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DRESSMAKER BY MARGARET E. SAJiOSTER. (Copyright. ipne. by Joseph B. Bowles.) A dressmaker's business 1? to make for her customers gowns and wraps In the latest fashion. Hence the moat modest or village dressmakers from her own point of view Is well entitled to the epithet fash ionable, as If she were the most exclus.va and high-priced member of her profession In town. A woman whose means permit her to pay the rather alarming rates charg-;l by a city dressmaker, who brings her models trom Paris and works for the ultra-smart set, told me that on one occasion she carried n gown which needed a few s'.lgtit repairs to the home of a little seamstress on a oack p'.r' < t of a small suburb, and indicated to her what she wanted done. To her sur prise and* amusement the s-vamstrcss was not In the least Impressed by the magnill < ence ami style or the lady's garment, sne criticised It unsparingly, round fault with Is cut and ltB garniture, and poin.-'d with j.rlde to a creation of litr own, which she liad Just finished and was about to send home to one or her patrons. The Inference was that she felt herself d stinctly on a level with the town dressmaker, whom she looked upon as k rather lo.midable rival, to wn<;m Airs took trade which might Just as well tlnd its way Into her Utile workroom. Having asked various people and made a few notes of my own, 1 am in clined to think thai professional Jealousy of this kind niny be found in every line cf business, and that dressmakers, being as a rul*> women, and or course human, have their little weaknesses precisely as every body else has In some special line. * * * In fact, although the village dressmaker may not be able to afford an annual trip across the Atlantic and visit to the great establishments or Kurope, the headquarters of the pomps and vanities, known to the initiated in Fails, Vienna and Berlin, and to some extent In ixindon, yet she Is not with out her opportunities and advantages. The fashion journals of the world come lo her door, those not only that are published abroad, but tho that emanante from ex cellent . .Hire s on this side the water. Mi.ny ami brilliant pons from week to weeii and month to month write up and fully de scribe current fashions, while artists <f no mean ability devo e time and talent to the r adequate illustration. In the city the latest and loveliest fashions are seen on the stage sind In the provinces a touring company, It of any note, need not be ashamed of the wardrobe of Its leading lady. Women with brains, eyes and hands. If in 11: busine-- of dressmaking and endowed with quick perceptions and good ideas, get great profit from an occasional Jaunt to K " York, <'li! igo. Philadelphia. #>r what ever city they can most conveniently reach. Annual and semi-annual displays by whole sale dealers and the importations of the 1 iff department stores are entirely at their f' rvioe. and a little woman who goes out li> the day and has her round of clients re tail from an outing of this sort fully pre 1 tied to enter on a successful campaign. * * * Tl. fashionable dressmaker who charges ri rmous prices for the costumes that bear her name has in reality no monopoly of taste and none of style. Nevertheless, in her chosen line she is a lofty personage, and to her. as is meet and right, the daughters of our millionaires will turn, the wives of ow city magnates look, and the brides of the coming season. If their fathers have 1 inc pur." s, will accept her dictum as to their trousseaus. When a bride centers upon herself the admiring attention of a nation, when the rich brocade for her wedding gown is wo\ ? n as if she were a queen, on an exclu sive loom by an exclusive pattern, never to t reproduced, It Is in the order of things : ? finery -hall p-merge from the hands ?.f some dressmaker of renown. Su h artistes. ;!ie fashionable dressmakers ?t lie p? ri> d. have their distinctive place at the top of the trade. They rank with the great chefs the great statesmen, the great leaders, and th" great people in gen era! of their time. Whether or not others WHIPPING POST OF BAI Condemned at the Capitol Fail Next Monday?H< on in the Past for NEXT Monday, in all probability, the members of the House of Ki pr? sentatlves will be called to vote on the proposition to es tablish a whipping post In the ]?; triet of Columbia for the punishment ot ife beaters. The action of the House Dls : immlttc in reporting, without rec ?h! ition. the bill introduced by Hepre ? ilive Adams of Pennsylvania has given measure a place on the calendar. Mon day is Irtstrlct day, and It Is the present in tention of the author of the bill to have It considered at that lime. It Is the confident opinion of those ac quaint! 