who won fame
and profit through bold, perilous adven
While the middle of the nineteenth cen
tury was running American as well as
English vessels availed themselves of this
island as a landing place in their voyages
through the tropics. This, action aroused
the suspicion of the ever-suspecting Spanish
authorities, and a man-of-war was dis
patched in 1868 to Investigate the prospects
of Mona. No vestige was found of the
population once settled there, although a
real invasion of the island was yearly made
from April to September by people who
came after tortoises, a fishery that paid
very fine returns to the enterprising in
Lately, in 1871, a franchise was granted
to an Englishman, Hulghes by name, for
the development of the island. Hulghes
was to pay the Spanish government a fee
of $5.50 for every t9n of dung extracted.
The concession became null by lack of
ccmpliance on the part of the English
man. and It was then transferred to a Por
to Rican firm which has done a pretty
good work, and business, it Is supposed by
the payment of a smaller fee, $2 per ton
This little island of Mona has the honor
of having been donated by the rules of
Spain to Bartolome Columbus, brother of
the great discoverer, as a regard for hta
valuable services. This gift was probably
made in 1509, when Bartolome, tofcethei
with his brother Ibtego. came to thfllU
panlola In company of the admiral's son
Diego, who, as governor of that island
found in his uncles very important aid for
the pacification of the Indians. It is a
miracle that Spain did not compel the elo
rious Bartolome to live within his vast pos
sessions, the donation of which bitterly
Impresses us as a most sarcastic scoff I
*i r
it 9a
-hi ? .X.
Made Up of People Who Move From
One Fanp toaAnother.
- h
In This Class es ||)e Strength of
the Populi^ Party.
J- 3
* t
Special Correspondence of ITie Eyenlng Star.
WACO, Texas, August t, J 001.
The thousands of tenant farmers who till
the rich corn and cotton lands of northern
and eastern Texas are now casting
about for new locations for next year. A
few of them will stay upon the land they
have farmed this season, but not many,
for the Texas cotton renter is a man in
whose breast hope springs eternal, and this
is well, for hope and a large family of
children are usually his entire capital.
Many years ago the cotton lands of north
ern and eastern Texas were to be had al
most for the asking, and large areas fell
into the hands of Individual owners, with
little exertion, and at comparatively small
expense. As Texas developed, and the se
cret of her hidden wealth became known,
the plow advanced acre by acre over the
rich bottoms and low-lying prairies, until
P{!esent time there are few sections
or tne Lnited States where a larger pro
portion of the arable land is tilled. The
owners of this land, however, have ceased
to perform the labor upon it. They find it
easier and more profitable to rent their
ground to others who will either pay them
ov,.fa rental or will give them a large
of the field Cr?P lD return for tile use
WTaonthtn^?VOIl^count,ea around Dallas,
rlvpp thA v, bottoms of the Brazos
,ver there has grown up a very lame
that "crohnhtSS' 11 18 conserva-tive to say
best oottnt ? ?eyenty-five per cent of the
liTthe Vnr Jr owned by men who live
the 'arger towns, and is farmed by a
CToeVwhnClass of wh,tes and ne
groes, who under the strict and unceas
g supervision of the owner or his agents
nation a ndsome Profit upon present val
la?dsrareamenf th* own?rs of these cotton
lanas are men connected with local banks
who%aTerCre?[rlG, -^b.ishments ormen
exception nf if, k m business, with the
sarv for thi ^'^supervision as Is neces
Some of ^L7elfare of the,r Properties,
ome of these men are progressive and
nized? that the* W U ,s ?enera?y recog
Santen Sri m W generation of cotton
i en who have seen their
wealth Increase without effort on their
omy' except,nfir the Practice of close econ
Tlllera of the Land.
It Is with the men who till these lands,
however, that the state lg most concerned.
They far outnumber the owners; they fur
nish a greater percentage of the popula
tion, for the education of their children
the state expend* the^bulk of Its monev
and on election day their votes outweigh
from6 thJr ei milr.,onaires who take tribute
from their long season of labor. In the
ritiri? ?l?'n<?" ^ofl* th* Brazos and other
rivers the lands are Hilled by negroes, as
^,e? surroundings are. too unhealthy for
whites to thrive. A majority of the cot
ton renters, however, are whites. Many
of them are native born Texans, but Ar
Alabama, Mississippi and Louis
iana furnish a Very large percentage of
these peripatetic farmers.
