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QUEST OF SUPERMAN
Pnmmittoo nn Pnnoninc Pnn. wvi i i ii i iuu vii buvjuiiivg wuii sisting of Six Scientists. IMPROVING THE HEREDITY To Urge the Passage of Laws Prohibit ing Certain Marriages. DOOMED TO EXTERMINATION Establishments for Oiants and Rus sian Experiments to Produce a Fairer Race. (Copyright, 1906. by John F.lfreth Watklni.) "To suggcs* methods of improving the heredity of the family, the people or ti.e race" a committee of six scientists?all stu dents of human heredity?has Just been ap pointed by Prof. W. M. Hays, assistant secretary of agriculture, on behalf of the American Breeders' Association, of which he Is the founder and secretnrv. Thi? *??: sociaticn. J 000 members strong. Is to en large its scope and include the study of the breeding of human beings as well as of animal and plant species. "The committee on eugenics' Is the desig nation of the six scientists appointed. They will rt their theories as to the Im provement of the human race at the next tnwlng of the association at Columbus, Ohio, January 15-18 next. Eugenics, ac cording to the Century Dictionary, is "the science of generative or nrni?r?ativ? opment; rh?- doctrine of progress or evolu tloD, especially in the human race, through Improved conditions in the relations of the eies." After the committee has reported the Breeders' Association will authorize a | aerie* of practical investigations, but will not suggest methods for the breeding of men for experiment. Prof. Hays, who con ceived this interesting scheme for system atic research, has been a scientific breeder of animals and plants. When appointed as sistant secretary of agriculture last year he was in charge of the Minnesota agricul tural experiment station, where he bred many new and valuable species of nlant I life. One of the foremost members of the Breeders' Association whirl) he originated w I^uther Hurbank. the wizard of Santa Rosa, who has lately kept the world agog by his wonderful inventions of new fruits and flowers. To Prevent Marriages of Defectives. Whether two deaf mutes should marry, whether two blind persons, or two persons otherwise deprived of their senses or fac ulties. should be allowed to beget chil dren are some of the Interesting ques tions to be reported on by the committee on rugenics. The members who will give special attention to this phase of the Investigation is Prof. Alexander Graham Bell, the Inventor of the telephone, who has been making a study of the problem, especially as it relates to deaf mutes. If Prof. Bell will demonstrate to the associa tion that Intermarriage of such defectives causes handing down of their deficiencies to their progeny the association will prob ?m.j uiqv vii- |Msaa^r Ut 1<1W9 pruIUUtllllg such marriages. The effects of immigration will l>e con sidered especially by Major Charles K. Woodruff, surgeon. U. 8. A.. another member of the eugenics committee. After years of study of this problem I>r. Wood ruff has lately come to (tome interesting conclusions. He says that blond immi grants and their descendants cannot thrive In this country, save In the cloudy regions of the extreme northwestern corner, and that Kuropeans generally who have lived at home among simple and secluded environ ments also degenerate after taking up their lot with us. Nervous disorders are frequent nmong them, and although with their nervous irritability great talent and genius develop, their physiques soon be come poor and their brilliant careers soon end with such diseases of degeneration as consumption and cancer. uausc ui itcivuus uegcutiuuuu. "It seems that extinction is Inevitable In time, and that our hordes of Immi grants are not to be assimilated, but slaughtered off. except those physically fitted for our climate," says Dr. Woodruff. "There Is now a great deal of thought oeing expenaeu un mr niurKeu increase or nervous diseases in America, the main dis order being neurasthenia. Every now and then we learn of some great man collaps ing of nervous breakdown before forty five under loads which Europeans seem to bear safely until sixty or sixty-five. Suicides, which are nearly always due to mental or n?rvou? Diseases, are Increas ing in the I'nlted States." Dr. Woodruff attributes this nervous degeneration to the unsuitabtlity of our climate to a large class of our immigrants from Europe. At * recent meeting of the American Pedlatic Association, he says, the American girl of the middle class was pronounced "a bundle of nerves lnca?e?i In a fragile frame?the artificial product of an ad vanced civilization" ? unable to stand much schooling. one In twenty giving up school work on account of ill-health. These conditions, he adds, are not found in Europe, but they are In Australia and New Zealand, whose white populations, like ours, are made up of European im migrants. and whose