1 with the situation that the meas ure \\ 11 not pass. The House of Repre sentatives is composed of men of different p Utl'al parti. of varying political faith, <if widely divergent views on the many questions that come before them. But in the main they are men of common sense, uccustomed to arguing from cause to ef fect. wise In the ways of legislation, swift to talk and slow to act. After obtaining the views of those members of the House \ of Representatives who reflect in large ii. isure the wisdom and Intelligence of the working majority?tho majority of common sense, without respect to political affilia tions ;t is safe to assert that In all prob ability the bill will not pass. It seems, however, to many of those who have given serious thought to this attempt ed modern revival of an ancient and dis credited [tract i< e that the advocacy of a measure of this sort Is In the nature of a reflection upon the Intelligence. It is not MS if the whipping post were a thing new and untried; it Is not .is If Its vices and virtues were entirely theoretical. Its actual effect upon the matter and morals of a community still remaining to be worked out In the fullness of experience. For the whipping post has had Its day. Years ago, when our great-grandfathers were young and our grandfathers yet un born. whipping iK>?ts stood In the public square of hundicds of cities and towns In what are now these United States. Brutal, <1 graded, drunken wretches were dally lashed on the bare back for the edifi cation and amusement of a hardened pop ulace. The stocks held fast their shameful quarry to the gaze, to the Insults and abuse of the ll?:ht-minded and the cruel. The scold's bridle clamped Its heavy curb upon the unruly, loose-hung tongue. The duck ing stool at river's edge dipped merrily with shivering freight of shrewish virago. And a dozen other engines, relics of th? public Ang!o-S.ixon inquisition, played their little part In the old regime of retaliatory punishments. It is very doubtful whether any one of the ten members c f the House District com mittee who by their votes were Instru mental In placing the Adams bill upon the calendar subject to being called upon on Monday would deny that the establishment ?-f a whipping isist In Washington would be a sti p backward toward the olden days when the post and the pillory, the bridle ard the brank. the siool and the plough share s. held sway. Of all the ten there Is probably not a man who sincerely and earnestly believes that. The manner in which the bill was reported Is evidence of this fact. It was placed on the calendar without recommendation, and In Its report the committee mentions that owing to the difference of local opinion tranlfested us to the advisability of establishing a whipping post here it was deemed best to let the recognize this they themselves are not slow to Insist upon their prerogatives. ^ our fashionable dressmaker of eminence is a personage with whom one does not take liberties. Great ladies, so to speak, sit at her feet. Her house has nothing about it of the air of the shop. Callages drive up 10 her door, elegant women de scend. flutter up the steps, ring her bell and float out of sight, wlthlrt" the magic portals. Those portals are opened by a page in buttons, who is as dignified as a well-trained English butler, and as solemn as an American undertaker. His face has the immobility of a graven image, and yet h ' knows to a nicety, and apparently by in tuition, which of madame's customers is to be treated with resafict, which with affabil ity and which with toleration. It is amus jngr to Observe the faint interrogation mark In the eyes of such a functionary- when a new customer appears who has unfortun ately not yet attained the hall-mark of fashion, and wno has something of the stamp of the frump or the dowdy. * * * But madame's orders suffer no discourtesy to a visitor, except, perhaps, from herself. She has almost a sixth sense In determin ing at a glance whether a stranger Is to be welcomed with effusion or gently discour aged. Occasionally, but very seldom, her discretion is at fault and she blunders Into a rebuff to some one who might have proved a most desirable patron. Her draw ing room is well furnished and has nothing of the gloom characteristic of boarding h> use parlors. On the contrary, its an pointinents arc comfortable, conventional A RELIC tBAROUS TIMES -The Adams Bill Likely to 3w the Lash Was Laid Various Offenses. aasxs-jSKr * To some members of the House the re huge joke t" b,? a, a th'rt J ,ers 11 appears as a re action upon the committee and upon Con gress thilt 8Uch a W11 haa lain fo';?tnv^"a TW>Pfl0d U|Hm UlC bualneas calendar who hat""0 8eVera' members the body '-ring JLnTC'U"CCd th6lF '"^tlon ->f of fering amendments to the bill. One mem ber from a southern state savs that 1 enough of the sajs that he saw civil war to last him ? 1* "?St before the and he suggests that' In'thebin the^"/' ;;LXk:n^^hin""^wbLSStSto? ment to the Adams bill, to put into ut once more all the various engines of re tallatory punishment which were onc6 in favor and which have been rustv fr? t use ihcs. hundreds of ?"rsOt?r' mem! tli? wff on the subject, and while the bill may have some defenders there are those who have not given serious con sideration to the alternative propo8It?on hi^Hrf ?? 