The cotton planter with 2,000 acres of
trllf divides his property Into small
tracts, varying from fifty to one hundred
to?rH?t? in slie- He ,ence? each tract
k iii nd neap some spring or well he
S?h m fmai' ^use, barn and a corn
crib. He is then- ready for his tenants.
The leases date from January 1 and run
- J ?Kne yeaf' Tenant8 are generally
JJ?' however, several months before,
and the bargain for one farm is made be
fore the tenant has harvested his croD
Soi?9 ?* th? Planters prefer
that the tenant should furnish his own live
stock, implements and seed, but It is ex
tremely difficult to find renters who are
*u"cJfn * *weli quipped, or have enough
capital to do business after this fashion
In nearly every case the landlord is ex
pected to furnish everything, not only the
teams, agricultural implements and seed
but food and clothing for the family until
such time as the crop is harvested and
When a planter leases his ground and
furnishes nothing to make a crop he re
ceives one-quarter of the cotton and one
half of the corn. If his tenant be pos
sessed of an unusual amount of money,
the business is sometimes transacted upon
a oash basis, and the owner is paid from
S3 to *4 an acre in cash. This method Is.
of course, preferred, but the scarcity of
tenants with outfits of their own and
tT?7HMlth/h.fc,h to rent the land Is such
that little effort Is expended In looking for
Hard on the Renters.
When the planter furnishes his tenant
with all the necessary live stock. Imple
ments and supplies from the 1st of Janu
ary to the selling of the crop in the fall
he gets otic-half of the cotton, one-half
of the corn and deducts from the renter's
share of the crop money an amount suffi
cient to pay liberal prices for all supplies
furnished and liberal interest on the
money. The result of this system which
is generally the one followed, is that very
few of the cotton renters leave their land
with any more property or money than
they had when they went onto It earlv in
the spring. They are in a constant state
of discouragement, the future holds little
hope, their children are uneducated and
half clothed, their living 1? of the sim
plest; in fact the slaves of the ante-bellum
days lived in luxury as compared with the
manner of life under which some of these
cotton renters exist.
Naturally the white renter Is a shlfitlem
pessimistic individual, who accumulates
nothing, hopes for little and is always
changing his base of operations, trustine
to find more fertile land, a less exactinl
landlord or in some other way to improve
his oondition.
The orators of the populist party have
found In the cotton renter an aDDeallne
example of the contraet between the rich
and the poor. When the cotton is readv
to pick the renter, with his wife, his
daughter, and his sons, drag the cotton
sacks through the fields, as did the negroes
in days gone by. When "Stump? Afhbv
"Cyclone" Davis. Jake Rhodes or some
other spellbinder in the populist ranks at
tends the barbecue which marks the nolH
Ical gathering W It needs no Won
derful command at English to paint a pic
ture of wrong, oppression and heart-break
ing poverty. whf$h gftes straight home to
the cotton renter >h5>till has within him
a glimmer of hope of a sense of the eter
nal fitness of thttgrf1 For many ytars a
stock lllustratlotf of; the contrast between
wealth and pov&ty^n Texas was a de
scription of the TunCTal 0f the late Sena
tor Hearst, whtbh deluded a luxurious
funeral train afcrtSs the continent unon
which the mourrief*Agisted at government
expense. Agalnttthft picture of alleaed
riotous wealth #as-drawn in sharp con
trast the /unerttt ofthe cotton renter's
daughter, the ydungjfirirl of sixteen, dying
of inanition aftef weAs of dragging a cot
ton sack through the field, half-starved
bodily, wholly *jarf*d mentally, without
a gleam of the sunshine which falls to the
lot of nearly eVfty woman, laying down
her burden, slmjfly tflted out, placed ir, a
plain plne-boara. comh by her own rela
tives, dressed In tfce simple cotton gown
which had been her sole reminder of tne
one day in the week which was not con
sumed in toil, followed to her grave In a
corner of the cotton field by hor family
and a few neighbors. Such a picture as
this drew blood from the hearts of th*
hearers, and it was thus th pranks of the
populist party were recruited, until in
Texas alone It cast a quarter of a million
Jfot Always To* Hard.