latitude is. like ours, unsulted. He finds four-fifths of the neu rasthenia patients in Vanderbllt clinic and two-thirds of the insane in New York to be Immigrants or their children. Outside of New York a half of our insane are of foreign-born parents and of the others .'JO per cent are foreign born themselves. He a> 9 luav umii J ihiiiiiki aius I'nuo licit" because they are defective and failures at home. Especially the Armenians. Slavs. Greeks, Huns. Servians and Bulgarians thrive best here, because they rtnd the same environments which they have at borne. The blond Immigrants axe too far ttouth even In Boston, and tend to de teriorate. Race With Germ-Proof Lungs. When the blond types from northern Europe die out here as they did in Italy, Dr. Woodruff predicta that our civilisation will degenerate Into the condition of I 1ffucii u icii ill vu ine iiauuo ui iunct types. Tie points out that it Is estimated that 10.000.000 people now living In the United States are doomed to die of eon sumption. but adds that it will not take many centuries of such destruction to evolve a surviving fittest race not sus ceptible to the white plague. This evolu tion has occurred among the Jews, whose blood has thus developed a germ-killing power, destroying the bacilli of disease breathed into their lungs. Sociological aspects of the problem will be considered especially by Prof. Charles R. Henderson of the University of Chi- I j cago, and biological aspccts bv Prof. David Starr Jordan, president of Iceland Stan ford University, who also are members of the eugenic committee. The remaining mem bers are Rev. J. E. Gilbert, a Methodist minister and temperance advocate of Wash ington. D. C., and C. W. Ward of New York. Besides those mentioned, the duties of the eugenic committee will be "to de vise methods of recording the values of the blood of individuals, families, peoples and races; to emphasize the value of su perior blocd and the menace to society of Inferior blood." Man-Breeding Experiments. Several Interesting experiments In man-breeding by selection have beon at tempted In recent times. Two. in fact, are now being carried on. Probably ihe first systematic experiment was thut com menced ;n 1S4S by John Humphrey ."Jjyes, at Oneida. N Y. Geo. Bernard snavv, who devoted some space *o it In his "Man and Superman." refers to it as "one >%t loose chance attempts at the superman which occur from time to time in spite r.; the interference of man's blundering restitu tions." Noyes for the first time in the history of the human race made a deliberate at tempt to apply to an entire community of men an! women the rules that govern scientific stock breeding. He was born in southeri. Vermont-In 1811, wa* ex pelled from the 'Congregationa.1 ministry for heterodoxy, and later organized a sect called "lerfectionists," seeking 'salva tion from sin. disease and death." I'*or this sect he devised what has been aptly called 'a system of regulated promiscuity Ul Iirarriii($C. lie nna IUI ^ Vermont ir 1S-I0 and bought land .iear Oneida. N. Y., where, two years later. he founded tht "Oneida Community." His methods for producing oUj/crman were, as suggested, based on sttK.K-rais ing experiments, and he subjected the people of his community ?o selected n and-ln breeding with occasional mingling of foreign blood. Members of the com munity selected as the healthiest and holiest were chosen to beget children. The intellects of the parents were only partially considered, and the selected fa ther was always older than the ^looted mother. The women wore long trousers and. over these, short skirts. All ilicm bcrs lived together in the large "unity house" shown In the accompany ing photograph. It was Noyes' aim that each generation should surpass '.he pre ceding one. morally and physically. No member could be married to another, and love between couples was frowned upon as Hellish. Each must love the tntire community. Community of property vas practiced, and everything in the settle ment belonged to every member alike. Sixty Saperchildren. Sixty superchildren were born ot this experiment between the years 18ti9 and 1879. Fifty-Ave survived and were brought up with the greatest care. Infanta were cared for exclusively by their mothers until nine months old. and thence irtil tl.fy were eighteen months old they re ceived the maternal care only at night From then on the Individual responsibil ity of the mothers ceased and tne little one: were placed in charge of competent ruises In the "children's department," apart from the large community builu'ng. Nine years after the experiment co-n rr enced these children were repoi tu?I by Lr. T. R. Noyes. son of the founder, to have a death rate less than one-lhlid ti.at of the I'nited States at largo and to 1 > taller and heavier than Boston chil li* en. 11 is an Interesting fact that thi3 r.