1 w'th the Question of wife beating It appears from present indica tions that Mr. Adams will have but a for th? lash l? * W"h h'm f?r the P?8t and In view of all the discussion concerning the whipping post and its virtues Just now h.."v^r<'SS.,t, 'S rather interesting to turn the > ellowed leaves and view the post in its proper setting. It cannot be denied that the post and the pillory were patr and parcel of the old regime of retaliatory pun ishments, a simple and natural outgrowth of the conditions of other times. It may be said at least, that the system of pun I lshment was notable for its sweet- slm P h y' I. a,raa? took what di<l not belong . ,8. . waa lopP,<5 off- w<th the jaen that the maimed stump would remind Mh ,r rt'8t of hls days that the way of the transgressor was hard; if he offended the second time and was caught, his otaer hand followed the first, and he was left a helpless cripple for life. If his hearing proved too acute at the wrong time an ear was sliced from his head; on slight provo cation the second followed the first. V talked too much the pincers tore out his tongue: If his vision proved too keen at some unfortunate moment, a red hot poker destroyed his sight. And in ad triv'iai trifling punishments for trhial offenses there were 200 capital crimes for which the penalty was death 1 ertainly it would seem to the average man as If sufficient Inducements were of fered to the dwellers in those days to stick to the straight and narrow path. But evi dently the desired end was not served, for y t* ?f nV that lonfr llst ot maiming and burning and branding and beheading? Mw ^ pun.lsl"nenta without number and that beggar description-there is no record that crime and license were any less nreva lent than at the present day P *' * Prior to the nineteenth century the whip ping post was an English political institu tion of great antiquity, the direct out growth of "whypplng at the cart's tayle." All through the middle ages It held sway LVfVS?* a"d navy 11 was continued uruil not so very long ago, and it was of course, considered t/ie Indispensable exoedl eut for enforcing discipline among and a little stately. This Is madame's re ception room, and here she bears herself with the suave and gracious manner of a Associated with it as corrective measures were the ducking .stool for the lewd and the "iron bridle" for scolds. The church and city records of England show how con stantly i lie post, and the pillory?for the two were usually found together?were in voked to perform their large share of legal and restrictive duties. In the reign , of Henry VIII a famous "whypping act" was passed, by which all vagrants were to be whipped severely "at the cart's tayle until their bodies become bloody by reason of such whypping." Certainly there could be no fault found with that statute on the ground that it was ambiguous. The enact ment was in force nearly through the reign of Queen Elizabeth, when the whip ping post became the usual substitute of the "cart's tayle." But from all contem poraneous accounts it does not appear that the force of the blows wa?a whit lessened. As a good sound British institution, and in order that there might be familiar and Ik rr.elike surroundings in the new and strange land, the whipping post was promptly set up, and the nine-thonged lash started to work. In all the American colo nies. In an order sent over from England for the government of the first settlement at Salem whipping was prescribed In the phrase, "correccon is enjoined for the fooles back." Scourgings were made a feature of the Sabbath and usually occurred oil lec ture days as well. From that time on the whipping post was a leading feature of tlrt: system of punishments in the blue laws of New England. In Boston in particular the post was early in operation. The rec ords of that city show that at the session of the court on November 30, 1630, one man was sentenced to be whipped for stealing half a loaf of bread; another for swearing on the Sabbath; another for leaving his vessel without a "pylott." For "stryklng his mother and deriding her" John Pease was sentenced to be severely "whipt." * * * In 1631 an order of the general court ol Boston provided that "Philip Ratcllffe shall be whipt, his ears cut off. fined forty pounds and banished out of the limits of this juris diction for uttering malicious and scan dalous speeches against the government." Strangely enough, the sentence was not ap proved of in London, although Infinitely worse punishments were carried, out there every day in the year. It was only In the previous year, 1630, that John Taylour, the "water poet," wrote; "In LodiIou and wltblu a tulle. I ween. There are gaols and prisons full fifteen, And s:ity w hipping posts and stocks between." It is not of record that the