The cotton planter himself la not neces
sarily a hard task master. It Is simply a
business proposition with him. He finds
that unless he furnishes his renter with
ample mule power and provisions, that the
scanty equipment which the renter could
bring of his own would not be sufficient to
properly cultivate the 'land and make It
yield to its full extent. Taking one crop
Furniture Factory, 14th and B. ttormt* Warcbooaa. 22d and M.
Mattrw and Oweh factory, 402 Pa. art.
A Greater Move in
We've centered the interest of all Washington in this Mat
ting Department by making a wholesale sacrifice of all the odd
rolls and several thousand yards of remnants. It's a sale for
quick clearance in preparation for the reception of fall stock.
60 odd roll* of Fan
China Matting, uaui
1214c. yard....
odd-rolla of Seamleaa
Fancy China Uattl
? 754c.
Fancy China Matting; 0
rc*,^lr.r. 1 SC.
28 odd rolls of Extra Heavy 8?amleaa
Cblna Matting! p r a t t y
stripe and check pattarna; /\I DlC*
36c. quality ?\><Ve
87 odd rolls of Double Extra Imperial
Fancy Chinese Matting; a
choice check and plaid pat
terns; 40c. quality a
CO odd rolls of Fancy Linen Warp
Jnpanese Mattlnga?damask and car
pet effects?In blue, gold,
olive, red and green; 50c.
All grades of Chinese and Japanese Mattings in pieces
from 5 to 30 yards at these prices:
15c. Mattings 7)^c'
20c. Mattings ioc.
25c. Mattings i2^c.
30c. Mattings 15c.
35c. Mattings l7lAc.
40c. Mattings.. 20c.
joe. Mattings...... ? .25c.
Mattings 30c.
Till August 15 we are making special prices for the remaking of mattresses.
Returned the same day If necessary. Our own factory.
?Wonderful selling here.
Prices for carpets that are draw
ing against the heat. But then
a saving of a third In a floor
covering is a consideration no
economical buyer will overlook.
Tapestry. 8 ft. ? in. x 6 ft. 9 In 83.50
Body Brussels. 8 ft. 9 In. x 0 ft 1*1.40
Body Brussels, 6 ft. x fl ft. 9 In ftt.00
Brussels. 8 ft. 8 In. x 10 ft. 9 In $14.50
Brussels, 8 ft. 8 In. x 10 ft. 2 In *14.00
Brussels, 8 ft. 8 In. x 11 ft. 6 In $l?.0O
Axmlnster. 8 ft. 3 in. x 10 ft. 9 In $17.50
Velvet, 8 ft. 8 In. x 11 ft $18.00
Brussels, 8 ft. 3 In. x 12 ft $1S.00
Brussels, 8 ft. 8 In. x 12 ft..., $17.00
Brussels, 8 ft. 3 In. x 12 ft $17.60
Brussels, 10 ft. 6 In. x 12 ft $23 SO
Brussels, 10 ft. 6 In. x 13 ft. 2 In $24.50
Brussels, 10 ft. 6 In. x 13 ft $22.50
Brussels, 10 ft. 6 in. x 11 ft. 0 In $21 50
Velvet. 10 ft. 6 In. x 12 ft. 2 In $2H.OO
Axmlnster, 10 ft. 6 In. x 11 ft. 6 Id. .. ..$24 00
Brussels, 10 ft. 6 In. x 18 ft $22.50
Velvet, 10 ft. 6 In. x 12 ft ..,.....$24 00
Brussels. 10 ft. 6 In. x 14 ft $28.00
Brusrels 10 ft. fl in. x 15 ft. 2 In S2.S ??>
Velvet. 10 ft. 6 in. x 13 ft. 4 in $3'> 00
Velvet. 10 ft. 6 In. x 14 ft $2?.O0
Brussels, 12 ft. 9 in. x 14 ft $1M.00
< ?
