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THE EVENING STAR.
PUnrISnan DAILY, NrOUPT SUNDAY. &a. On... nth st se teamylasa Aema U.- * . . 1, 196,. 'h NanEing Mr NWSpr Caminy. The Washiagton Star is gen U. I. n&UINmAI, PmIlast. erally considered one of the ten Par 2a. Os :Pag..a17=2. or twelve choicst adverti MAnth: a ea mnae Yb. 1.iening Star Is ...ed to ..bscriber.s I . ms tbe t.t" ** carr*em. n tbetr on account at" among all the dailies published per wKeek, or 44 cents rmot a.t c -e t I,,'i-alw,,.* throghou the United States. - U.S odranada-poatage prepaId-50 cents per month. S-.. Saturday Star, 2 "ge. $1 per year; with toe. eign postage added. *&CA. tEntered at the Post O0ice at Washingtoe. D. C. os second-class mail matter.) 7AJII mal subcrptio;s " iot be paid In adva. WASHINGTON, D. C., FRIDAY, J*TUARY 9, 1903-TWENTY PAGES. Rates of advertising made known an appleatom. TRADE WITH MEXICO THE COUNTRY WITH WHICH EX PORTS AND IMPORTS BALANCE. With No Part of the World Has Our Commerce Grown More Rapidly in Recent Years. The public discussion of a possible clange in the standard of currency in Mexico adds Interest to a statement just prepared by the treasury bureau of statistics regarding the trade relations between the United States and that country. With no part of the world has the commerce of the United States grown more rapidty in recent years than with Mexico. Exports to Mexiw from the United States, which amounted to $15,000,000 in 1801. were over forty mil lions in 1902, and imports into the United States from Mexico, which were twenty eight millions in 1801, were fully forty-one millions in 1902. Mexico is the one country with which our imports and exports balance. To Canada, that other adjacent country, we sell twice as much as the value of our purchases from It. Our imports from the Cen-tral Ameri can countries are 50 per cent more than our exports to those countries. From the West Indies our imports are nearly twice as great in value as our exports to them. From South America our imports are nearly three times as great as the value of our exports to them, and from Asia our im ports are more than double our exports to that part of the world. To Europe we ex port nearly three times as much as we im port from that continent. In the case of Mexico, however, our exports to that coun try are at present just equal to our imports from that country, the total value of the exports from the United States to Mexico in the eleven months ending with Novem ber, 1902. being $8,124.159, and our imports from Mexico during the same period, $38, 712,051. Mexico's Trade With the United States Mexico's trade with the United States grows more rapidly than that with any other part of the world. The exports from the united kingdom .to Mexico grew from $8,000,000 in 1881 to $10,500,000 in 1900; those from France to Mexico fell from $9,000,000 In 1881 to $7,000,000 in 1899; those from Germany grew from $700,000 in 1881 to S5,000,000 in 1899. and those from Spain from $871,)0 in 1881 to a Little less than 32,000,00 in 1900, while from the United States the exports to Mexico grew r~om 311,00).000 in 1881 to $315,00.000 in 1900, and, as already Indicated, over $40,000,000 in 1102. Contiguity, quick rail communication and the presence of iarge American interests in Mexico are the principal causes of the rapid gains which the United States is making over her rivals in the trade of Mexico. Over 9,4)00 miles of railroad are now in operation in Mexico, bringing all parts of that country into direct communi cation with the United States, and, accord ing to a recent statement furnished to the State Department by the United States consul general in Mexico, fully $400,000,000 of capital from the United States is in vested in that country, and many citizens of the United States are located tempora rily or otherwise in Mexico. Mexico is the one country south of the United States to which our exports show an appreciable growth. To the Central American states our exports in 1890 were $5,296,478 and in 1902 6,:22.418,; to South America our ex ports in 1890 were $38,752,648, in 1902 $33, 043,617; to the West Indies our exports In 1810 were 333,107,222, in 1902 343,632,951, while to Mexico our exports in 1890 were $13,285,287, in 1902 339,873,606, and in the calendar year 1903 will be over $40,000,000. Our Most Important Exports. The most important of our exports to Mexico are manufactures of iron and steel, nach.inery, unmanufactured cotton, lum ber, manufactured wood, manufactures of cotton and gunpowder. Our imports from Mexico are chiefly -textile grasses, espe cially sisal, coffee, hides, cattle, lead, cop per and tobacco, and in addition to these there are large quantities of silver in ore and considerable gold, which are not in cluded in the figures of imports of mer chandise. COPYING THE RECORDS. vast Work of% Clerks in the Patent Office. Chief Clerk Irelan of the patent office has addressed a letter to Mr. F. N. Booth, chief of the assignment division of the patent office, congratulating him on the worl' of his force during the month of De cember. Mr. Irelan says: "The monthly reports of the assignment divisIon for December are very creditable to the industry and efficiency of the force employed there on copying the records of the office and recording deeds. The work done by Miss Brashears, Miss Lewis, Mrs. Jackson, MIiss Hopkins and Miss Merrilat of the manuscript writers is worthy of spe cial mention, and that of Miss Morgan, hiis#s Mferritt and Miss Myers of the record ers was equally praiseworthy."' The work of this division has been par ticularly heavy during the past six- weeks or two months, on account of the immense amount of work left over from the fail and mummer months. whlc~h it was necessary to finish before the report of the, commis sioner could be compiled. The MlssBrash ears referred to in the communication of hir. Irelan is the young woman who holds the record of the patent office for fast type writing, having written 13,300 words in five hours Decenmber 17. Miss Brashears worked ten days during the month of December and her daily average was 10,385, about 2,000) aheadi of her nearest competitor. The total number of words copied by Miss Brash.