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as the location for the building. The su
pervision of the erection of the library building was delegated by Congress to the District Commissioners, the superintendent of public buildings and grounds and the president of the library trustees, and also provided for the submission of plans through an architectural competition. The designs of twenty-four architects were submitted, and in their selec tion Architects George B. Post of New York and Henry Van Brunt, president of the American Institute of Architects, were called upon to assist. The design of Messrs. Ackerman & Ross, architects of New York, was chosen,'and this firm was appointed architects of the building, while Mr. Bernard R. Green of the Library of Congress was appointed to superintend the construction. Some delay was occasioned by necessary alterations of the plans to make the con struction come within the available ameunt. Mr. Carnegie's attention was undoubtedly attracted to this, and on April 14, 1899, he made an additional donation of $50,000 for furniture and equipment, and in the follow ing Scptember he made still another addi tion of $50,000 to cover the increased cost of building material. The Beautiful New Library Home. The new building is a gracEful structure, substantial, monumental and appropriate in every way for the purpose it was de signed for and the site it occupies. Ample book room is provided, as well as spacious reading rooms for books and periodicals, a lecture room, students' rooms and corridors, all fittingly appropriate. The book lovers of the city have been provided a home; a permancnt institution, which can but make for intellectual development and better citi ztnship, has Letn t-stablished, and the city and nation can view with satisfaction a well-equipped municipal public lib: ary. In the meantime, the New \ ork avenue es tablishment was made ready and began to serve readers. It opened for business Octo ber 1, 1898, and the iecord of the first twen ty days shows how it was appreciated by recording the fact that 5,213 books wcee tiorl owed for home ieading during taat time. kor the six montas fiom January to June, 16M. 57,7i7 books had been borrowed. From that time to this toe usefuiess o the in stil.ion has maintained its initial rapid bio,;th. New books have been supplied and new readers conmantly enrolled. 'Ine record o. the fiscal year I901 showed that 123,555 Lo..s had been borrowed. Now that the library is housed in its new home, a much larber number of readers will undoubtedly be recorded, especially as provision has been particularly made fur tWe accommoda tion of children in tne new structure. The Library of Congress. The evouLion 01 tine Libtai) o Congress from its cr,.ea anu dingy quarters ni he Caphtok to its present crowning eminence in a sister bui.u.ng to the cap.tol is a pro gress which 'the Ztar also took delight in reco.uing and matriany aing. inere were many 1r.enus of lijrary expansion in Congress long beiore the l1mal success of the efforts to construct an adequate home outsue of the t.apaoi far the great book coIlection, yet. naswi-astanding the fact that the Library o Congress is, strictly speak Ing, a naunmnat iniLLuakOn, tle tu nerance oL its deve.onment was ieft in a great neas ure to the insistence of the ies.dents of Washington. Then, too, there were some rqgass wn.u lI cizens ueiieved were their :ue-such as to have the free use of this ibrary during the evening and on Sun day. \o p.ogress, luwever, could be made in this caLnpaign unti. after the new 'build inag nad been cuap.etcd. 'iinen it was that the agitation began in earnest, and went on wa,.nuut ceainlg until botn privileges were granted. While no circulating booKs may be tor rowed by Wasningtonians from the Library of Congress, its mii.ion volumes are now free of access from 9 o'c.ock in the morning until 10 o'clock at night every day in the week, and oil Swdays from 2 to 10 p.m. This campa.gn for night and Sunday opening has been arge.y a strugg.e with Congress. The Slilbrarians in charge of the Congressional Library -have in every case favored the movement, and the only hitch seemed to be the trilling excess Of expenditure which the longer hours would entail. The last ap propriation -bill carried this extra amount, however, and as The Star ce'ebrates its jubilee anniversary it has the satisfaction of seeing every library improvement in wnich it was interested 'accomplished. Res idents, permanent or temporary, of the cap ital city may borrow books freely of the public library; they may read in Its cozy reading rooms and consult its reference books. They may also enjoy the privileges of the Library of Congress by occupying places in the most magnificent reading room in the world and may call for any one of the million volumes in the institution, while they have in addition access to the various special departments of art, music, periodicals, etc., which have been made pos sihle in the na0W hnIlding. IIPROYVEENT OF RAILI AND THE WAR BY CHA After a quarter of a century of agitatiol the people of the District of Columbia ar about to realize the long-anticipated elimi nation of grade crossings within the cit: on the lines of the steam railroads tha enter the District. The measures now pend ing in Congress to effect these pur poses have been agreed to by the rail road companies af fected by their pro visions, have bec1 passed by the Sen ate and are now be fore the House o Representatives fo action. In their is cential features the: hive had the ap proval of every in terest in the Distric of Columbia, and. excepting some ml nor changes tha will probably b, made in them to minimize as far as pos sible damage to property along the line o the tracks, they will doubtless be enacte< into law substantially in their present forn before the close of this session of Congress Only those who are familiar with the lon B &O.RR. STATION. discussion that resulted in the plan for th elimination of grade crossings now aboui to be adopted can appreciate the import ance of the campaign that has been carrie on in the District by its citizens led b3 The Evening Star to bring about this end It is not only that a pian has