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(Copyright, 11**1, DV jor.n tiirem nauinn.;
ON thj 12th of every February - the birthday of our first mar tyred President?sightseers regu larly pack to overflowing the Lin coln Museum, that modest int.. houce_ now owned by thc STSS5T^the great civil war President ore open to the public gratis ^ Of all places of Interest in tie g white capital city this spot is the lead conspicuous and least advertised, and > the sightseer who once finds hi*i way tMt rr tarries long to contemplate what ? probably the most complete aggregation mementoes ever dedicated to any hero ot ^AfterLlncoli^^ajsMSslnatlon^on^th^ night of April II. 1 'joilger issuing from a hoipc'across "the way saw the commotion the* sid'e^of ?he*wounded''president--then be ^a^fne8 ^rMr Lincoln died there at 7-^ thi following morning. The house was built ill 1S4!>. and at the time of th< trageny was owned by William Petersen, who had his tailor si-op in the basement stor> and took lodger--, mostly soldiers. In the rooms above 1 at, r a printing es,ablishm^t cUs nlarod the tailor shop, and thirteen >ear. Slo the Lincoln Memorial Association rent al the building, installing within a tlon of rd!(? which has since *r0*" ^ such proportions that a biographer of Old Abe" or a historian of his period might . lilmaelf down then in and compile volu?e? upon volumes without ever a need of - ring without * * * The story of the collecting of these relics Is almost as remarkable as the story which they tell. It Is the sory of probably the most remarkable Instance of American hero worship on rerord. Prior to the ,C A' there kept a news depot at M>>unt ^?r"on' Ohio, a young man. O. H. OIdro>d who had a natural taste for collecting, and who be came so Imbued with admiration for Lin coin during the latter'.* first campaign dajs that he commenced accumulating all man ner of news items, pictures, political car ioons and other ma.-rial concerning the "black republican" candidate. In 1M51 he enlisted In the Cnlon army, was musterid ?at in 1H65, continued col.ectlng his Lin colnlana thereafter and in !>"?? removed to Springfield. 111., the home of the mar tyred President. He rented the Lincoln homestead and converted it into a mu seum Through his Influence the property was purchased by the state. ITpon condi tion that he should remain custodian as long as he lived he bequeathed the collec tion to the state, but upon the advent of the Altgeld administration he was replaced by a friend of the governor, who by this act deprived iillnols of rich heritage Mr Old royd packed up his r< lies, vacated the prem ises. and at tlx solicitation of the Lincoln Memorial Association nu ved them into their present < uartcrs. as ? ited. In 1M?7 the government paid fctO,<Oo for the 10th street house, but Congress did not sec lit to purchase the collection also. That they might remain in the building, the collector paid rncle Sam $100 per month rental for the building under an agreement that he should charge the public a nominal admis sion fee to partially reimburse him. The admissions, only averaging $17 per month during this tini". the rental was no lunger exacted and the 2T> cents now imposed upon each visitor, on ordinary occasions, pro vides means for heating and lighting the building and maintaining the co.lections. Thus has the collector devoted forty-five years lo this hobby, and every week or so still add* an Interesting Item to his vast accumulation. In his line he is a veritable "Cousin Pons." and, strange as it may seem, he never beheld the great man to whose memo! \ li- life work lias beep dedi cated. * * * The visitor to the museum is admitted BEST FIELD F01 WORKE BY I.ADY HEX A letter received today has brought me a difficult question. Tt is not a new one, but one which we are constantly asked with wearisome reiteration. The problem has been pored over for years. The solution Is far off as ever. Three girls, daughters of a professional man. with the average education of young English gentlewomen, have been suddenly called on to earn their own living and the question Is, in what fields can they tlnd their Itest i ha nee to accomplish this end The subject l as been worn threadbare, and \it as I read this letter. I feel that It >8 one we cannot lightly lay aside. Truly it is a predicament in which no woman ought ever to be placed, for unless a man happens to have an Income sufficient and secure to Insure his being abie to leave his daughters protected from the possibility of want, it is a positive crime to allow them to attain to adu'.t life without Insuring for them adequate training Icr soi. * lemunera* \e work or profession, even though they may never actually le called ii;on to become wage-earners. Indeed, to my mind it Is al most equally a crime that an> young people should be allowed to grow up without spe cial training for tome useful work, even though they may not need It as a bread winning weapon. Put unfortunately such wrong-doing is seldom recognised till It is too late to repair the evil. But to return to the advice for which 1 was asked. The difficulties which p.esent themselves are very great. The first thing such young women would have to reeog m*e la that the ordinary education of a lady Is scarcely by Itself a marketable com modity; though It will add a great deal to upon the main- floor to a long hallway upon which opens, to the left, the front parlor, In which Mrs. Lincoln spent the night ol the tragedy; also the back parlor. In which were assembled upon that tragic occasion the eminent men who awaited the Pre.