*ars during the ten days she*worked was liN,40w. PRIVATE RICHTER'S CASE. It is Claimed That He Was an Inno cent Victim of Circumstances, The record of the court-martial proceed ings in the case of Private Henry Richter, Blattery C, 6th Artillery (niow the 62d Com pany, Coast Art-illery), has been received at the War Department, not for action, howe.ver, but simply for filing and record. It shows that the soldier was tried at Ba tangas, P. I., and found guilty of desertion about October 8, 1899, at Manila, and re mnaininig absent until captured in Minda uao liland November 8, 1901, within terri tory occupied by armed insurgents. He was antenced to be dishonorably dis charged the service of the United States, to forfeit all pay and allowances due him and to be confined at hard labor for the period of his natural life. The sentence was approved by the military authorities i the Philipplnes, and the Cuartel de Espana at Mainila was designated as the place of confi lement. The parents of Richter live in Baltimore and they recently appealed to the War De partment to save the life of their son, in the blieljf that he had been sentenced to death for alleged treason. According to tbeir story Richter was an innocent victim of Or .ums'tances. he having been attacked by the Filipinos while on guard duty, beat en into insensibility and carried off, and being watched so closely that he was never able to return to the American lines. An ether story was that he fell in love with 4 ve girl, who persuaded him to join the ent forces by promdsis of royatd, but so far as known at the department the Rove romance outs no gure. In the ease, which is Ib as eam of Due desertiton in he ag theeney a e ofwr ON THE RIVER FRONT CHANGE IN OWNtmSHI OF SCHOONER E. AND S. CORSON. Herring on Sale at 11th Street Wharf -Work at the Boat yards. Tne three-masted bay schooner R. and S. Corson has been sold by her owner, Capt. A. T.'Lawson of Crisfield, Md., to Capt. W. J. Martino of West Point, Va., who will as sume dommand of the vessel at once and will continue her in the Chesapeake bay lumber trade. The schooner is a frequent visitor to this port during the summer months with various cargoes. She is a schooner of 233 tons register and Is 110 feet long, 29 feet wide and 8% feet deep. She was built at Wilmington, Del., in 1866, and now hails from Crisfield, Md. Captain Law son will, it is understood, purchase another vessel and will continue in the bay and North Carolina sound trade, where be is well known. The first lot of herring to arrive at the fish 1harket here was received by a dealer at the lith street wharf Wednesday and sold at 8 cents each. They came from South Carolina waters. The supply of fish 'n hand this morning was small and the demand fair. Prices show but few changes from yesterday, and are as follows: Span ish mackerel. 12 cents per pound; pan rock, 10 to 11 cents per pound; medium rock, 14 cents per pound; boiling rock, 18 to 20 cents per pound; salmon trout, 8 to 9 cents per pound: sheepshead, 8 to 10 cents per pound; Potomac black bass, 9 to 10 cents per pound; North Carolina black bass, 8 to 9 cents per pound; bluefish and tailors, 7 to 8 cents per pound; flounders, 5 to 6 cents per pound; green pike, 8 to 10 cents per pound; white perch, 10 to 12 cents per pound; whate perch, small, 20 to 30 cents per bunch; cat fish, large, 20 to 35 cents per bunch; catfish, srgall, 10 to 15 cents per bunch; hickory Jacks, 10 to 30 cents each; carp, 15 to 40 cents each; eels, 5 cents each; roe sbad, bo cents each, and buck shad, 50 cents each. The stock of oysters on hand at the 11th street oyster wharf this morning was not large, but were of excellent quality and the demand was fair. Prices remain about the same as those of yesterday, ranging from 60c. per bushel for poor oysters up to $1.20 per bushel for larger stock. The demand for duce continues excellent and they are selling at good prices. The supply is very small and canvas backs are selling at $4 to $5 per pair; red heads, $1.50 per pair; mallard, $1 per pair; whistle wings, 50 to 60c. per pair; shuffle ducks, 50c. per pair, and smaller ducks from 25c. to 40c. per pair. About the Wharves. The large houseboat of Mr. Frank Raw lIngs has been brought into the dock at Capt. "Sonny" Reagan's boat house and will lay up there for the winter. She will be given a thorough overhauling and will be put in order for next summer. The repairs to the schooner Lerry have been completed at Bennett's boat building yard at foot of 11th street and the vessel has been put overboard. While on the rail way her hull was caulked and overhauled and other repair work was done. The ves sel will continue in the wood carrying trade. The James H. Beach and Cora McKen ney are at the oyster grounds in the lower river trying to obtain a cargo of oysters for this market. The steamer Dennis Simmons and the schooners Belmont, Lottie Carter and Sil ver Spray have discharged cargoes and sailed for river points. . The tug Camilla came into port yesterday with a tow of loaded oyster boats and sail ed with a tow of light vessels. The schooner Lily W. Owens will unload her cargo of lumber at the wharf foot of 12th street southwest. Mr. W. W. Blackistone of Bushwood, St. Mary's county, Md., who has been in this city on business for several days, left for home yesterday. Mr. Ernest Germond, assistant engineer of the steamer Wakefield, is suffering from a severe attack of rheumatism. The steamer Northumberland of the Weems line, which ran on the route be tween this city and Baltimore during the past season, is out of commission at a Bal timore shipyard, being overhauled and pre pared for next season's work. The tug George W. Pride, belonging to Capt. Al Fair, which has been hauled out on the big marine railway at Alexandria, has been completed and put overboard. She will be ready for service in a few days. A fleet of ten or fifteen pleasure craft have been hauled out for the winter at the boat houses at the foot of 7th street south west. THE PHI.PPINE CONSTABULART Passage of the Bill Practically as Re ported. The House yesterday passed