? ?
W. B. MOSES & SONS, F St. Cor. II nth.
with another, the planter makes the most
of a prosperous year that the general aver
age of profit may be maintained. This
average of profit is very large. The best
cotton lands are worth from *40 to $75 an
acre. The improvements upon them repre
sent a very small Investment. The live
stock and machinery furnished the renter
is examined and kept up to the mark by
the planter's resident agent, who rides
from cotton patch to cotton patch as did
the overseer of the old plantation before
the war. Nothing in which the planter is
interested is allowed to deteriorate or go
to waste. What the renter does with his
modest share of the money received from
the harvest, or what peculiar scheme of
economy he may adopt in the conduct of
his business and family affairs, is held to
be no concern of the planter. Possibly
some of them have tried to improve the
condition of their renters, but many of
them believe all such effort to be useless.
In speaking of the people who till these
cotton lands, one of the greatest planters
I in McLennan county recently said:
"The negro renters are practically em
ployes of the planter, the only difference
being that they are paid with a share of
the crop instead of being paid regular I
! wages. They have to be furnished every
thing and are closely supervised. At the
end of the year they seldom have anything
to show for their labor. The white Ameri
cans who rent cotton lands are as a rule
shiftless, ignorant people, whom it seems
impossible to teach thrift and foresight.
The Germans, of whom there are many, are
the best, renters we can get, the only
trouble being that they will not long stay
In that position. They reijt the land for
several years, generally staying in the
same place.
Generally Improvident.
"I have one man who has rented the
same piece of ground from me for jthir
teen years; he has left me this year be
cause I would not sell him his farm.
These people are careful, saving and use
most excellent Judgment in husbanding
their share of the proceeds of each crop.
The white Americans are careless; when
they do make a good crop they spend their
money and spend it foolishly. If they did
as the Germans do they would be equally
prosperous, and they are given equal op
portunity. They do not possess the same
qualities, however, and the result is that
their only property is an old wagon, a
couple of horses or more, a few household
trinkets and a large family. Their house
hold goods and family they load upon a
wagon as soon as the ootton crop is har
vested, and move to some other section
of the country In hopes of bettering their
condition. They find the same conditions,
however, prevailing everywhere, and in
time become even more shiftless, dis
couraged and irresponsible even than they
were when younger.
"Some of these white renters after get
ting everything from the planter necessary
to make their crop, draw as heavily as they
can for provisions and supplies of different
kinds. When they find that they are in
debt to the planter for more than their
share of the crop will amount to, they
very often abondon the farm and leave It
to the planter to hire extra help and har
vest the crop at his own expense.
"A properly conducted cotton farm in the
neighborhod of Waco, will pay from 80 tQ
50 per cent upon Its valuation, and the
valuation is generally at least five times
the original Investment. It is one of the
most profitable businesses I know of, but
one requiring the strictest attention to de
tail and very careful and strict handling
of the people who till the land. Over 25
per cent of the arable land about Waco is
under the plow. The average taxable value
of land in this section is less than $10 per
acre, and the taxes are less than 1 per
cent. The percentage of farms which are
tilled by tenants is very high. I should say
there were about 1,300 farms In McLennan
county, and the last report we have shows
there are over 1,200 tenant farmers. There
is a general tendency on the part of the
landlords to increase the size of their
holdings, and the men who already have
the land and money are more apt to absorb
adjacent tracts than they are to allow new
comers to enter the field."
Tenant Farmers Increasing.
Preliminary reports from the United
States census of 1?00 show a very large in
crease In the number of tenant farmers.
This is unquestionably due to decreased
opportunity, for securing free land from
the government. Men who fifteen or twenty
years ago would have "trekked" out west
looking for a homestead location, are now
forced to rent from owners of large tracts,
upon such terms as these owners may dic
tate, however hard they may be. It is in
teresting to note that there is an unusual
scarcity of good tenants seeking locations
In northern Texas this year. This is due
to the opportunity offered by the opening
of the Kiowa reservation. Thousands of
Texas renters have gone to that reservation
in hopes of securing land of their own.