^1 dent's death. These two doorways, how ever, are passed by upon entrance, the vis itor being ushered first into a long and narrow room at the rear of the hall. This is the death chamber, now converted into a gallery of pictures, representing the death bed scene, the lying in state at tha Capitol and the state funeral in all of Its many stages. Including the processions in the eight different cities and towns at which the funeral stopped and the final entomb ment. There arc twelve distinct sketches of the death-bed scene, the most authentic, in the collector's opinion, being one pub lished In Leslie's Weekly just after the tr&gedy. The candle with which the physicians heated the plasters applied to the dying President, wreaths from the coltln and the sheet music of ninety d fferent funeral marches composed In Mr. Lincoln's mem ory are displayed In this room; also funeral paraphernalia taken from the catafalque. One section of the wall is hung with framed copies of various newspapers and periodicals publishing tributes to the dead President, and most Interesting of these is an issue of the Richmond Whig, which ap pears with mourning borders upon its columns and which pays an eloquent per sonal tribute to the man whom, in almost the preceding edition, it had bitterly as sailed. Almost as valuable is an issue of the London Punch another journal which had attacked Mr. Lincoln all through the war, but which, in the copy in question, published a mourning cirtoon Inscribed, R WOMEN RS IN ENGLAND KY SOMERSET. i the v ilue of any special talent or skill thai i may be poss< ssed or acquired. If the girl can command some amount of social in ' f'uence. it m .y enable its possessor to obtalr a post as governess or companion In some private family, w..ere she may find a mutt or less comfortable home. If not a very good salary. It will hardly do more. Teaching as e profession has become dur ing the last few years very highly ape i iallzc-d, ; it. as the salaries become larger ! and th' pos lion taken by teachers lm proves, the necessary standard of attaln I n.eiu ecom< conespondlngly higher. Ir. . both pubile and the best private schools university degrees are now almost always required. ;nd in addition some knowledge of the art and science of teaching as well as practical training In the work. * * * An untrained t\oman may, however, still find positions open to her at salaries rang' lng from ?18 to ?150, where some amount of teaching is combined with the care ol young children, and if she is sufficiently tactful to understand the exact limits ol that vague phrase that she Is allowed tc "; eiome one of the family," she may do useful work, and find herself valued and appreciated. bu> it s un.<eniable thai aJ jvung women who undertake such a posi should aequl e, by careful reading una study, some knowledge of the elements ol psychology as It relates to child nature, nd receive some special training In kinder garten teaching and methods. The old Idea that any pleasant, patient young woman w.s fitted to train children is fast passing away, and we arc on the eve of a greatei "Brlttania Sympathizes with Columbia." Only recently Mr, Oldroyd has completed a collection of the thirty-three scathing cari catures which Punch had published during the war, and these are later to be added to the similar cartoons in another room. * * * The bed upon which Mr. Lincoln died originally occupied the northeast corner of this room. The little chamber was rented at the time by William T. Clark of Com pany D. 13th Massachusetts Infantry, whose photograph Is framed upon the wall, together with the copy of a letter which the young soldier wrote to his sister imme diately after the tragedy. In this Clark says: "Everybody has a great desire to obtain some mementoes of my room, so that who ever comes in has to be closely watched for fear they will steal something." The can dle described was presented by Clark to a sweetheart, who later donated it to the col lection. Back of the death chamber is a room oc cupied by the servants of the lodging house at the time of the tragedy. In this are now displayed a thousand biographies of Lincoln and volumes dealing with slavery and the war; also 250 sermons discussing the assassination; 500 magazines dating from '43 to '05, and containing articles re lating to the great President; 3,<soo news paper clippings of the same purport; also numerous political handbooks, poems and burlesques circulated throughout his cam paigns. One of the most interesting of change of thought in this branch of educa tion, I believe, than in any other. If proper Introductions and recommenda tions can be obtained, some of the best paid and most comfortable of all posts are to be found as English governess or com panion governess In good foreign families (Russia, before the revolution commenced, offered one of the best fields), or in the capacity of what is in England called "nursery governess" (in French, institu trice) in the families of professional men, who often engage English women In order that their children may learn the language in the nursery. It cannot, however, be too often said that no young Englishwoman should accept any post abroad unless the introduction comes from well-known and reliable sources, but if these precautions are observed, these situations are often very well remunerated, and life, as a rule. Is enjoyable. + * * Supposing, however, these young women can still devote some time to training, it is of course easier to suggest openings, and there are at least three which are not at present overstocked, and first among these we may place elementary school teaching. No nobler work can be found than this, and from the individual point of view It has much to recommend it to those desir ous of having an assured future. (1) The training is cheaper than for most other branches of teaching, or for other professions, but it must be entered on fairly young. After a general or high school education till seventeen or eighteen years of age (the latter is certainly preferable) a year should be spent as pupil teacher in an elementary school. Eor this either a special examination or a Junior Oxford or Cam bridge local certificate la a qualification. Then two years at a training college will cost ?