the Philip pine constabulary bill as it was reported from the committee, except for an amend ment limiting the number of assistant chiefs to four. The bill provides that the chief of the constabulary and the assistant chiefs, who are United States army officers, shall have the rank, pay and allowance of briga dier general and colonel, respectively, the difference between such pay and~ their pay in the regular grades to be paid out of the Philippine treasury. The bill also provides that when the Philippine scouts are ordered to assist the constabulary they shall be un der the commandlof the chief or assistant chiefs. A substitute offered by Mr. Hull (lowa), to provide that the chief be a regu lar brigadier general of the army, and the assistant chief officers not below the rank of lieutenant colonel, was carried in com mittee. of the whole, but subsequently it was defeated in the House. The present chief of the constabulary is Captain Allen of the army. ~ A roll call then was demanded upon the third reading of the bill, which was or dered-101 to 83. The bill then was passed. The resignation of Mr. Lanham (Texas), who has been elected governor of Texas, was laid before the House. The resignation is to take effect January 15. At 4:35 the House adjourned. ARMY HOSPIPAL COOD8, Surgeon General O'Reilly's Plan of B. organization. Secretary Root has foawarded to Congress with his hearty commendation a plan pre pared by Surgeon General O'Reilly for the reorganisation of the Army Hospital Corps, A bill, prepared to accomplish this purpose provides that hereafter the Hospital Corps Whall consist of 800 first-class sergeants at $540 per annum; three hundred mergeants at $800, twenty corporais at $240, sixteen hundred privates at $182, making a total annual cost of $170,400. It is explained that the proposed distribution of the appropria tion for the Hospital Corps would result in an actual gain of ninety-five in the person nel, at no additional cost to the government. The surgeon general says that the piro posed classification of enlisted men is for the purpose of giving them titles more in accord lwith those used to designate the edilisted men iii other branches of 'the service. One feature bf the plan is that w'hile it does not increase the cost of the corps it provides for the pay of corporals out of the pay of privates. Secretary Root says the proposed legislation will be of ma terial benefit to ani important branch of the mulitary estabiss*=ait. United States 'Mister Poiwell mndea, de mand on the natnisman gvrmt for the I""medma papament et P25,000due to the Cryae Lam THE RAILWAY SERVICE SUPERIORITY OF AigERICA OVER REST OF WORLD. Some Impressive Figures-Over 220, 000 Miles of Track in Operation , in the United States. From the New York Tribune. In no Industry perhaps does the United States enjoy a more remarkable ascendancy over gie rest of the world than in Its rail way service. At the close of the last cen tury North America had no less than 220, 880 miles of track in operation, while the total for Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and South America was only a trifle greater -about 270,000 miles. The United States then had a mile of road for every 383 In habitants, Europe one for every 2,267 and British India one for every 12,400. This country invented the parlor, sleeping and dining cars, the pressed steel freight car. many of the best features of the modern locomotive, the air brake, the automatic coupler and a host of related devices, and it runs the fastest long-distance trains. It is no wonder, then,-that the handsome and instructive "Transportation" edition of the Scientific American should devote a great deal of space to the railroads of the United States. Vne of the most marvelous developments In the whole railroad system is that which has taken place at the head of a train In the last seventy years. The best loco motives today are about four times as long as the De Witt Clinton (1831), a foot or two higher, have drivers that are 72 (or even 80) inches in diameter instead of only 54, and carry 200 pounds of steam instead of only 80. But these figures afford no idea of the real gain that has been effected in power. Relative to the other features, the boiler has grown abnormally, while the smokestack has actually diminished in size. In the De Witt Clinton the smokepipe was as big as the boiler. One does not realize what modern science has done for this type of engine until he is told that it has a pull of from 16 to 30 tons, as against 919 pounds' A Iocomotive built -not long ago for the Santa Fe road weighed 133% tons. Treve thick's engine, built just a century ago, weighed five! Stephenson's "Rocket" (1829) was several hundred pounds lighter. Even between 1850 and 1860 the average weight of a passenger locomotive was twenty tons and of a freight engine thirty. American Locomotives. One of the first advances in American lo comotive construction was to mount the front end of the boiler by a stout pivot upon a small independent truck or bogle. Previously the forward wheels were se cured to the whole frame. That plan made the machine exceedingly rigid and awk ward on sharp '6urves, where derailment often resulted. Another improvement was the "link motion" for reversing, for which the credit has been claimed both for an American, James, and Stephenson. A more even distribution of weight on the wheels was secured by another Yankee notion, "equalizing levers." At the close of the fiscal year 1901 there were in operation in the United States 195.887 miles of track, or within about 25,000 miles of the total for North Amer ica. If these roads could be stretched out into one continuous line they would be long enough to encircle the globe at the equator about eight times, or to reach nearly nine tenths of the distance from the earth to the moon. In its "transportation" edition the Scien tific American makes some striking com parisons to indicate the bulk of material used in the construction of these roads. it takes the Great Pyramid of Egypt as the -starting point in Its calculation. That mighty structure is 756 feet square at its base, and rises 481 feet and contains about 