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PICTURES INTHE PRESS
Origin and Growth of News paper Illustration. ART IN PRINTERS' INK PROGRESS FROM CRUDE WOOD CUT TO THE HALF-TONlE. Mechanical Process Described - The Line Drawing-Etching on Zinc -Function of the Cartoon. By Will i1. Chandlee. A pictorial siwlling book is one of the earlh st and dearest recollections of my chilid hood. It was rather an indifferent specimn n typographically. The letters were larg and heavy. particularly the capitals. At the head of each page was a woolly wood cut engrav(d in the good old Bewick style. verv ster and respectable. Under the pictures were short, .rse Feitieces relat ng ther to. srch as John has a t w op." "The cat is on .e i.at."."Sce the lat pig." ( tL. NIy favorite of -he lot was a hen and her Sro o d . With the nery. TCan you see the bin and her chicks?' In the light of more m a t u r e years the absurity of the p:es on is erldent, for the L.en a . h lneir ally large Will H. C'andlee. ini thhiks occu ;I- a verI eV..i4nous position in the im 1: ' for. gr. H l. 1 w ti appreciate the lit ) r die f the l.kr evfn spell 10 v .h t th .1 p rs :1hd mY y Ul n ;h j %. I wouhi p.r o,.er themn FIi' o 1 Wilir itC, u0 1r th by M a~o: or am f ih mi at night. i LaeI w1. J n a !. g )r -! in h.s new top.I I i t . h i l g ,L t I nh n h e i r ' d m e : !w.a to su I r f I 1 1.i h i n - i -foiwy aog tI; h over t hi.i w.xh i w;l J ! b.hin i; i i n th - p ct r. I p 0 phl th lw-r m, ilhe at the 'dg' of the ditat w - wi b th m nwrs of his fimily. Th) wer a.l .nhabia:ts of the spil ing hti *k. His grandrnoth r. with a kit en p!avi g nI I ou !: r f %e , 1 ', : nd y on th pag ! ppitre .Ih aol II s haby br :hr, wih p lf , V . . ' hit a1- i att.e nair the !I d f Iher It N a:n at .f mere d r: pti n n - i : a l' ! zin Iih ng t t l lieI'rs. Th: y .1 'i ir nn stry. whi.h Is tb .' , h lI ::tins. A a chil i able to un 1,rstanl ant riogire the pieare of a cw lang he f -r the rrilnt d worl cony S lVn man Ing to him, co ian in the c hil hood of - -. idation un hr. t'd an.1 communicat(7d hii ideas to n fellows by ch:Lracters or cor drawIngs of objects as in the hieroglyphics bor of the ancient Egyptians. Prehistoric Pictures. D In the caves of France, man of the stone the age his i ft fragmenits of his history In gla rile draiwings on the horn of the mam- ci: moth and other then existing anina's- bet 'Tlh pie:ure wkr-iting; of anwlnt Gry. ce are p . rI ti u, i many a dtelieate vase Thi ani.i ;:.ira. and the di!y life of Pompeii, div' the tragi. is d, iet I in the r# mains of its nee wail p otings anl frcsco d corations. kn , he pla!is itidiants of oir own country 1ave for ages record di tht ir successes or con faiiures In war ail the chase by pictur- I' Ing thl m in color upon buffalo hides or sol 6 1 rskins, and the innuit or Eskimo of the pla fir i;rt h kt ps L t ,y of his sk al hunts and ove c. voy: ) ' ny Cirving- In Ivory. age DI lid Is aut hrlty for the statement dra that the Chise printed pictures from wit THE ABT I wrooden blockis ns early as 1120 B. C. and wor the Itallans 1:?N A. 1). e The~ Germanls were printing relgious pte- iieas tures in the early part of the fifteenth een- TI tury. rnnd Finigeerra. the FlorentIne, tood: whh impressitns frito cohper pilates in 1461-pro Bottleli also gave much attin nion t~ cop has per pl it,' engravin. and since the days of dalil Albrecht Doter and the Italian renaissancel wers Illustration has gradually gained the atten- ng tion and claimed the s'ervices of the great- is est mind. in the world of art, until today or artist and illustrator are one and inter- oi changeable. Edwin A. Abbey. whose ma&s- Thn terly decorations of th2 "Quest of the Holy bric Grail" are in the Bloston Public Library. coat and who was commissIoned to paint the past coronation of King Edward VII of Englandga wrn but a few years ago simply an illus -_lg trator in black and white.wh The monthly magazine was the pioneer of tool, ~pular lillustrations in America. Godey's ter dies' Book will be remembered for its blo1 elaborate steel-engraved frontispieces and ort tithographed folders in color of the fearful lng and wonderful feminine fashions of the post- this benlum peidnal.so ts. diagams for te fac fa e" stitch W a r -i uaty ilutrtdpr . O * th s tatig and the r i ring. n tihe waaiteecuagmntoi-r ualiy m ofstluforteartist mus t dsn sumt hisi wrt the "egaery who th ventonal Illtherare pituesper Onf 'h1's regmets tof ices