*(), not, of course. Inclusive of holiday expenses or dress, followed by the govern ment certificate examination. The Cam bridge senior local honors certificate will qualify for entrance to the training college If supplemented by needlework and domes N Cmi tK these bears upon the cover a cartoon de picting Mr. Lincoln wearing a crown and the title is "Abraham Africanus I." An original quotation of the negro mar ket, dated Richmond, September 15. 1857, is here framed. Humanity Is herein classi fied into nineteen commercial grades by a column printed upon the left of the page, the prices being filled in in blank spaces to the right. Thus on that date "No. 1 extra men" (the highest grade), were quoted at $1,450 to $1,550;" "Common Men," $1,100 to $1,150; "Women, extra, sixteen to twen ty-two years," $1,200 to $1,250; "Boys, four feet high," $500 to $550; "Boys, 4 feet six inches," $1,200 to $1,250; "Girls, Ave feet," $1,000 to $1,075, and "Girls, four -eet," $5vj to $550. A footnote by the broker adds: "Families and scrubs sell in their usual proportions to above quotations. We would be pleased to see you down soon with a likely lot." Nearby are ramed posters of fering rewards of $100, $200 and $300 for runaway slaves. * * * Furniture from the Lincoln homestead at Springfield occupies a large room in the rear, which has been added since the trag edy. Among the most interesting relics shown here is a little desk, with pigeon holes, bought when Lincoln first went to housekeeping. Laid upon this Is the framed copy of a letter from the donor, a former neighbor of the Lincoln family, whose hus band was one day visited by the future President, carrying the desk, in two pieces, one under each arm. The donor quotes Mr. Lincdln as having said on that oc casion: tic economy, or candidates can compete for king's scholarships. (2) The salaries In a London board school rise from ?SO to ?140 for assistant mis tress. and from ?140 to ?300 for head mistress. In the country they are some what less, but the girl of average ability has a better chance of obtaining a head mistress' post. (3) In the elementary schools age seems to be a recommendation rather than a drawback once the certificate has been obtained, while ordinary or high school governesses often find difficulty in obtaining posts at forty years of age. Married women or widows are often ap pointed, so that having once held the position of elementary school teacher a woman can almost always return to it should circumstances render It necessary. (4) The pension assured is now ?40 per annum at sixty-five years of age, or in some cases earlier, and will probably soon be higher, as the pension scheme is still In its infancy. The fact that in this profession the demand is at present greater than the supply is proved by the invitation to country teachers to apply for posts in the London board schools, which ha,ve hitherto been the subject of very keen competition. The Importance of the work itself can nct be exaggerated, for to the teachers is Intrusted no less a work than mold ing the characters of the next genera tion, and now that ever-increasing power Is placed In the hands of the people It becomes a work of the first national im portance, and one that may well be con sidered worthy of the best energies and highest enthusiasm of any woman. Another Industry which offers Increasing openings for women in Indexing, but lor this, too. R thorough technical training is necessary. This training can, however, be acquired In a shorter time than In many other professions, from six to nine montns with varied work in a good office being gen. erally sufficient. It does not require any extraordinary talent. Indeed, one lady who is an authority on the subject says, "Clev erness is not required In an indexer, opu llancy Is dangerous, the desirable quality | "Will you take rny old desk and give ll room In your housed as It Is the first desk I used when I commenced to do business I for myself? Mrs. Lincoln, In one of her passions, threw It In the street because I upset the Ink." In this room are also ex hibited Mrs. Lincoln's cook stove, a walnut cradle in which her children were rocked, often by the husband's own hand; his wooden office armchair. In which he sat when he wrote his first inaugural address; two horsehair sofas, a settee, and various other pieces of furniture escaping the great Chicago fire, which consumed nearly all of the family belongings. One of the most Interesting pieces is a black walnut armed rocker, upholstered in haircloth, and said | to have been Mr. Lincoln's favorite chair I at the homestead. Its extraordinarily tall back offers silent evidence In corroboration | of this tradition. In this room are also dis played fifty original and distinct portrait photographs of Mr. Lincoln, the last taken a few days before his death, when he com plied with the request of a photographer of Waltham, Mass.. to step out upon the south portico of the White House and sit for a bust picture. What was regarded by Mr. Lincoln's friends as the