91,500,000 cubic feet. If a shell of the same shape and dimensions were manufactured it could be let down over the Capitol at Washington without touching, and the apex of the pyramid would be 200 feet or more above the dome of the building. Weight of the Rails. If steel rails used in laying the track of these American roads were melted up Into a single lwnp of a shape that would admit of measurement It would be found to con tain 15 per cent more material than the Great Pyramid. Another comparison can be made with the Washington monument, which rises 550 feet above its base. This same mass of steel would equal it in height Is cast in a rectangular block 436 feet square at the bottom. Some of these rails weigh from 80 to 100 pounds to the yard, but most of the track west of the Missis sippi is considerably lighter. Probably 25,000,000 tons would not be a wild estimate of the total weight. One can't mold wood like steel, and even If one could it would doubtless be Impossi ble to cast In one chunk the timber now employed for railroad ties. One can oom pute volumes, though, and it Is estimated that all the wooden ties in service today occupy a space equal to twenty-four great pyramids. A similar calculation for rock and gravel 'ballast on these American roads gives a bulk 135 times as great as the above mentioned standard of comparison. Follow ing the ratio of length to height which is found in the pyramid of Cheops, the heap of ballast would measure 3,900 feet on each slae at the base and rise to a height of 2,500 feet, or about half a, mile! Cars and Employes. When it comes to rolling stock, equall' impressive results are reached. The 89,729 locomotives In service are equivalent to three Great Pyramids, 85.811 passenger cars to three and a half pyramids and 1,409,472 freight cars to forty-two pyramids. Over 1,000.000 employes are required to operate and keep in running order the railways of the United States. Nearly half of them (459,704) are trackmien and la borers. These figures Include switchmen, fiagmuen and watchmen, as well as section bosses and track repairers. Then there are 204,194 machinists and shop workmen, 127, 141 station agents and station men, 116,8 conductors and brakemen, 92,458 engineers and firemen, 39.701 clerks, 261,606 telegraph operators and 4.7a0 general officers. CUBANS DISCUSS TREATY. Rusiness Men on the Island Generally * ~ Approve It. A dispatch from Havana yesterday says: The senate committee on foreign affairs, which has been holding conferences on the reciprocity treaty with representatives of different eeonouxic societies, brought its hearings to a close today. Representatives of many industries, including petroleum and sugar refiners, lithographers and manu faoturere of rope, beer and chocolate, have been heard. They all approved the treaty, but urged - that home Industries be pro tected. -Benors Gamba and Rodriguez, represent ing the Merchants' Union, were asked if they thought the treaty would divert the greater part of Cuban trade to American channels. They said that unless the Amer icans adopted different business methods and tried to suit the testes of Cuban mer chants the increase in trade would not be over 21) per eent, and that the best they could expect with new methods would be 80 per cent. Senors Gamba and Rodriguez said they thought there would not be much falling of! in Cuba's trade with Europe. It is estimated that the treaty will de crease ubas customs reeipts by about P2,0.00 a year. The government has. as mured the Kerants' Union th under the new tarig ni.protection wilbe given to home ldszsIt is believed here that the ont~~: yiit will un-. t l ppeb COMMERCE OF] FRANCE TRADE WITE A D ASIATIC WOLO Division of the BlackCoakent-Pre parations of the Ptung Xations of Barope. United States Consul-Gei4al Skinner, at Marseilles. France, has sert to the State Department an interesting pkier on France and her colonies, with- esoeciat:reference to trade With Africa. The commerce of -the African continent, importations and exportation* combined, amounted to $5307A* in.'1U, thus d-i vided: British possessions.............$193,000,000 French possessions.................144,750,000 Portuguese possessions ........... 19.300,000 German possessions................ 9,650,000 Tripoli, Morocco, Liberia and Transvaal ....... ........... 48,250,000 Egypt ................................ 115,809,000 Total ...................... ..... 50,750,000 During the year 1900, the total foreign commerce of France amourited to 11,510 000,000 francs ($2,221,430,000); this being an increase over the preceding year of $2,509, 000. During the same year the total foreign commerce of all the French colonies amounted to $193,086,850, of which $184,894, 000 represented the movement with France. Of this total colonial commerce, the part of Marseilles was $97,272,000, or 53 per cent, the results fcr the year' showing a slight increase for this city, as compared with preceding years. To a large extent the impulse which the colonies receive from the parent country is derived from Marseilles, and Marseilles capital is employed largely in the exploitation of the colonies and al most entirely controls the means of commu nication by sea. On the West African Coast. Of all the French colonies, Algeria anid Tunis excepted, those which interest Mar seilles most directly are those of the west coast (Senegal, Guinea, Ivory Coast and Dahomey). It is here that the most re markable progress has been made. It is by comparing the results achieved in these colonies with those obtained in the British West African colonies that'French colonial students satisfy themselves of their own success. The comparison is interesting. The commerce of the four British West African colonies amounted In 1899 to $27, 985,000 and in 1900 to $25,669,000; the com merce of the four French West African colonies amounted in 1899 to $26,055,000 and in 1900 to $28,950,000. The French West African domain, has been constituted, little by. little, of small territories, comprising four or five colonies, having between them no cohesion and each one administered in a different fashion. It is the same situation that once existed