sympathy of the English people was received with grati tude by the unfortunate Ratcllffe, who had already received his lashes, and lost his tars and his citizenship. In Boston in 1643 a pious regard for the Sabbath, in appearance at least, was en forced with the lash. Roger Scott, for "re peated sleeping on the Lord's day and for stryklng the person who wakened him," was sentenced to be severely whipped. The gift of prophecy was also subdued by simi lar means about this time. Every week in Boston there were fresh whippings, and forty lashes was the ordi nary dose. The post was on the Boston Common near State street In revolutionary times. In 1771 Samuel Breck, a resident of Boston, who was evidently a good deal ahead of his generation in his views with respect to this particular phase of eight eenth century civilization, wrote to a frifend in New York the following brief account of Us observations: "The large whipping post, painted red, stands conspicuously in the most public street of the town. It Is placed on State street, directly under the windows of the great writing school which I frequented, and from there the scholars were indulged In the spectacle of all kinds of punishment suited to harden their hearts and brutalize their feelings. Here women were takenln a huge cage, in which they were dragged on wheels from the prison, and tied to the post with bare backs, on which thirty oi forty lashes were bestowed among the screams of the culprit and the uproar of the mob." In New Haven. Conn., the city magis trates were early in favor of the whipping post, and declared that "stripes and whip pings is correct, fit and proper in some cases, when the offense is accompanied with brutish or childish folly or rudeness, or with stubborn lnsolency or beastly cruelty, A duchess* just tinged with sufficient aristl cratic aloofness to keep her customers prop erly subordinate In their places. She sug or with Idle vagrancy or faults of a like nature." In Rhode Island, even under gentle and tolerant Roger Williams, the whippin g post v/as kept busy a good part of the time. It is rather difficult to realize at this time that in Newport, until the nineteenth century, malefactors were dragged around town at the tail of a cart and then taken to a public square and whipped on the naked back in sight of all who cared to gaze. In New York city a whipping post was . "",mni' set up on the strand In front of the "Stadt Huya'' under Dutch rulo, and the sentences were many and severo. One little para graph In aNewYork newspaper published at that time throws a keen light on the cold blooded selfishness and brutal indifference of the people of that day to human suffer ing, and illustrates, almost better than any argument could possibly do. one of the prin cipal reasons why, -with the advance of civ ilization end enlightened sentiment, the in stitution of the whipping post gradually fell from favor. The newspaper, in discussing a number of whippings that had taken place the day before In front of the Stadt Huys, says that one woman who was under the lash "created much amusement by her re sistance." Of course, so far as the correction and j i The Prize Winners. FIRST PRIZE, $5.00?Awarded to H. N. Thornburg, 215 3d St. s.e. This remarkable picture of the fireworks display on the Monu ment lot was taken the night of March 4, 1905. The display of fire works was in connection with the inauguration of Theodore Roose velt as President of the United States. The photograph is espe cially remarkable for the faithful reproduction of detail. The ray of light extending from the top of the Monument is from a powerful searchlight. SECOND PRIZE. $3.00?Awarded to Alvln R. Meissner, 140 Q St. n.W. One of the most unusual char acteristics of this photograph is that It was taken by lamplight. THIRD PRIZE, $2.00?Awarded to Arthur O. Fowler, 117/z Todd pi ice n.w. "The White Flyer" was built and is owned by William Allpress, 145 T street northwest. The actual cost of the material used was $G6. The truck weighs 500 pounds and is 21 feet 9 inches long. It will carry twenty-four persons. gest, dictates and ordains what the people who come to her are to wear, and if they happen to be favorites she lays herself out punishment of slaves were concerned, the whipping post was a southern institution until the close of the civil war. At that time slavery and the whipping post may be said to have vanished hand in hand, the latter disappearing from every state with the exception of Delaware. And now this lat ter commonwealth has, as before stated, the unique and questionable distinction of be ing the only state in the Union where the whipping post is, and has consistently re mained throughout all the years of progress the Cart'iT&ylc and advancement, a feature of the penal system. It must toe said, however, that Del aware Is not the only civilized state of modem times to approve of whipping for certain crimes. Thirty years ago. when gar rot ing became