finally beer agreed upon that is a subject for congratu lation, but it is the fact that this plan in volves a solution of the problem on a scal of magnificence that must for generations to come command the admiration of all In the final solution of this problem ther has been some difference of opinion as ti the division of the cost between the rail roads and the District. The Star in sisted from the outset that the impositior of the burden of $1.500,000 upon the capital govermnent and District jointly-to aid thi Baltimore and Ohio in defraying its ex penses of grade crossing elimination ha no foundation in equity or in the prevailing custom in many cities of the north wher the railroad terminals have been modern Ized. This paper, while the bills were pend ing before the Fifty-sixth Congress, dis cussed the subject at great length and se cured the testimony of state and city en gineers on the matter of the division ol cost. proving to the satisfaction of the Dis trict, and many of the District's friends ii Congress, that there was no warrant foi the bonus to the Baltimore and Ohio. Not withstanding this showing the bill wa passed as framed, and a large share of th cost, which should have been borne by th railroad alone, was foisted off upon th community, which was furthermore re quired to donate street spaces of grea value to the corporation for permanent us< and to bear the cost of Incidental damage: outside of the railroad's right of way. The Mall Space. No such feature was presented by the bill relating to the Pennsylvania line, al though The Star objected emphaticall: to the grant In perpetuity of the Mal apace, not only on grounds of equity, bu LOAD TERMINAL AGAINST GRADE CROSSINGS. B. E. KERN. i the railroad structure would offer to a t comprehensive improvement of that grand - park. A determined fight was waged in the House, under the leadersaip of Representa t tive Cowherd, against this spoliation of C - the park, but it was unsuccessful in the - face of the determination of the railroad t - company and its friends to retain posses - sion of that which it had occupied free of - rent for so many years. 1 The combined measure now pending re- s - tains the objectionable bonus to the Balti - more and Ohio, payable jointly by the Dis- 1 f trict and the government, and adds the r grant of an equal sum to the Pennsylvania t - company in supposed compensation for the 8 r relinquishment of the public lands which - it now occupies and which had in addition - been granted by the legislation of 19). The r t Star expressed its --approval of the prin- % ciple upon whicn this latter bonus was pro- t - posed, but regarded the matter as being strictly between the railroad company and the federal government, the latter owning the lands and itself paying for the relin- r quishment. An attempt was feebly made r I to divide this sum as in the other case be- r L tween the District and the government on r the ground that the original grant of the t public space to the Baltimore and Potomac 1. company had been made by the city coun- r eils. But The Star immediately pointed out t from the records that this local action had fI been taken subject to the approval of Con- ii gress, and that until Congress did so ap- b prove it the railroad was unauthorized to 1 enter the park space. Thus Congress as- a sumed sole responsibility for the donation t or loan of the park lands. A Long Struggle. A review of the discussion leading to this a result demonstrates the Importance of the a work that has been done by The Star, not 1 only in constantly keeping before Congress y and the public the importance of legisla tion for the elimination of grade crossings, i but also urging the necessity for a solution a of the problem that would not prove to be o a makeshift but should settle the question o for "all time." As that term is used this T 1 WABHINGTON GR wvill be accomplished by the legislation now tearly completed. As the city grows out vard the plan for the elimination of grade rossings will be extended to the limits of he District of Columbia. It was in 1827 that the first charter was ranted to the Baltimore and Oh:o Railroad 3ompany to construct a railroad from Bal imore, Md., to the Ohio river, with "lateral allroads in any direction whatsoever in onnection with said railroad." In the ollowing year Congress authorized the 'onstruction of one of the branches of the 3altimore and Ohio railroad into the Dis rict of Columbia, with a restriction that it hould not pass through or use any of the ublic squares or open spaces of the city vithout the special consent of Congress. In uthorizing the road to enter the District 'ongress provided that the tracks should e so placed in the thoroughfares that they vould not "impede the passage or trans ortation of persons or property along the ame." This provision meant in actual practice very little at the time it was laced in the charter. A scattered village eceived the railroad as a great boon, and -ears passed before the need for making ractical use of that provision was seen. B. and O.'s Monopoly Broken. For many years the Baltimore and Ohio ailroad enjoyed a monopo:y of steam rail oad transportation in the District. Its nonopoly was broken by giving the Balti nore and Potomac company a terminal in he District. This company was chartered y Maryland in 1853, and in 1867 Congress .tNIL R.R.STATjbN., assed an act allowing it to enter the Dis rict. The Baltimore and Potomac road at .rst established its depot in South Wash igton, at 9th and C streets southwest, y virtue of an act of Congress. In 871 and 1872 the common council first. .nd then Congress, authorized the company D establish its depot at the corner of 6th nd B streets northwest, on land which vas marked on the maps as a great public ark, but which had never been improved nd was partly covered by unsightly hacks, crazy sheds and miscellaneous de ris, which had accumulated through many ears of neglect. It was not long before the increasing usiness of the railroads, the improvement f the city and the increase in the traffie n the streets began to bring the question f grade crossings prominently before the eople. For twenty-five years there has ADE CROSUING.