in the four French colonies which have now been united under the name of Indo China. This federation has given most satisfactory results ,and it is now the policy of the French government, progressively but with pruderce, to form a West Africai union composed of Senegal, Guinea, Ivory Coaht and Dahomey. A governor general has been named, having under his direction a lieuten ant governor in each of the.golonies. Assault Upon Asia. "The division of the black continent be ing consummated, the strong nations, fore seeing the future, prepare tor theadfult upon Asia," says a recent oreport of the Marseilles chamber of conferce. France, after Russia and England, is the greatest European power in Asia, and has the great est interest at stake. In this part of the world the annual comnerce of Great Bri tain with all of the Asiatig -countries other than her own colonies amodnts to $115,800, 000, a sum equaled by the commerce of France with all t'he regions. of Asia other than the French colonies. - The rapid prog tess of the Indo-Chinese colony is pointed out as a proof of the Frerich capacity to administer. The total commerce of British India is put down at $tJ66q0,000; the total commerce of French Indo China is estinat ed at $71,796,000. These latter figures have increased 65 per cent In four years. The dolony has now been corntrolled twenty years by France, and the future is consid ered most encouraging. BOWEN TO ACT POE CASTBO. Prospect of Settlement of Venezuelan Case Out of Court. A dispatch from Caracas yesterday says: After two stormy meetings of the eabinet, all the conditions set forth in the replies of the powers to President Castro's last pro posals in the matter of settling the Ven ezuelan dispute through arbitration have been accepted by the Venezuelan govern ment. The government considers these con ditions to be unjust, but declares it is obliged to yield to force. The Venezuelan answer was delivered at the United States legation here at noon today. Th aconditions of the powers cover cash payments to the allies arid guarantees for the payment of the balaned of their claims. It can be said on good authority that the question of raising the existing blockade will not be considered. It has been learned from an authoritative source that United States Minister Bowen has received orders to leave Venezuela next Saturday for Washington, where he will present the Venezuelan case to the British German commission. An 4merican war ship will call for Mr. Bowen at La.Guaira. The foreign office here is working day and night In the preparation of documents In order that the Venezuelan case may be ready for presentation. Mr. Bowen will be accompanied to Wash ington by his wife. GEAX AllrASSADOR LEAVES. Nothing Known About the Succession of Baron von Sternberg. Herr von Holleben, the German ambassa dor, left for New York yesi~erday afternoon to consult specialists. The.a'flbassador has been a sick man for some time, and his in disposition has been aggravated by a pro tracted asl of inciementi weather. He ex pects that his physician iiu advise. a pro longed rest at some of- the health resorts in southern Europe, and has thgr~re ar ranged to sail tomorrow. At the %mfbassa dor's request he ,has~ beenf grantfd a pro longed leave of absen'ee in the hope that he may be restored to health. Count A. von Quadt-Wygeradt-isny, coun selor of embassy and first secretary, Ia now charge d'affaire, having been in structed by the foreign office to take charge upon the ambassador's departure. The count was In charge of ifa.irs at the em bassy during the early; part of the Ven ezuelan negotiations, whien the ambassador was ini New York, and he is therefore familiar with every phans of that question. His relations at the Stati Depatment are cordial, the officials faguring- him au a diplomat of ability. 'HiM conduct of the Venezuelan negotiations has been most ac ceptable to the Washington government, and should the prelimiary conference looking to a reference -tsf theu dispute to The Hague succeed, Cen~t Quadt, as charge, wuld cot temposartip as Ger many's representative. No offcil advices hae eceeived at the State Deateog tthe German embassy relative to . ,~o~~tof a succesor to Herr '~o - n. Bneh action is to qwmer, if Herr von Holleben a e seeas. IS wiewv of the PreldfVorUjeon Speek von-'~ie amepdo 4~M~ entkI~t SLAUGHTER OF BIRDS aBNTTMENT AGAINST KILLING FOR TRADE PUPOSES. Profits in the Plumage of Paroquets, Fisher Xartins and - White Herons-Northern Feathers. From the New York Times. There Is a recrudescence this year throughout all countries of the question of bird destruction for the purpose of obtain ing the plumage. Recently in the chamber of deputies of France the bill of M. 'du Perier de Larsan relative to the protection of birds was put on the urgency list, and now that an international agreement seems to have been reached, it Is believed that measures which will be passed.in the near future will give the feather industry a se vere blow. In point of fact it may be generally stated that there are no birds which are not found today In the hands of the manufacturers, utilized either for their feathers or for their down. Whereas the republics of South America have for ten years carefully regu lated the hunting of humming birds, it Is an Interesting fact to note that there.are annually sold in the markets of London more than 1.500,000 little birds, in one sin gle season there having been sold in this mart 10,000 humming birds, 25,000 paro quets. 