The system of tenantry in force In north
ern Texas does not produce an intelligent
class of citizenship. The renters have no
Interest in caring for the property they ex
pect'to occupy hut a few months, nor do
they in any way attempt to conserve the
fertility of the soil they cultivate. Their
extreme poverty and wandering life makes
it impossible for them to educate and
clothe their children, to say nothing of
the fact that the labor of every child who
can walk is necessary that the cotton rent
er may eke out his miserable living. The
miseries of this class of people during the
long period when cotton was five or six
cents a pound can well be Imagined when
experienced cotton planters say that the
actual cost of raising a pound of cotton is
at least five cents. Three acres are allowed
to produce one Dale of cotton. The aver
age Texas renter with a family of jrtrls
and boys old enough to work in the field,
cultivates about fifty acres. The total
sum received from the crop of this land Is
less than |T00, and but one-half of this
goes to the renter.
Owes Money at the End.
If he devotes any land to -vegetables or
any product In which the landlord Is not
Interested, he must pay at least $4 In cash
per acre for the rent of thaV land. With
$350 as the probable limit of his cash In
come foe a year, It Is evident that the
Texas renter Is fortunate who does not And
himself In debt to the owner of the land
when the final balance Is struck.
The cause of this peculiar condition In
the most populous section of a great stats
lies In the ease with which large tracts of
lend were secured In the early days. The
federal land law* did not apply to 1tau.
Ail the land within her borders was made
a state trust, which has been administered
recklessly and in bad faith as Is the case
In every instance where a state government
has been entrusted with public land to dis
tribute. Had the aonsestead lav prevailed
in Texas when that state was admitted to
the Union the aggregate wealth of the cot
ton districts might be no greater today,
but It would be more widely distributed
and discontent would not be so prevalent
among the agricultural population, as It Is
now even during the season of compara
tive prosperity for all those who till the
land. J. D. WHELPLEY.
Activity In Trolley Line IlnlldliiK?
Man ChnnKinK Color.
Special Correspondence of The Evening Star.
HAGERSTOWN, Md., August 8. 1001.
If all of the trolley lines now proposed
are built the towns of this valley and much
of the Blue Ridge mountains will soon be
a perfect netway of electrio roadways.
Arrangements for the building of a trolley
line between Greencastle and Pen Alar are
being consummated by the promoters of the
Chambersburg, Greencastle and Waynes
boro' Street Railway Company. One of
the promoters said that work would be
started laying the tracks from Greencastle
toward Waynesboro' in less than three
weeks. It is the purpose of this company
to build the line directly down the Green
castle-Waynesboro' pike to Wavnesboro
and" thence out the Rouzerville pike to the
mountain. Another trolley company Is
seeking a franchise at Waynesboro' and
other Pennsylvania towns with plans to
build to Pen Mar and eventually to Green
castle. The company Is headed by M. B.
Crumble of Harrlsburg, with M. B. Rlne
hart and A. C. Strickler of Waynesboro' on
the board of directors.
The prohibitionists are arranging for a
meeting to be held Saturday, August 3, in
this city to select delegates to the state
convention, which will .>e held in Balti
There Is a remarkable physical transfor
mation case attracting attention here and
In the neighboring towns. It is that of
Jeremiah Crittenden, a fifteen-year-old col
ored boy, living near Winchester, who Is
changing from a deep, dark brown color to
a pure white. His entire body Is spotted
with white splotches, some as large as a
man's hand. The change has been going
on for some months, and physicians say
he will be entirely white within a year.
Crittenden's uncle turned white some years
The Transcript, a weekly paper published
at Williamsport, has suspended publication.
S. A. Richard, manager, has accepted a po
sition as foreman with the new daily paper
started this week at Waynesboro" The
Transcript was established seventeen years
ago by Harry E. Rickard, a bright young
newspaper man, whose career was cut
short by death.
George McCoy of Williamsport, this
county, a member of the marine service,
now In the Philippines, will be awarded a
medal for bravery by Congress. McCoy
fought at Tien Tsin and Pekin, and people
of Williamsport and Hagerstown are very
proud of the actions of the young man.
A post office has been established at
Paramount, this county, and Christian
Horst commissioned postmaster.