so frequent and so greatly feared in England, the whipping post was re-established and the lash became oace more an authorized instrument of pun ishment. And in 1882 there was a revival of this form of punishment in Maryland. ? * * The history of the whipping post in Dela ware is particularly Interesting, In view of the fact that It is a well-recognized mode of punishment at the present time. In 1719 to do them honor and so to dress thi?m that they shall honor her. Formerly this potentate was somewhat noted for mendacity In the matter of prom ising gowns for occasions, hut in these days she- is likely to keep her word, an J a promptly paying customer Is measurably sure to receive her toilet's in pood season. The little matter of price is seldom intro duced until a choice has been made and the gown ordered. Madame names a high fig ure. hut the people who come to her do not expect anything cheap, and would be some what disgusted if their things did not cost money. All rhings 011 this earth are rela tive. and today in this rich land we have many men whose incomes permit their wives and daughters to spend large sums of money on their dress without their l^ing in the least extravagant. Indeed, their spending puts money in circulation, and helps to kindle hearth-fires in the homes of the poor. * * * Every fashionable dressmaker has a large corps of workwomen, each of whom attends to only a single portion of a dress. There is a highly paid fitter who earns as much money in the course of a year as is paid to the average college president. There are women who attend only to sleeves, to skirts, to embroideries, to finishings. Madame her self does nothing at all beyond exercising the office of critic, which she does with an exactness and swiftness of conclusion that show her to be mistress of the situation. When finally she sends home to its fortu nate possessor a gown that will be called a dream, it is carefully packed In enveloping folds of tlssi is boxed with care and dispatched with as much detail as though it belonged, as it really does, to the realm of decorative art, of priceless lace, or of costly bric-a-brac. William Keith, governor of the counties on the Delaware, with the consent of the as sembly of Breemen, passed an act direct ing that "all crimes be tried and punish ments adjudged according to the laws of Great Britain." In this act the phrase "such corporal punishment as the court sh ill think fit to inflict" evidently refers to the whip ping post and the pillory, and it is the first mention of either in the laws of Delaware. A few years later. In a succeeding act, it was provided that twenty-one lashes on the bare back should be given to slaves found carrying their masters' weapons without permission. Fy>m that time on the post has held free sway In the state. In an act of 1708 is a list of sheriff's fees for "whip ping every person by order of the court at (57 cents each." The present sheriff is much better off than his predecessor, as he re ceives $1.50 for each whipping he adminis ters. The present law under which the pun ishment is administered provides that "the punishment of whipping shall be in flicted by strokes on the bare back, well laid on." Women are now exempted from the lash, the last female to be publicly whipped in the state having been pun ished in 1864. More than twenty years ago, when the ! lash was used much more freely in Del aware for the punishment of various crimes than it is at the present day. Gen. Brlnkerhoff. president of the seventh na tional conference of charities and correc tions, who had studied the penal system thoroughly, said that Delaware, despite Its posts and pillories, had the largest prison population with respect to com parative size of any state In the t'nion. "The lash," said Gen. Brlnkerhoff, as the result of his observations, "harrows up the worst feelings of the soul and drives from the being of the man undergoing punishment every remnant of better na ture. And, more than that. It makes him desperate enough for the accomplish ment of any evil deed." Two years ago at the thirtieth na tional conference of the same organiza tion Warden Meserve of the Wilmington, Del., workhouse, who has studied the sys tem at close range for many years, and who has wielded the whip on occasion. : declared that the system was all wrong. | "We have a whipping post where whlp 1 ping is a part of the sentence of the I court," he said. "I would be very glad to 1 have the state rid itself of this relic of i barbarism, but which will exist until pub I 11c opinion la worked up to the extoat of i demanding that it shall be abolished. In I the last year thirty-nine persons were whipped, and It was a very unpleasant duty. A bill was Introduced in the Del aware legislature last winter for the j abolishment of the whipping post, and was making very satisfactory progress toward ultimate passage, when one after noon in the corridor of the state house a New York crook