17,000 fisher martins, and 10,000 white herons. An idea may be given of the great profits to be derived from this trade when it Is stated that two pounds- of alkrettes bring on an average in London from $80 to $90. but these same aigrettes are resold for about $500, this price being obtained for the inferior qualities, the superior bring ing $36 an ounce, or $1.000 for two pounds. Northern Birds. The feathers of birds are not alone ob tained from tropical countries, for in all countries extensive use Is made of the plumage of sea gulls, partridges, pheasants, cocks, ravens, magpies, jays, owls, and of vast quantities of farm-yard birds and sparrows. When this process of extermina tion is carried on against birds of the de structive classes, such as magpies and jays, vanity Is put to a useful and beneficent end, but when the fact is very evident that the air poachers not only take these former, but they also kill the robins, titmouse and other birds which have a useful function to fulfill in the domain of agriculture. As the trade in the plumage of birds has made enormous strides, and as both ex travagant and economical forms of luxury are constantly on the increase there has been a corresponding devolpment In the cleverness with which the feathers are dyed and treated. Thus there is little difficulty experienced today in transforming a modest redstart into a superb feathered creature from the West Indies, Paris having been for many years the chief emporium for the manufacture and transformation of this article of adornment. This supremacy the French capital is In great danger of los ing, as the Elnglish, favored by extensive home consumption, and aided by the skill of imported workmen, have made great progress in preparing feathers and down for the market. The same may be said for Germany, which country exports annu ally more than $5,000,000 worth of feathers. Treating the Feathers. Freqsently the feathers when they reach the manufacturer are dirty and stained; the first work therefore JA to clean them thor ough'ly. To do this they are placed for several days in tepid, soapy water, after which they are rinsed In hot water, and are then immersed for a quarter of an hour in boiling water, in which has been placed some Spanish white or raw starch. As a last step the feathers are put into a drying pan for twenty-four hours, so that the rib may become thoroughly dry. Most feathers, as many people know, are dyed. Twenty years ago black ostrich feathers became fashionable, but as the only feathers which were black came from the back of the male ostrich, they were naturally rare. Since that time, however, by diverse methods, notably by means of oxygenated water, manufacturers have suc ceeded in decoloring stained as well -as naturally dark plumes, and making them perfectly white, and now are able to give them any desired shade. In former days this result could only be obtained by using absolutely viite feathers, which was ex pensive. Light colors are obtained by the use of aniline dyes: deeper colors by cur cuma, Indigo, orchilla and vegetable dyes. Black is the result of Iron, salt and log wood. After dying the feathers this opera tion being performed at temperatures dif fering with the different dyes, the feath ers are rinsed and dried. They are then assorted, passed through dry steam, and bent Into the desired shapes. Uses of Birds' Plumes, The feathers of birds are not only used for raiment, but also for the woof of cer tain stuffs, utilization being made of them In the manufacture of a great many do mestic .objects, One of the birds whose feathers are put to the most diverse uses is the goose-the vulgar, domestic goose the large feathers from the wingt furnish ing most excellent quills for writing, each year a harvest of down being obtained, and the hide, sold as swan's down, fur nishes a beautiful and elegant.fur. To ob tain this so-called swan's down the feath ers are first carefully pulled out, then the goose is skinned, the hide being cut down the back. After this the skin is put through a process of -very delicate tanning, the result being a pretty, serviceable graniture for dresses. WILL ACCEPT CABMEGIE'S OFFE, Philadelphia is to Have Thirty Branch Library Buildings. A dispatch from Philadelplila says: An drew Carnegie's proffered S1,500,000 for the erection of thirty public libraries In this city is to be accepted. Though at first there was some show of reluctance among those who will be called upon to accept or rejeot the offer, they are now desirotus of taking advantage of it and highly praise Mr. Carnegie's munificent proposal to Philadelphia and his offers of $100,000 to Camden and $83i0,000 to Wash ington. Should the wealthy citizen, of Philadel phia fail to donate tracts on which the libraries may be built, councils, it is said, will themselves secure the land. In such a case, of course, all t-he sites will not have to be purchased at once, so it is believed the city can stand the expense without suf fering any undue hardship. A, WETR'A3R AJEmpEgTg, Texas Ranker Charged With Fraud by Depositors. A dispatch from Houaton, Tena yester day says: A. Wettermark, head of the banking firm which was forced Into liqui dation by alleged extensive forgeries, was today arrested' on his arrival at Houston on a warrat charging himn with having re ceived deposits after he knew his bank wan insolvent, The warrant wan sworn .out at Henderson, where thete Is a branel hedge. Photograph and descriptions of& . Wettesr junior nsiber of the firm, whois hared ithforgery, are being sent all over the countrr. t Es reported that he was in New Orleans last Tuesda) en his way toenstra1 m4~ Th uo far EARTH GROWS SMALL TRME AND SPCE AN]TTT.TED BY MODERN METHODS. The Planet Has Been Shriveled by De velopment of Steam, Electrje ity and Steel. Robert B. Armstrong in The National Magazine. Measured by the yardstick, the world to day is as great as in the days of the Pha raohs. A hundred years ago it still re tained that formidable girth. Today, meas ured by the hour glass, the planet has shriveled into a mere miniature of its for mer self. Under the'compressure of elec tricity, steam and steel bridges a spectacle is presented of practical time and space an nihilation. Seas have been dried up, continents pusned together and islands wedded that this might be. Nations once isolated are now in earshot of one another, and the markets of all peoples line a single street. American wheat fields are days, not months, away from British bake shops. -French wines are hours, not weeks, removed from American dinner tables. New York is on the out skirts of London, and Paris is not a block away. Deep sea cables and land wires hem the buyers and sellers of the world into a vortex of competition, whose diameter is a minute, and within whose circumference are gathered all the products