->m n.unity system of "complex marriages" l.au to be abandoned because th-j spirit of monogamy some time before the ?nd of ten years had Infected all of the mem bers, who were found to be drifting into pairs. Noyes, foreseeing failure oa tnis account, gave notice to members, in 1879, suggesting that in deference to public sentiment complex marriage be renounced and ordinary marriage or celibacy be substituted. Only three members ?otecl against this proposition. Twenty-hve couples who had been married when ifcey entered the community immediately re sumed life together and twenty other - ouples married within four months. At this time there were U99 members. In cluding eighty-three children under twelve years. Community of goads was a'mndoued. and the property was trans ferred to a Joint stock company, which row thrives with certain co-voeraiive features. The Oneid* Children Today. The present statifs of the carefully select ed new race born at Oneida is this: The oldest are thirty-seven. The men axe tall, several over six feet ? "broad-shouldered and finely proportioned," according to a physician not connected with the commu nity, who has kept track of them. The girls are robust and well built. In spite of the fact that the parents were generally of the laboring class, one of the boys Is a mu alcian of repute, -another a physician, an other a lawyer who won several scholar ships, and others have been graduated .rom colleges. Only one became a mechanic. Of the girls, two are college graduates, and one Is a kindergarten teacher. Speaking of these children when I questioned him lately concerning them, Wm. A. Hinds, the presi dent of the Oneida Communlt;-, limited, said: "There are among them some line 'ex amples of both physical and Intellectual vigor, and a considerable number of .uem have for several years tilled positions of v. ? Breeding Establishment for (Hants. The next systematic attempt at man breeding by selection was commenced In France five years ago. The eccentric Count Alfred St. Ouen de "Plerrecourt of Rouen In*, that year bequeathed to that city his for tune of 10,(100.400 francs on the novel con dition that the city annually make a mar riage gift of 100.000 francs to a couple of giants, in order to regenerate the human species. The candidates were to be medi cally examined and the healthiest couple chosen. The natural heirs of the count be gan litigation, which resulted in an agree ment that the city should spend 80),000 francs in founding an institute for the pro pagation of giants, should keep 3,000,000 francs in reserve for expenses, and should give me t>aiance 01 tne iortune to tne legit lmate heirs. It was arranged to maintain a score or more of giant couples, to estab lish workshops for them, and to so arrange that scientists might-observe and study the resulting progeny. Present Experiment in Russia. M. Raschatnikow. a wealthy landowner of Perm, northern Russia, has for several /IOfflHPC hp<>n narrvinff r?n a coriaa nf intor. esting experiments aimed at the propaga tion of a fairer ra<je of men. From among his many laborers he selects a number hav ing the most perfect beauty and physiques. He selects the.n in pairs for marriage, choosing oniy those promising the most perfect offspring. He has gradually formed a colony of the "selected specimens, and has undertaken a veritable stockfarm for the improvement of the human species. He has already united in marriage forty selected couples, and these have produced up to date 100 children described as having really extraordinary beauty. One recent marriage is the first from the ideally propagated generation, and from this will now commence the third genera tion of supermen. I recently saw an ac count of the wedding in a German scientific review, which stated that the bridegroom is a peasant?"an actual Antinous in youthful beauty." "The bride,"' the account went on to state, "is a cnarming maiden ot eighteen. The pair was driven to church in the land owner's own carriage, and received from him a dower consisting of a handsome house and a rich farm. The landowner also paid for the wedding feast, and himself proposed a toast for a third generation of his proteges." The American Breeders' Association's committee on eugenics, now to pry Into all of these fascinating problem*!, might con sider these further words of our friend Bernard Shaw, extracted from his "Man and Superman:" "That may mean that wc nrtist establish a state department of evolution, with a seat in the cabinet for its chief and a revenue to dt-fray the cost of direct state experi ments. and provide inducements to private persons to achieve success.jl results. It may mean a private society or a chartered company for the Improvement of human live stock." JOHN KLFRETH WATKINS. ART NOTES. The hemlcycle of the Corcoran Gallery of Art has been filled this week with an admirable little exhibition of student work. There were landscapes, still-life studies, portraits and decorative work in variety. 