patnts seaher oocts and fason- u te throes chae han ubren maeIn rI the sruht indelt of outrnur daliy af fautleslyt atttofmuertwit In swutor od poting a the fohrero I C w a-timne dealyustrtat n-ts. h tho the war pictures of todaly. ws t illurstrnatet nesaher. botn habt o lxe toites churlewd utsboe appre-s .e the proughesstnd ha benry. mad I the sari fandltlel lettie oficesrtg s sbmit pisnworktorthewenr , o ir hn thon arth. thewarpicure of'Gl'C5regmens bo h to Dtahle, ryr Sicturevogeoda ted intn tedfeecisovosothe t om. tiv e rapidity and absolute accuracy with un h a drawing or photograph can be re-th been the making of the Illustrated t papers. At first the picturesre very crude, seldom more than merere lines." They were made by what. nown to the "craft" . as the "mud,, ac halk-plate process, which is now used a for occasional map or diagram work. making of cuts in this manner Is o ly as follows: A steel plate is thinly * li ed with a fine white clay or kaoi n13m e. When this dries it is ready for en- o ing. The design to be cut Is traced tly upon the surface of the clay, aftef :h it is cut through with the prope1 an Sto the hard surface of the steel. Af the loose clay dust has been carefully 'I rn out of the cuts made by the graver gri aol. the plate is placed In an iron cast- gi box and molten metal poured thereon: dTr filis the engraved lines down to the fir of the steel plate. When the metal sul 6I Lop tw 'I SEE iorHINC AsoUr "GMEE tA-w,* 4 'II tA IgST M Vs THIS BE fTHE RE31EDYI ols It to removed from the clay, trimme d mounted and is ready for printing. rhis mode of engraving Is known by man3 mes, but the principle Is the same. Oi p various methods of photo-engravin lc etching is t-he one nlmost exclusivel: ed In modern newspaper illustrating. The Line Drawing. After the drawing to be reproduced li ade by the artist It Is photographed IT e ordinary way-that is, a glass negativ4 ma de. rhis negative Is then thickened and Iri naified by chemical treatment until whez NEARTCES .A oeqi sremovied fro he caed tihmae rhsmdesofiengrit ihrowant by ano Li. bhe ssnaive is thaed ovme. 0h cetcnd i the opun ams eprintingfae o ed Linte Du .rwhncenra ~.fter th dfewinto esreprodued eg ae byrmve n the tini plooatisphaed erdarap waheatumen raily wrahes me.p hr thsbe adndb acioneofathe igh throu thickene andf daing by cheia tneatvetuti h nd othe words, the ogarawin atth goducedrawing apers ine foelaine. in. he surfae. pa se ofe plshed zin c -dequor tray s ex conagaath ofwitra de anszd w.Th acdeatte eofedo The ofithe ineglatving pnacd over tline th adrawhng whepich a prtinge byrthe eras of areedti glaihthee e in i reoed andar the rinltig plrace rathepf.nThe cut.mey thred ofsen exiep awdoenr itr cuts been arene byd actionro the rlsih othugl theanec drwn The nalfTive. herprces uo thekinc in geaftne lies. 'hvin (pnl.ate irtenyfo pa photo th drwingou whihe rteten by the ugstrman) of hadenedca ineh theseoreo exepna in reliefatterr the printingfc ade or tsecuress iy somthoing l-as ex (11 T1 -- r r 'ou It SDAy IS i rmely fine screen between the sensitized negative plate anti the object to be photo r graphed. This cuts the surface of the plate E in cross-l-Ines of light and shade as these t val-ues appear in the original. r it Is then subjerled to the acid bath And Ietched in th- usuil manner. The half-tone In t-he last few years has, to a large extent, superseded the line cut. which is now used I chiefly In the larger daily papers for the I drcorative borders or emnhe'llshments which surround tihe groups of photographs, and In many of the Sunday supplements are print -ed In colors. I Color printing Is a comparatively recent 1 2 - atiol i cen toe the atscemelsenitizof negativespater and the oaretyt eposob fgraphed eTuiio cut the so-'caled omth pt ilnt.ross-is ofyet ncrde sae, a s . vales parm in teeigwiththa vret.o T Is thportancer of to he aoo bathrandy Pachedi the atost amngr the half-nes inary ajnt fyarht a lasppreuepment. chiely n th laer Thie paroo for th suroun th grupsofshotoraphe, gaph- in -e editoriaolons. 1 &Colr riningLua cmeratveysene ta Dorigina(Haunctoon). addiion o th artsti embellstin o he nwspaer, nd t larel thesonie-1 fortheebulilonof jg olleh inm tsupg-n pleent itis et acres estate, when ist. e in harmnious 'epin s it tovriy oim te humo irohIt sualy lymiated dietyi Car tos.acetpoo he imporance of t e iton turallypu garyadjnctsof nesar equfpmbncur The carton i or u) ashrdb a grax planatorialnote aser snstue- ot orlgnal unctony. In carooningthe t ths theng afer- gt AM&te the eartoen The ~ of of he yeffsmt to ONNOVIUOe Is tawon smabiwed Ing uft oa Tamsa asS - is Weiny whi a ~ ~.