and all the purses of mankind. Into this vortex American energy has plunged, and the splash has been called "American invasion." Compared with fu ture possibilities in the game of interna tional barter the recent activities of Amer ican men of affairs abroad are merely pre liminary and almpst experimental. That American ingenuity and vigor have con tributed much to the dwarfing of the planeC is an earnest that Americans will take a keen advantage of every opportunity to produce a still smaller periphery to the globe. Meantime. the shdrtened circumfer ence has brought complications which have a bearing of great importance ou the com mercial prospects of the United States. Revolution in a Century. A century has been a revolution in time annihilation. And America, young as it is, has caused many sparks to fly in this greater activity. In 18W0 the world was sluggish. Thousands traveled in saddle bage and men crawled at a snail's pace over land and sea. In America there was no suci thing as expedition. Kentuckians knew iothing of the election of James Madison to the presidency of the United States unth three months after the last ballot had been counted. Therp would have been no Chepa peake and Ohio canal but for the argument that by means of It the decrees of Congress were to be speedily transmitited to the cities beyond the Blue Ridge and the Alleghanies. The pony express was the acme of rapid ity in the days of George Washington, who required more time to ferry a message from New York.to Brooklyn than an American does today to flash a message around the globe. Imagine the amazement of Benjamin Franklin if he could have stood the other day, as many modern scientists did, and seen one of the most' remarkable exploits of time annihilation on record. It was a test of thought transmission halfway around the globe. A thirty word dispatch sung over the wires to San Francisco, then to Vancouver. from there to Nova Scotia, whispered under tle Watery Uf the Atlantic to London and back to New York. Every wire had been cleared for the test, and be fore the operator had reached the last word of this test message another operator In the same room was taking the first word of the same dispatch, hot from the cable, direct from London. The whole world has enught the electrical contagion of America, and the globe is en meshed In thought freighted wires. The brine swept cables tied together. end to end, girdle the globe eight times. The wires that swing and sway in the wind over every land, all told, would make eight steel path ways to the moon. The Telephone. The telephone has withered the space that separated citles and towns, counties and states. Trillions of steps have been saved by this voice conductor, for two billions <g telephone messages are exchanged every year. Over plains, above buffalo wallows of fifty years ago, farmers telephone along barbed wire circuits. In Kansas City, every day in the year, a business firm talks for five minutes with its branch in Boston, Chicago stock traders do business on the New York stock exchange and complete an entire transaction in thirty seconds. Lon don brokers, eager to deal quickly on the Paris bourse, finding the channel cables congested with business, cable to Paris via New York, and win many a pound sterling by this long distance but absolutely prompt action. Measured in thought transmission this old planet is no bigger than a dot. Steam and electricalk pneumatic and hydraulic inven tins have so annihilated space that there is but a small earth to clamber over. Ac cording to Dr. Emery R. Johnson, profes sor of transportation in the 'Universlty of Pennsylvania, it takes steps only one-fifth as long to get around the world today as it did in 1800. In the sunrise of the cen tury it took all but sixty-five days in the year to get once around the world. That was when men traveled in sailboats; post chaise, on horseback and on foot. Ocean teamlers came in 1888, and they cut the an cient time table in two, for then It took only one hundred and sixty days to em brace the girdle of mother earth. In 1869 the Sues canal shrunk the world still small er, and an enterprising man was able to g et around the world in one hundred days. Since then Jules Verne has been outdone, for by the development of the speed of steam vessels and railroad trains one can box the compass and get home in sixty days. And the end is not yet. With the completion of the new Pacific cable Hono lulu, in thought' transmission, will be no further away from San Francisco than Oakland is, across the Golden Gate. Ma nila, then, in the transaction of all busi ness. will be as near to Wall street, the purse of America, as are the commercial ports of Europe and South America. Thus the planet is still shrinking beneath the onslaught of modern methods. The Amerecan Merchant. All these things mean new conditions for the American merchant of today and the American merchant of the future. Every facility at his hand is at the hand of his competitor. The successful American will have to be quick on the trigger. He must stand with hi. ear to the telephone, his fin ger on the telegraph key. He must be ex temporaneous in all business, and never meditative. The Amefean merchant, if he will succeed, must speak quickly, and, above all, speak first. The time for delib eration atnd waiting- for foreign markets come to him lbas gqne. The shriveling the .earth' had ferced his competitors oto his street, and it behooves him to. be original if-he weuld win. Two things he must have: First, abso lutely accurate and timely information ase to the industria~l pulse beats and commer cial temperature of the world: second, he1 must have a system of distribution by which he may take advantage of this infor matin, and deliver to their destination, with the least delay, the products m'oat suitable for the ne~ds of that particular community. aking DepositU for Insolvent Bank. A b81 bas been intr'oduced Ja the House U byf R eprsstatve Rn'esll et Tea making It Umyla foru eny oet fay uMinenm A Safe Investment Real estate to the basis of all sa.