best likeness among all photographs taken during his later years is one by Brady of Washington, who also made the group showing Mr. Lin coln seated and reading a. book while his little son "Tad" glanced down at the open page. Brady, in meeting his appointment, found the two in this attitude when he en tered the room and requested them to hoid the pose until he had taken it; but the book, proclaimed over the land as a Holy Bible, was in reality a photograph album. * * * Mr. Oldroyd, who has traced the circum stances attending the taking of each of the fifty photographs In the collection, says that in every case Mr. Lincoln was im portuned to sit. He was good natured, however. In this respect, as well Illustrated by the conditions under which the celebrat ed "Gardner photograph" was taken. Gard clearness." A good sound education and much concentration are necessary, out the work is always Interesting, and entails a continually increasing knowledge of the subjects to be Indexed, so :hat it is saved from that bane of daily work, monotony. Good salaries are earned, ranging rrom ?100 to ?150 per annum by those sufficient ly qualified to oibtaln regular posts, ou: piece-work, although well paid, is precar ious for those who depend entirely on their earnings. Many public bodies are, however taking women indexers on their stair, and many newspapers also. Sir Alfred Harms worth has put the library of the Dally Mall into the hands of women, and one of them is responsible for the dally Index of the paper. Publishers' work, except in a tew noteworthy instances, is badly paid, some times not more than two guineas being given for Indexing a book of four or five hundred pages, though In the case o? sci entific or technical books five guineas would be only a fair price. It is probabla that as the difference between good and bad Indexes becomes better understood, they will be omitted altogether from booKS where they are not required, and bet'er prices paid for better work when they are necessary. * * * To a very businesslike woman with abun dant health, strength and energy, and a good deal of artistic taste and knowledge, house decorating and furnishing offers a very good opening. Several firms In l_.on don have for years been managed by wo men, and managed very successfully, ir the necessary funds are forthcoming, the best way to acquire the requisite knowledge li to go as articled pupil to a good firm lor one, two or three years. But if i premium cannot be paid, a post as assistant could probably be obtained at a small salary, anu an assistant who used her brains, and cul tivated tact, would probably In two or three years gain enough insight Into the practical side of the work to be able to begin business later on her own account. If a woman Is artistic, there Is valuable ?*"ork for her In this direction. She is tnu r.er was standing- outside his studio on 7th street when Mr. Lincoln, on a brief respite from the White House, happened to stroll by. The enterprising and aggressive pho tographer invited the President above and he submitted without protest to the tor tures of the posing process necessary In those old days of slow plates. In the same room are exhibited various engravings, plaster busts and masks of the late Presi dent, also 203 varieties of medals bearing his likeness. Among these is the bronze replica of a large memorial medal of gold for which 40,000 French citizens contributed 10 centimes each. France was then under the second empire and the imperial mint of Paris refused to strike oft this medal dedi cated to the ruler of a republic; hence the minting had to be done in Switzerland. The Lincoln death mask by Clark Mills is displayed in the rear parlor of the old house, and beside it is the life mask by Leonard Volk, cast in April, I860. Volk, who had accompanied the notification com mittee from Chicago, at the same time made molds from Mr. Lincoln's hands. Before placing the clay upon the right hand tiie sculptor asked the President-elect if he would not clench a bit of Wood in the palm. Mr. Lincoln darted into the wood shed with one of Mrs. Lincoln's brooms and sawed about five inches off the e:ul of the handle, which is seen in the cast. Upon the walls of this room are scores of carica ture lithographs used in the two Lincoln campaigns, the most striking being those by Currier and Ives, depicting the four can didates in various ridiculous antics. * * * An original black locust rail split by Lin coln hangs in the archway between the two parlors. It was removed from the fence of the old Lincoln log cabin by Gov. Ogels by in 1860, and the collector has the af fidavit of John Hanks, Lincoln's cousin, that it was split by the great "raii split ter" and no other. At the time of the Lin coln obsequies it was carried In a mock funeral at Lancaster, Ky., and a piece of Intermediary between her clients and the practical tradespeople, and she is invalua ble in overseeing details and In giving ad vice. There are many occasions on wntcn such services will be most valuable, am consequently will be well paid. For in stance, where a house has to be redecorat ed, and wholly or partly refurnished in the absence of its owners. Many busy men would gladly trust to a women of educa tion. taste and experience the arrangements for the removal from one house or flat to another, when they would hesitate to place it entirely in the hands of a tradesman Even among the wealthy section of tnose who have made fortunes, but who have not inherited standards of taste, there are now many who realize that knowledge can oo more than money, and that a lady will get a far better efTect