William Jacobs has been appointed post
master at Huyetts, this county.
Mr. N. Carroll Downs, private secretary
to Senator Louis E. McComas, is visiting
his brother, Rev. H. F. Downs, Nojfth Po
tomac street, this city.
Miss Agnes Dugan of Washington is vis
iting Mrs. George McDewelT, North Locust
street, this citv.
Miss Faith Woodward of Washington Is
the guest of Miss Bessie Emmert at Funks
town. near this city.
Miss Ola Shaner and Miss Blanche Gas
son of Washington are visiting Mrs. W.
G. Bragonier, North Mulberry street, this
Mrs. Caroline Dunn and daughter Carrie
of Washington are visiting In Williams
Mr. O. A. McLean of Washington, who
has been visiting here and in the vicinity
for a month, has returned home.
Among other late arrivals of Washing
ton visitors at Hagerstown are Mr. N.
Gertensburg, Mr. David Walsh, Miss Nan
McGregor, Miss Greeta Tlbbetts, Miss Dot
Irvine. Mrs. B. H. Dyer and family, Mr.
Ralph Wolf, Mr. E. P. Roderick, Miss Rod
erick and Dr. E. C. Prentiss.
The National rnlverslty.
To the Editor of The Evening Star:
As a friend of the proposed national
university I have been Interested In the
"committee of fifteen," appointed at the
Washington meeting of the National Edu
cational Association, In 1898, by th?? na
tional council of the association (a majori
ty of the committee being members of the
council) to "Investigate the entire subject
of a national university and report to the
A few months after Its appointment this
committee adopted a resolution to the ef
fect that a national university was unde
sirable and Inexpedient, and this resolu
tion was given the widest possible publici
ty through the Associated Press, apparent
ly in ordfcr to create public sentiment
against the proposed Institution. During
the next two and a half years the commit
tee seemed to devote Itself to devising a
permanent substitute for a national uni
versity, and these efforts were exploited In
like manner. Finally, the committee went
so far as to give to the country a summary
of the substitute so devised, namely, the
Washington Memorial Institution, a cor
poration representing the Washington
Academy of Sciences and the George Wash
ington Memorial Association. The commit
tee then presented its first and only report
to the council.
It thus appears that the committee of fif
teen first abandoned Its Judicial character
In order to become an advocate; secondly,
oonsumed more than two-thirds of Its time
In work which it had never been author
ised to do; and, finally, gave the results of
its labors to the public before It was either
parliamentary enough or courteous enough
to report to the body creating it. As is
now well known the findings and recom
mendations of the committee were repu
diated by an overwhelming vote both of
the Council and of the association.
Perhaps the most complete presentation
of the Washington Memorial Institution,
aside from the report of the committee of
fifteen, was given in Science for June 28,
1601. some days before the committee of
fifteen reported at Detroit, by Dr. Chas. D.
Walcott, director of the United States
geological survey.
In the article In Science, after stating
briefly the character and extent of federal
aid to higher education In this country,
with mention of the rise of some of the
leading universities. Dr. Walcott says, re
ferring ^to the national university bills in
troduced Into Congress (without his disap
proval) by the national university, com
laittee of which he was a member; "But
Effer- Sjali^
vescent %7CI 11.'
Keep your blood
cool with Abbey's
Salt and the heat
will not affect you.
The 'Salt'of Salts"
makes a delicious
summer drink.
At mo?t drueyiiU or by null tic, 60c lid $) .00 per butt <
Staple and Booklet (ret m reqaest
The Abbey Effervescent Salt Co.
9-15 Murray Street, New York
Congress always looked on the scheme (for
a national university) with suspicion, and
not one of the various bills offered was
ever acted upon by the Senate and House
of Representatives."
The Buspioious character of the proposed
institution is strikingly borne out by tho
facts that George Washington first advo
cated it and left $25,000 toward Its endow
ment; that eight of his successors in the
presidency recommended it to Congress;
that it has been indorsed by a multitude of
the most distinguished educators, scien
tists and statesmen throughout the his
tory of the nation, and that the present
national university committee consists o
some two hundred and fifty college an
university presidents, Including practically
all the state university executives, as well
as state superintendents of public instruc
tion, and many other eminent scholars,
educators and statesmen.