0iaiiuui6 ac an cai nc.iv vi mc muuju y UI the pupils of the Corcoran School. It was summer work, done during vacation hours, without guidance or criticism, and was for this reason the more significant. Only when a student Is left to his own devices will he discover his own strength or weak ness; only when he goes to nature alone will it be found whether or not his in struction has profited him. Of course no school produces all geniuses, the feeble and the strong must go hand in hand, and there will always be the proverbial few of the latter, so It Is the general average alone which must be taken Into consideration, and that in this case was unusually high. The work, taken aa a whole, displayed more than ordinary promise. There were some landscape sketches which possessed real spoiltanlety and indicated both freshness and originality In vision, some still-life painting, which was strong and sincere, and some decorative work, both simple and effective. No doubt timidity was manifested, struc tural weakness, technical stumbling, but the purpose of a school is to teach, and there was evidence here of right striving and of correct ideals. There was real pleasure to be found in the exhibition and good reason to congratulate both the In structors and students of the school. * ? . On Monday afternoon. In the lower heml cycle. Mr. E. C. Messer gave the first of this season'* "art talks" before the stu dents of the Corcoran Schcol and their friends. The subject was "Veracity in Art," and the lecturer amplified It in a new and thoroughly interesting manner. He interpreted veracity to mean more than truth and sincerity. Shewing Htrw every painter must make his own Interpretation, he pointed out the Impossibility of any one manifesting the whole truth. He urged not only care but affection in transcription. The work, he said, that was lovingly rendered was the one which made direct appeal. Gorot's pictures are not always true to nature, he declared, nor are Rousseau's, but they are true to the vision of their painters and were produced for the sheer love of the doing. Other examples were given; other thoughts thrown out; and, In conclusion. -Mr. Messer reminded his h?ar era that only those who had a message really entered the gates of art?that the longing to Impart a true Joy alone opened the way to worthy erpressllli. * * * Mr. James Henry Moser, the president of the Washington Water Color Club, and the director of the water-color class at the Cor coran School, returned last week -on Warren, Pa., where he spent the autumn, ana nas openea a siuaio in me i_? jjtou building. The country around Warren la very picturesque, and Mr. Moser made quite a number of Interesting paintings while In that vicinity. One shows a wood* land glade through which a tiny stream la trickling. The trees are partly bared by the autumn frosts and the foliage which remains Is seared and tinted. It Is appar ently a blustry day, the sky Is partly clouded, and the woods are coo* and dark. The theme la charming, and It haa baaa delightfully Interpreted. Thar* la also a morntnc on tha river, which finds Its spe cial Interest* In atmospheric quality and subtle rendering, and some cloud effects la mountain valleys which measure up to tha beat that Mr. ICoser haa yet produced. * At VenaMe*a art store there la now on ex hibition a collection of ninety photograv ures of Burne-Jones" paintings. To see such an assemblage of any one painter's work is unusual ana in tm? instance peculiarly Interesting. The late Sir Edward Burne Jones was undoubtedly an eccentric genius. Studying under D. Q. Kossettl and associ ating himself with William Morris and his co-workers he espoused the pre-Raphaellt* cause, hut retained at the same time his own individuality. was a man of power, and. what is more uncommon, imagination. He did not follow beaten paths, but found a way of his own. One may not admire all his paintings, but it is Impossible not to feel their allurement. In their chastity and simplicity they do betray kinship with the works of the painters before Raphael, and yet In their subjective significance they are truly modern. There is a decorative qual ity In them all and a plaintive note in many which must both attract and appeal. The photogravures, while open to the Impeach ment of all reproductions, are excellent, and should be commended for the fact that through them such works of art can be made familiar. * * * Color reproductions of twelve architec tural drawings by Jules Guerin are to be seen at VeerhofTs at present. Five of them are of Washington buildings?the Capitol, the Library of Congress, the White House, the Smithsonian and the Monument?and are, therefore, of special note. Not. be It understood, because they set for^h familiar