with small expense than an 'uneducated person with a large outlay: The work itself is exceedingly interesting. As knowledge of art increases, the con sciousness will grow that the furnishings of a private house or even of a single room should never be undertaken without refer ence to the person who is to occupy It. I once saw a flat which had been entirely redecorated and furnished while its owner was abroad. The scheme was strikingly rich and luxurious in color and design, but when its owner, a small, frail-looking el derly lady, dressed in tones of Quaker gray with delicate old lace, returned, the mis take was apparent at once. The poor little lady did not recognize her own home, and the next morning a message was sent to the decorator to undo all that had been done, and make It "as much as possible, as it was before." This surely was Just one of those mistakes that any woman who had seen the owner or even the flat as she left it, would have been able to avoid, and yet education would have taught her that re straint and simplicity are two beautiful qualities In art. But In such a profession something fur ther is needed. First, business ability is re quired in dealing with the various trades men and work-people employed, and, sec ondly. a practical knowledge of their work. the crepe with which It was then drapew still clings to it. The flag which caught Booth's spur and caused hlin to break his leg as he leaped from Mr. Lincoln's box. also the spur it self. Is shown in the front parlor, along with the key to the old arsenal prison which confined the conspirators and pieces of the ropes which hanged the latter Orig inal prints of the Individual portraits of all of the conspirators are hung one above the other, some of the subjects being shown manacled and with aspects of bitter de fiance. AI>out all of the published sketches of the assassination, the (light and capture of Booth, the trial of the conspirators and their execution are hung nearby. But the grimmest relics in the entire museum ar? original prints from the remarkable series of photographs by Gardner, showing the ex ecution of the conspirators, step by step until they are finally seen dangling, sld? by side, below the trap. The entire tour of Booth from Ford's The ater to the Garrett farm was lately retraced by Mr. Oldroyd, who made photographs aa he progressed. It was a tramp of eighty miles, but resulted In the correction of many statements which have gone Into his tory. The collector Is the author of a num ber of works concerning the martyr whom he has idolized for well-nigh a half century. It Is Ills hope that the government will pur chase his collection before the time comes when he can no longer care for It. With the aid of one of the eove-nment architet-'s he has worked out a plan for the condemna tion of the property on either side of the present museum building, the building of a fireproof wall about the entire structure, the additions of wings at the rear, and the conversion of the opened spaces in front Into grass plats. This scheme would en able him to acquire for the government many valuable Lincoln relics whose owners will not Install them In a non-fireproof building It will also add to the lighting of the rooms and enable the public to make a circuit of the house without overcrowding. The bedstead on which Mr. Lincoln died is among the relics which are promised when a fireproof rernsltory Is ?fro'-ded. JOHN EI.FRETH WATKINS. which experience alone can give; a good head for calculation, and an eye for meas urements, rough estimates having often to be made on the spot of the prices of cur tains, carpets, and papering or dismem bering walls and ceilings. Then It is nec essary to keep abreast of the times in learning what new goods are In the whole sale market, what handicrafts are being applied to household decoration, etc.. some knowledge of architecture and dfcoratlve work, of furniture design and many kin dred subjects, and even or sanitation* drainage, etc. A san tary Inspector's cer tificate would be a very valuable asset. The thought to keep constantly before us In all work is that the discipline I: entails is the only road to success; that all life may be lived on a high and exalted plane, or on a base and material one Material ism Is not needful to tne breadwinner, In deed It Is not a necessary condition of any life, but It Is to be found In all, among millionaires as much as among wage-earn ers. To keep before us the greatness of all labor, the unbounded possibilities of every life, the usefulness of every honest career, to fit ourselves to our task, and master Its fundamental principles, and then work them out as our talent or our scope allows, this is the great secret of Joyous living. Good work should be put into every thing we undertake, whether the remunera tion is adequate or poor, for it has been truly Bald, "Good work cuts its own chan nel, and eventually controls Its rate of compensation." If a girl feels ?hen she first goes out into the labor market that her salary is small, and her work hard, let her take heart, and remember that she can make her training of life-long value by the way she receives It. A strong undaunted Intention to succeed, a faith In the ultimate reward of honest work, and a determina tion to keep the best standards as the only ones toward which to aim, will In the end Insure success in every career, and bring the real richness of life to the most drudg ing toller, and although to such pleasure is often denieu, happiness may yet be the atmosphere of life, upon which the circum stances can have no more effect than on the air we breathe.