~Z W the as4ami of the a te nta=1 deathi of the laft- Jame G. Too often the weapon of the eartoonist a used unjustly. and although Its ultimate Mefots may be far more than was Intended. he milsehief to started with the little nowball which accumulates and grows ntil its victim is overwhelmed at the foot >f the hill. The cartoon policy of The 3tar has been to respect the rights and eelings of the individual, and to confine ts shafts as far as possible to the punctur ng of public bogls and institutional gall 1pots. The Star's First Picture. The first picture published in The Star was a cartoon. It was many years, before dr. Felix Mahony. the paper's present artoonist. ever thought of wielding a car oonic pen or pencil-on a time when the )resent day Old Subscriber and Veritas were playing hookey and fishing for mul ets in old Tiber creek. The theme of the cartoon was an ad ournment of Congress for the Christmas iolidays. In The Star's columns at that time was vont to appear a little cut used to attract tention of the casual reader to advertise nents for run-away slaves. Since 1898 dr. Mahony's cartoons have been an al nost daily feature of the front page of 'he Star, a fe-it which can only be ap ireciated by one who knows the joys and orrows of the cartoonist's life. The dark lays which come when there is noth ng to cartoon. the difficulties which in 'ariably surround the picturing of the most imely subjccts. and whmn. at last, the car oonist furnishes his picture and says to imself, "That's pretty good," to be but onholed by a friend on the morrow, who, Vi. th anxious face and tearful eyes, prays >r an explanation. General il'ustration became a feature ofJ he Star in I886, since which time the pa-( er has sailed a safe middle course in that t gard; believing that where a picture can s made to supplement the text or add le-a timate interest to a story it should ber ied, avoiding bloated and over-decorated I inday, or, in The Star's case. Saturdaye litions; art supplements of questionable e tistic value and inflamed comic se ti .ns, hose brillianov is more chromatic than in lectual, eschewing elaborate "layouts" --full Dages of grouped pictures and i.- L imitated with Intermittent spots of frag entarv text. In fine. holding to the prin pie that a few good pictures are superio~r d Smany poor ones, and that a newspaper a not or should not be an illustrated maga- si ne' ' d Kodern Newspaper Illustrating. e: bodern newspaper illustrating is one of w e notabje products of the last twenty a arm, altshough in 188l5 the New York h erald printed a map of the burnt district fi the great fire of that year, together with bl view of the old Merchants' Exchange. It1 1838 were depicteid in the same paper I 1 phic scenes at the polls, and the famous a "E1g bNsa at 00 rw -ThSwt E en=m-m with e 164tal delasMes Ot G0161 hals en 3 a pioerlal view Was ives of the .4e.SU... a upba6 & un sana. 0sntroom.the et ort. of the Ki" the Alhay Evesiag News and others emdeavrimg to de moulak 1t enterprIes by claiming=f that I the picture had already dons duty at I Victoria's coronation. General Harrison's funeral and the Caten water oelebra UtIo. The arst Illustrated daily In AmerIca was the New York Graphic, flrat published a March 41873 Its plcturws were of current Vents dwn in pen and Ink and photo graphed on stone, from which the pictures were reproduced, and the descripve and other reading matter was printed afterward from the ordinary presses. The Graphic was discontinued In 1889. at which time the photo-engraving on metal plates, capable of being printed with the body of the paper. madle possible the illustrating of the regular ialliea. Tres in Kansas City. Promn Park and Cemetery. Kansas City is now setting an up to date example for our western ,cities In the care of Its trees. It has secured the services of a properly qualified city forester, and has passed ordinances regulating the planting. trimming and care of its trees In such terms and under such provisions that its citizens will realize their Importance and the necessity of conforming to them In a wise and co-operative spirit. The press is aiding in the work to a very appre-clable degree, and the result will be that in a few years those who once knew the energct-c city in its practically treeloss condition