objects, but because they interpret their beauty In a new and significant way. Thou sands of people pass these buildings every day and see them always the same, but Mr. Guerin has found in them poetic charm, and through these drawings makes it pat ent. The simplicity of his method is un usual, and yet delightful?one does not miss the omitted detail or care for a more com plete exposition. The essence of the truth is there?the picture is complete. The orig inals of these and other works by Mr. Guerin are now on exhibition in the Penn sylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and will later be shown in this city. * * Miss Jane Bartlett has removed her arts and crafts studio from H street to Connecticut avenue, and has associated with her this year Miss Josephene Wey mouth, an accomplished craftswoman. The character of the studio remains the same, Its purpose unaltered. At all times an exhibition will be found there of arts and crafts objects furnished by the leading; workers and approved by the Boston so ciety. There are, and will continue to be on view hand-wrought silver and decorated porcelain, po-tteries, wood carvings, leather ana meiai worK?ana irom time 10 ume there will be special exhibits. The arts and crafts movement stands for th? In dividual versus the machine?for good taste in every-day life?and it has proved, and is proving, a strong force for good in our land. * * The National Society of the Fine Arts will hold its first 'meeting for the .present season Thursday evening. November 15, at 9 o'clock, in Hubbard Memorial Hall. At that time Mr. Royal tortlssoz, the art critic of the New York Tribune, will deliver an address, illustrated by stereoptlcon views, on Velasquez. This society, which was or ganized for the purpose of aiding the de velopment of the fine arts and spreading the knowledge of art among not only its members, but the general public, will enter upon its second year with a membership increased to over 300 $md a larger oppor tunity for usefulness. Its committees have done good work, its officers are not only In earnest, but enthusiastic, and its mem bers are interested and in sympathy with fts alms and projects. It has. ' it would seem, an assured future?and a wide field of beneficence. * * - * Friday afternoon. November 10, Mrs. Wil liam H. Holmes -will Rive the first of a serie3 of twelve talks upon the house, its furniture and decoration, at the Maderia School. Mrs. Holmea is the wife of the chief of the bureau of ethnology, who is also an artist of distinction, and she has for many years made a special study of this subject. Her talks, which will be given ?? alternate Fridays during the win ter, are to be illustrated by lantern slides made especially for these lec:ures. Tickets for the course will be at a nominal price, but the obiect of the course is purely edu cational. The hope is to interest young housekeepers in the artistic possibilities of the home?to give in the pleasantest guise instruction and engender aspiration. The ursi lain win ucdi wiui inc cvuiu^uu ui the house and later ones will take up its furnishing and decoration, both ancient and modern. It is a course somewhat similar to this which Is being given In New York this winter under the auspices of the Young Men's Christian Association. It is without doubt timely. * * Uttrh Intprpst is hplnc tnL an in thp ra. ported offer of Mr. John G. Johnson of Philadelphia to present to that city hla valuable art collection, provided the mu nicipality will erect a building, suitable for its reception in Fairmount Park. If this is done there is, furthermore, the probabil ity that the Elkins and Widener collections will be added, both of which are likewise well chosen and of great value. Such a gallery of art as this would enrich not only Philadelphia, but the nation, and would be of the utmost benefit to the art students of America. The number of paintings in these collections is estimated at 2.50J. and their value has been placed at more than four and a half million dollars. Assuredly these are princely gifts. * * * Miss Alice Foster, who. with Miss Helen Nicolay, has been traveling abroad for the past five months, has returned to this city and will soon reopen her studio in the Evans building. Miss Foster made some n'lit.nf.dftnr Rlr?tr>h(?c vhilp in F!iirr*rw? and spent six weeks studying In the Jullen school. She tells most interestingly of the extreme methods of the modern French school as set forth in the current autumn salon at Paris. * _ * Mr. H. Hobart Nichols and his family have also recently returned from abroad, where they have spent -almost two years. An exhibition of Mr. Nichols" work will be held at Veerholt's before spring, but he will occupy a studio in New York tbla winter. * ? ? Mr. Walter Shirlaw, the distinguished American painter. Is spending a few weeks In this city. Mr. Shirlaw