' Dr. Walcott is aware that no congres
sional committee ever reported a national
university bill adversely; but that, on ths
contrary, a committee of the House of
Representatives reported unanimously In
favor of a national university In 187.'<, and
that the Senate committee to establish the
University of the United States reported
unanimously in its favor in 1893, and again
in 1894, .and by a majority vote in 180G;
also that said Senate committee, in 1900,
agreed, without dissent, on an afftrmuttve
The above is written not from any per
sonal feeling against any member of the
Washington Memorial Institution, but be
cause of Interest in the great national
university cause, and because of the con
viction that the Washington Memorial In
stitution is calculated to hinder that cause
rather than to promote it.
Chevy Chase, Md.
The Outrage.
To the Editor of The Evening Star:
If such scenes as those which the press
reports tell us were enacted In broad day
light at Carrollton, Miss., yesterday almost
within the shadow of the court house and
against the protest of judges and other
citizens of repute were enacted in Cuba
against Spaniards it would be considered
sufficient evidence that the Cubans were
unfit for self-government.
It has become rather fashionable nowa
days to condemn the republican party for
having given the negro the franchise as a
means of protection. Impatient public sen
timent compelled the repeal of laws that
enforced the fifteenth amendment. It ac
quiesced in the negro's deprivation of the
franchise by ingenious local constitutional
enactments," which the United States Su
preme Court has not yet swept aside as a
spider's web. The Fame sentiment has told
us that a compensation for the loss of the
franchise would be found In greater pro
tection to life and limb. Yet lynching is
resorted to In Mississippi as much today
as in 1870. Yet 'this is a Christian, not
a Confucian nor a Mohammedan nation!"
There should be "balm In Gllead" some
where. J. W. CROMWELL.
Anacoatla and Vicinity.
The Anacostla Brick Company, organized
recently for the purpose of extending and
further developing the Pyles' yards, con
ducted for several years at a point between
Good Hope and Ar.acostla. has finally be
gun operations. A brick making machine
of a modern tyj>e, a boiler and an engine
have been Installed In a suitable building
contiguous to the clay banks, and repr*.
seating: an expenditure of over $20,000. Th$
capacity of the new plant is about
60,000 bricks per day, and more than eighty,
men are employed at the place now. The
officers of the company are: George F,
Pyles, president, secretary and manager}
Dr. R. A. Pyles, vice president; AdolphuS
Gude, treasurer; W. F. Gude, Christian
Schellhorn, Dr. R. A. Pyles, George F.
Pvles. Adolphus Gude, board of directors.
The Anacostla Military Band has chosen
the following named to serve as officer?
during the ensuing year: Samuel M. Fra
iler, president; Prof. .Frederick Fletcher,
director; James W. Bartley. assistant di
rector; William DuvaU. recording secre
tary Milton Filllus. financial secretary:
Thomas J. Leonard, treasurer. The band
has recently held a successful lawn party
In Anacostla and elsewhere In The Star to
day publishes a card of thanks to those
who participated.
Officers C. A. Stevens, C. F. Osterman,
V. G. King and A. W. Green of the Ana
costla station, accompanied by Mr. W. N.
Freeman of Good Hope, have gone on ft
fishing cruise In the lower river. They wUj
be gone ten days. The members of the
party have a sloop at their disposal and
will visit various points.
Officer George W. Kramer has been as
signed to night duty at the Anacostla sta-?
tlon house. He Is a well-known member;
of the force and has lately been connected,
with No. 0 station.
Mr Burtpn H. White of Congress Heights
has gone to the hot springs In Virginia foe
ft month for the benefit of hif health.
Mr and Mrs. A. E. Randle of Congress
Heights are In Newport, where they will
remain several weeks. ^ ,
Mr. James Etsler, a former resident, U(
visiting here from Newport News, wher^
he is engaged In business.
The Pacific Gas Improvement Company
of San Francisco has cut tha rate to
cents a thousand feet, and this has b$en
promptly met by tile other corporations, f

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