-Pr:ty. Are you the proud possessor of a piece of real esta.. it - Dot, we are in a position to make ourselves par ticularly useful to you. We can put'you Into the Immediate possession of a house, lot, business property, or any kind of Real Estate desired, and arrange advantageous terms for pay ment. We are anxious to talk with you un the subject. YOU CANNOT AFFORD TO PYRCIIASE ANY CLANS OF PROPERTY WITHOUT FEEIN( A LIST OF TIlE BARGAINS WE OFFEIr. CALL OR SEND FOR LIAsT OF THE BEST IAR4GJAINS IN ALL IOCATIONS. MOORE & HILL (111.), 17 14th St. I.W. GUIDES BRUTALLY MURDERED. Testimony in the Trial of Major Glenn at anill A dispatch from Manila yesterday says: At the continuation today of the trial by court-martial of Maj. Edwin F. Glenn of the 5th Infantry, who is charged with ;iun lawfully and willfully killing seven pris oners of war in SamaP last January. Louis Caulfield, second lieutenant in the Philip pine scouts, who was in command of tile detachment which killed the native guidts in question, testified that while Maj. Glenn directed that the guides be executed if they failed to lead the co!umn to the enemy, he, Lieut. Caulfield, did not repeat Maj. Glenn's orders to the detachment. He said he gave no ordere for the killing of the guides him self and that their killing did not resut from orders issued by Maj. Glenn. The witness testified that he did not see the killihg. He said that Preston and ita mos, civilian scouta, reported to him that the guides had been killed while trying to escape, and that he so reported to Maj. Glenn when he returned to Caybayog. Lieut. Caulfield explained that the detach ment had been divided; that he was in com mand of one part and that Ramos com manded the othet. Ramos reported the killing of four of the guides when he re joined the witness. The remaining thre guides were killed after the main colui had started. Lieut. Caulfield was in the lead, and did not see this incldent. Pres ton was in charge of the rear guard at the time and reported the killing of the thrte guides, telling him the men had made a. break for liberty. A native sergeant who accompanied 'the etachment under Ramos testified that the first four guides had been executed by or der of Ramos because they failed to guide the column to the enemy. This witness said the guides had been given a chance to lead the column, and when they refused to do so they were made to kneel and advi.i4 to repent of their sins. The sergeant thent said that a native soldier was stationed behind each kneeling man, and that at the word of command the soldiers first clubbed the guides with their rifle butts and then bayonetted them. The witness declared that Lieut. Caulfield was not present at his execution. The prosecution is endeavoring to con riect Maj. Glenn with the killing of the guides by trying to show that Ramos was present when Maj. Glenn gave his orde-rs to Lieut. Caulfield. The defense denies that Ramos was'present on this occasion. A dispatch from New 'York yesterday ays: Maj. Gen. Adna R. Chaffee made a lenial today of the cable report that any ct, order or instruction of his while in he Philippines could be construed into an authorization of the application of the water cure for the purpose of extracting nformation from natives. Gen. Chaffee nade this statement when his attention was alled to a dispatch from Manila, giving an tccount of the court-martial of Maj. Glenn f the 5th Infantry. TMREE 1=TED IN WEL, Disastrous Accident on Pennsylvania Road at Ada, Ohio. A dispatch from Ada, Ohio, last night says: Three men dead and fourteen or rnore other persons injured, one fatally, Is the result of a collision between two trains )n the Pennsylvania system on the main street of this city at 5 o'clock this even ng. The dead-Joseph Stein, Fort Wayne: - IcPhool, Fort Wayne, Ind.; Alonzo Had-. tey, Van Wert, Ohio. The injured-W. A. Freese, Chicago, Il.: r. J. Casey. Toledo, cannot recover: Mr. nd Mrs. Durselman and little daughter of Van Wert; Peter Tracey, conductor of train No. 35; Curtis McElroy, Ada; Andrew Brunnon, Fort Wayne, Ind.; M. Geise, Ot awa; Walter Kllngerk, Ada; W. D. Black Jurn, baggagemaster of No. 35; Guy Kings burg, editor of the Dunkirk Standard; Ben lain Zooke,' Fort Wayne; T. 3. Burdette, Dayton. This accident was one of the worst that tver occurred on this division of the Penn sylvania system and was highly sensa ional In all its details, occurring as it did >n the main street of the town at a time when the thoroughfare was crowded with eople. Traip No. 35, westbound, for Fort Wayne, had started out of the station, but it the Main street crossing was compelled to stop on account of some accIdent to the ir brakes. A flagman was sent back to rotify No. 19, a freight which was going in the same direction, and which was several minutes late. Owing to the snowstorm the engineer of NT'o. 19 was unable to see the signal in time to slacken his speed. His engine erushed nto the rear of No. 35. No. 35 consisted of two coaches, the rear one being a combina ion baggage and passenger car, with an >ther passenger car in front. Both were elescoped, and scarcely a passenger es taped injury of some, sort. The engineef ad fireman of No. 19 were also slightly turt, but not enough to prevent them from -endering immediate assistance to those who were in greater distress. The scene about the wreck was frightful. Ifany people were congregated about the spot at the time, and the street was wreli illed with wayfarers on their way home rom work. The crash was heard all over he city, and almost the entire population was soon on hand to render what assist tce they could In caring for the wounded nd dead, who were at onqe carried to the 'reght house and station sand laid in the xouse on improvised cots. Most of the in tred seemed to be hurt about the head, nd thear blood-smeared visay' and cries f agony as they were being conveyed to heir temporary restIng place aded a hor or, to such a scene as had never before een encountered in Ada. Rids for Pneuenati' Tube Seryioe. Proposa for the pneumatie tube service or the use of the mails in Chicago were pe by the second =amtat Poatmastu etrdyafteriles. The ostreet, hen awarded, will run touarba rOetobr 1 It. The ay, the' Sowest bUIer ther -uisn Tube Cs sW m