put his arm around n 1 certain member of the legislature and ; took a diamond stud from his shirt i bosom. He was arrested, and In the course of his examination said he would rather commit suicide than undergo the ordeal of the lash. The legislature said that If the post had that effect on crooks It was certainly worth having, and so the bill did not pass. The members of the Society of Friends In the state are now taking the matter up and are raising money to pay good speakers to go up and down the state to work up public sentiment against It, so that these forms of punishment may be abolished by legislation." One of the best utterances on the subject of the whipping post?brief, clear-cut and convincing?was made more than twenty years ago by a foremost student of penal systems, who, during the agitation which resulted In the temporary revival of the whipping post as an Institution In Mary land, wrote as follows: * * "Under the designation 'cruel punish ments' are Included all ?uch penalties as are designed to Inflict direct physical suf fering, accompanied by circumstance of Ignominy. Of this form the whipping post is an example. The infliction of such penal ties Is on the theory of retaliation and Is Improper and vicious for this reason. The legitimate province of all laws relating to penalties for crime Is punishment simply, and anything inflicted beyond this, whether Wants to Prove Man Can Live on Wood Sperial < "orreapocdenre of The Htsr. LONDON. February 11**. In the Infirmary of the Mils Knd wort house. L<ondoo. Is row lodged John Maglnn, who declares that he has made a great dis covery, which would prove of Inestimable benefit to mankind If the doctors would permit him to demonstrate Its efficiency on his own person, and thereby convince a skeptical World. Before the doctors got hold of him Maginn announced his liscov ery In a letter to the Times. ??Working In th-s kindling deportment," he wrote, ""1 have discovered that common deal wood Is a valuable food and medicine If cut small and eaten. Brown hreed can not be compared with It for tonic and In vlgorating effect." The doctors say that Maginn has so de pleted his system and Impaired >>ia vitailt] by eating wood that It he wore not le strained from Indulging In It he would kll himself. As It Is. they are ex tamely doubt fill whetlier they can save him. Maginn as serfs that all ho is raftering from is th< deprivation of his favorite diet and th< treatment of the de? "i ? I It- -cays ne ha> so accustomed himself to living on wooc that he cannot thnv.- on anything else and If only allow d to tat it he would poor be well again. Anyhow, lie maintains, <t the Interests of science, he should be per niltted to continue his experiment to lh< end, uid is quite willing 10 taK< nls chnncci of finding that end death. "As It is,1' he adds. I don't net a fall chance to prove the truth of :ny theory and a discovery of tremendous important Is in danger ? ?! i>< nlost to ti e world; foi If I die It will, of course, be said that 1 kilh-d myself?that 1 was a victim of mj own folly, and all that sort of thin*. Bu I am going to try to set well, despite tlu doctors, and then I'll go somewhere when I can eat wood without running any tlsk o being interfered with by them. 1 want M prove that nolody need starve In this cotin. try as ^ong as thTe Is any wood to tx picked up. That will go far to solving tin unemployed problem sind the ,>auper prob lorn and a lot of other problems There ar? forc-ts running to waste In this world 'ha would stippl} with io. it ten tunes man) poor people as are now living In It." * + * M.'iginn is nn Illiterate crank. He Is I man of some education who ha? fallen 01 evil days. Therein fate s ems to hav? played a large part In Ills discovery. Koi If- he had not been driven to take refug* In a workhouse he would never have beet set to work on a wood pile, and it is con ceivable tnat his great discovery mlgh' have l>een delayed for some centuries?nay perhaps never have been made. Mag nn I remarkable powers first came to ilgh through a strange shortage being notice* in the wood department. Bundles of fire wood seemed to disappear in a mysterious way, and at the same time It was ohservei that Maglnn's appetite for the ordlnarj workhouse fare steadily diminished. It was not. however, until he was dC' trcted surreptitiously ego wing piece* of flre. wood, after lie had rejected a plate 01 Irish stew, that ti e real stile of affairs be. came known. He was then taken oft th? woodpile and set to work In another de partment; hut still he contrived to procure abundant supplies of his favorite diet. Till other inmates, who regarded him as a greater wonder than the human ostrich ot the man with the cast iron stomach, took delight in ministering to his singular appe tite. The workhouse authorities stmt hln ui In a room by himself to try to b-eak him of the Iiablt, but there lie nibbled at a cliair. and was starting In to sample the washfltand, when