is a Scotchman by birth, but he came to this country when a young man and for many years has been associated with the leading art movements. He was one of the founders of the Society, of American Artists, and for the first two terms Its president. Frcm the centennial Chicago, Buffalo and St. Louts expositions he received medals, and his works are to be found In some of the best public and private collections. * * The recent sale of several valuable col lections In Berlin, and the fear that many more notable .works of art are shortly to find their way to America, has so alarmed the German authorities that, under the patronage of the kaiser pnd the direction of -Herr Bode, an alliance la to be formed to prevent the exportation of valuable paintings. It is interesting) io note that while Europe Is endeavoring to keep Amer tea from getting her works of art we are taxing their importation. LEILA MECHLIN. The Higli Dive Care. From the St. Panl Ptspatch. ' In Revere, Minn., they take drunkard* and give them what Is locally called the "high dive cure," by docking them la a large tank of water situated In a conven ient location In town. A couple of dips Is all that has been required In any case yet, and one chronic offender from- Walnut Grove Who was immersed one evening baa never shown up In Revere sine*. B RITIS HJORTHWEST Canada Coming to Be Uncle Sam's Competitor. TALK WITH WILLIAM WHYTE Opening of the Great Wheat Belt and Its Future. THfi si BEBIAJ QHAXN FIELDS Educational Movement to Show Farm era How to Make the Moat of Their Lands. (Copyright, 1906, by Frank O. Carpenter.) NEW YORK, 1906. i recently naa a ?.. ik wrcn one or the Dig gest men of the British Northwest. This Is Mr. William Whyte. ithe second vice president of the Canadian Pacific railway, and manager of its many enterprises be tween Lake Superior and the Pacific ocean. The Canadian Pacific is a developing com pany as well as a transportation company. It not only has the longest continuous line of roads under one management on this continent, hut it owns millions of acres of lands, great tracts of timber and valuable mines, which tt operates Itself. It has un der way by far the largest irrigation proj ect in North America, and, in addition, has steamship lines on the Pacific which con nect it with Japan, China, Alaska and Australia and the South seas, and steam ships on the Atlantic which connect tt with England. The company operates Its own sleeping cars and a line of hotels. It is now building here in Winnipeg one of the biggest hotels in Canada at a cost of some thing like a million dollars, and it has great summer hotels in the Rockl* and at the larger cities along Its line. It has the chi?f telegraph company of Canada,, and it operates its own express service. The Canadian Pacific vug (Ka flr?t roll road to open up this northwest, and Its position to a. certain extent is a paternal one. It gives special rates of transporta tion for fine srtock In order to help (he farmer, and not long ago when the lum ber lords were overcharging the settlers z Ui >"? W - - -WW*#;'? -_-: ? w.mnww r ? -n? aw??lom Mew Qeneml Officer Of ' The (kNApwi^TO Ax Wtnnipe^ for building materials this company brought them to time by threatening to start sawmills of Its own. It threatened to open coal mines when the coal dealers charged exorbitant rates, and tt now pro poses to send out education cars to teach the farmers grain raising# The head of all these movements Is Mr. William Whyte, and he has been at their head for years. He has gone over the most of this great northwest on horseback and l? ? Avamtninir tV-o anil anH ctiifivinv Ill VT aguiio, CAOtlliinot, V<1? MW?. ? V. the resources with a view to Increasing the traffic of his railroad system. It is he who has been largely instrumental in push ing- out branch lines into the wheat belt, and as the head of the land grants which originally comprised as much land as the whcle state of Ohio, he has laid out many of the towns and aided in populating the country. As I talked with Mr. Whyte we looked over some maps of the New Canada and discussed its relations to the lands across the Pacific. Mr. Whyte has been several times to Japan and China, end he has traveled over Manchuria and Siberia ex amining into these countries as possible traffic producers. My first question was as IU IliC CllCV-V Ul HIC uaputiccirjiiuaeiuii Tfut upon the trade of th^. Orient. The Future of Japan. Said Mr. Whyte: "I think that the war will greatly benefit the Japanese. Those people will exploit Manchuria and Korea, and they will then turn their attention to China. The Japanese already have many investments In China. They do a large part of the carrying trade for the celestial em pire. and they have lines ofstcamboatsonthe Japanese rivers. They are good organisers, and they realize that their future is to be industrial and