will marvel at the change so wiSe and beneficial I a program has brought about. It Is always well said that when the people are educated I to. the degree of recognizing the importance I of rules and regutions of practical neces sity they are at once loyal to theni. But to reach this point the requisite knowledge must be conveyed in a comprehensib:e and I sions of Christmas ttractive manner, which comparatively b ew public officials are capable of doing. a 'he press communications of the Kansas fi lity tree official, and the advice and direc- ti Ions emanating from his office, however, 03 indicate him In this respect, and afford ex- a mples of lessons to the public which re- a lad us of works of P--of. Collins of the n: rooklyn Tree Planting Society, which has a xtended so promising atn influence In the ir ast. Ii People Who Are Too Early. r aey Onslaw In The Queen. Tiresome as the guests are who spoil a - nner and keep all their fellow-guests H 'alting twenty minutes longer than neces try, thus prolonging the dreary before- II inner Interval, I think one feels even more cI casperated, from a hostess' point of vIew.,I ith those who come too early. While the " nxious giver of the fEast Is hurrying Into er dinner dress, It Is trying to hear a peal Sa t -om the hall-door bell a quarter of an hour at Efore the earliest expectation. announcing eg e advent of the first arrival, who must be at niled upon and conversed with, in spite of - ggrieved fee-lngs. B L thaastI limna-- et do Yew maa in Abet to aom %em Werwe Wer. As the end of the year draws *rb we may congratulate ourselves that It will eave the world in much better plight than t found it. When it began there was war a South Africa and there were trouble ome hostilities in the Philippines. -Nw ieace is broken. if broken at all, only by ne unrest in Venesuela add Colombla and n. Hayti, that follows their revolutione, .nd in Africa, where the "Mad Mullah" has tttacked the British. And not only Is the world at peace, but the great nations are nore securely linked together. perhaps, han they ever were before. New fores or peace are at work, especially two of he strongest poesible world influences; an rganized and closely knit commerce, which none can afford to disturb for fear f a lasting loss of trade, and, in particular, he overwhe:ming commercial power of the 7nIted States, which would gain a still Purer lead by the suspension of industrial LctivIty in any important country. The ittle pertootcal 'anjustments of power and if privilege tnat the nations used to make )y special treaties were crude and weak tuarantees of peace in comparison with he compelling power of modern commerce ind all that it Implies. The most recent wars wei - really only frontier wars. Men without historical knowledge easily oelleve tha-t their own era is a new era in he wor:d. But men with historical knowl dge now see international conditions that tre radically different and radically better or pEace than any of the battered cen uries behind mn knt w. The unfettering of he uominant race of men by free institu ions to frce cpportunity on the most fruit ul continent. and the industrial rise of the epubLic. fortifyir.g its political p 'wer. have >ut all nations in a rew relation .:> one an ither amd in a --w relatk.n t c'vilizaton. 'his revolutJenary fact has become plainer his 3ar than it evcr was btfore. Its far eaching significance we do not yet ee4 ait it looks like a great force that wilt ork for the steadying of governments and ir the sane direction of endeavor for cen iries to come. For it is the natural result a great law of human development and >t an advantage won by the strength of -mics or by the skill of ..iplomatists or by iy other power that may change with change of rulers and of generations. The C. tstria man becomes stronger, the po ical man weaker; and economic corce is ginning to rule the world as military Irce once ruled it. Zoological Gardens Criticised. mury ~Sephe-as in the Saturday Review. The periodical feeding of the pythba on a re goat at the Zoological Gardens is a pro ss marked at times by very disgusting cidents: and the question is being asked Ey these reptiles should not be fed on -wly killed and still warm carcas in ead of living anirmals. The rigid secrecy ith which the managers of the Zoo have tempted to conceal from public knowi ge the repulsive tragedy of the python td its goat is an indication that all is not " tould be in the "Bastille of the ats."