they clapped him Into thf infirmary, where, according to the latest bulletins, he is making a gallant light against the doctors for his great discovery. What Makes Shoes Shine. From the Technical World Magazine. The philosophy of polish on any sub stance Is simply the production by friction of such smoothness of the surface layer Ol its particles that they readily reflect the rays of light falling upon them. Different articles arc used to aid In procuring thin smoothness on different substances. With leather the best substance seems to be a paste containing bone-black?that is, the powder obtained from charred bones -ot ivory?to which Is added a small quantity of acid to dissolve it, oil to preserve the reft texture of the leather and treacle and gum to render the mass adhesive. against the law. as mob violence, or by leg islation. exceeds the legitimate scopo of penalties for crime. Punishment in its proper acceptation means the protection of society, as represented by a state, against the inroads of the individual upon Its wel fare. It is only when the encroachment of the Individual upon the rights of others amounts to a public wrong that they are punished criminally, and then It Is the wrong to society, and not the sin, which Is cognizable by the courts. "Crime cannot be stamped out by these methods of treatment. A physician would tie ttfought extremely unskillful who, in Ills efforts to cure a patient of a single and rel atively unimportant disease, completely wrecked the patient's constitution by his violent medicines. It may safely be slated that a husband, before he beats his wife to the brutal extent that is contemplated by the authorized lashes, has already shown his evil character sufficiently to warn his wife that he is no fit husband. "She is entitled by law to a separation. If this separation were accomplished in ail cases the occasion for crimes would be avoided, the wife and society protected. But must the wife suffer because the hus band is a brute? Must she seek divorce, leave her home and deprive her children of parental support? Should the brutf: not rather be Hogged and made to bear his pun ishment. Instead of punishing his wife and children by enforced separation? Through no fault of theirs they are made to perhaps suffer bitterly. "If the whipping post could obviate all ! this it would be the strongest kind of an argument In favor of its establishment In every city and In every municipality to deal with this class of crime alone. But its re sults have not I:e*-n satisfactory. It prac tically deprives the man of his citizenship, and banishes him; his usefulness as a mem ber of society is destroyed; all the good ever in him is driven out. With every lash ?his soul is seared, and bitterness and hate that can never be effaced distilled into his heart." * * * Punishment administered at the whipping post. If it is to have the desired corrective and suppressive effect, must of necessity be brutal. In the language of the famous act of the reign of Henry VIII, criminals must bs whipped "until their bodies are bloody" if the punishment is to do them any good. The mere fact, as has been Illustrated time and again, of exposing a hardened criminal or brutal wife-beater to the gaze of the populace, to place him In a position of ig nominy and lash his bare back gently for the moral effect involved, U worse than useless. Only a short time ago a spectator at a whipping at Newcastle, Del., com mented upon the fact that the lash was not used severely enough "I am not an advocate of the whipping post." lie said, "but I do think that this ex hibition Is a farce. With persons of ordi nary breeding and susceptibilities to b? placed in such a position and subjected to the whip the moral effec. might be of some avail as a corrective measure, but this af fair is ridiculous and worse than useless for the purjiose intended." And in order to gain further Insight into the matter he approached a negro who had been whipped for wife-beating and released after his punishment had been adminis tered. It added to his astonishment and disgust, and his disbelief in the efficacy of the whipping post, when the negro offered to go through the "terrible ordeal" again for the modest sum of '& cents. And In summing up the situation it oaa truly be *ald that the very circumstance* that whlping and similar punishments have had their day of trial and were abolished by the very generation which had wit nessed the working of the system in all Its full-blown beauty, is the best posalbU argument against It. The adoption of the whipping post and the pillory by any com munity In the United States would cer tainly be considered. If the trend of public sentiment is to be taken into account, a step backward to the obsolete system of former days, which was thoroughly tried and found wanting. The history o| all times and the testimony of the moat ea lightened students of the quMtloa apeak for advance, not retrogression.