commercial. They are tak ing the best elements of our civilisation and making them their own. We are already trading largely with Japan, and I expect to see a steady Increase in that trade. The Japanese are largely rice eatery, but we are now sending them wheat, and they will in time be wheat eaters and meat eaters. J It is this feature of their development j which interests us, for we expect to sup ply a large part of those products." "How ibout the tourist travel .0 Japan? Is it Increasing?" "Yes. we are having a heavy passenger ' traffic between Vancouver and Yokohama. w e nave a snorter iuuio loilu any ul me steamers from the United States, as we : are higher up on the globe than you are. | We are making a specialty of our passen ger service, and we expect to put on faster steamers and better steamers even than those we now have. We shall carry some freight, but ours will be more of an ex press than a heavy-freight business. Our freight at present consists largely of silks. The Azores. From the London Chronicle. Misfortune rumored some time ago to have fallen upon the A sores in the form of a tidal wave and the disappearance of sev eral of the islands, visited the western group in 1981. when for twelve days in sue cession the islands were shaken by earth quake and the Villa Franca destroyed. Stories are told of volcanic disturbances In the neighboring sea and of Islands flung from the primal ooze. An English captain ii> 1T20, approaching the A sores, says: "We made an island of Ore?-and smoke; the ashes fell on our deck like hall and snow, the Are and smoke roared like thunder or. great guns." The hot springs throughout the Islands are no doubt the milder mani festations of tfee Area that war* seen In curio* and tea rather than of the heavier article*." "Ia Canada sending much wheat to Japan?" I asked. Wot aa yet. We are having some ship ments from the province of Albert a. which Ilea just east of the Rockies. That province la beginning to ralae winter wheat. It pro duced something like Two million bushels this year, and Its possibilities are very great. The wheat Is the turkey-red variety wnicil t uuirB iiuui a*iru irii[M11 iru irom IViin sas. It la superior to the Kansas wheat and will make more pounds of bread to the bar rel. With the growth of this product we shall probably have a large shipment to Japan, not only on account of the quality, hut- be cause of the low freight rate which we ran make from there to the Pacific and to the orient." The Siberian Wheat. Fields. "Do you expect much competition from Siberia tn your wheat raising?" I asked. "Tea." replied the vice president- "Si beria. outside of Canada. Is about the only country which promises to form a new ele ment in the wheat markets of the world. For a few years before the war Siberia was producing about 30.000,000 bushels of wheat- That was its average during the years between 18?8 and 1002. In 100.1 the crop amounted to 60,000.000 bushels, and it will probably exceed that, now that the war Is closed. There is a vast tract of land adapted to wheat raising between the lT? euri and Araoor rivers extending from the Pacific westward. That region Is being settled by Russians. They come ncross from Kurope on the Trans-Siberian railroad or by sea from Odessa on emigrant steam efs subsidized by the government. That region can produce millions of bushels of wheat. It will probably furnish a large part of the supply of Japan and China. There are also wheat lands in Manchuria anil x??t ?uvt vov m uiuci to. juurru, u ia nam to estimate Just what northern Asia will do In the wheat markets of the future." Uncle Sam and Canada as Wheat Farmers. The conversation here turned to Canada as our chief competitor In the foreign mar kets. Mr. Whyte said: "Your people do not appreciate our possi bilities. Your wheat lands are well defined. You had something like 48.000,000 acres un der crop last year, and your average was about thirteen bushels per acre. Canada has 250,000.000 acres upon which wheat can be grown. It has five times as much t? 3 I- ? '? J *? ?? micai taiiu (u la nun cuilivairu in IMP United States, and even If you deduct 100. 000,000 acres on the account of swamp, mos keg and other bad lands, we have three times as much good wheat land, left as you have. As to our acreage crop. It is twenty bushels and upward per acre. In stead of thirteen. When our land Is all under cultivation we shall be able to supply the greater part of the European demand and aid in feeding you." "Who are to be your chief competitors in the wheat market of the future?" "The United States will compete for a time," said Mr. Whyte. -but your popula tion Is growing so rapidly that it will eventually consume aH you raise and will probably have to call upon ys. Among other competitors Russia and Siberia will probably lead, but Russia is still very poor ly farmed. Argentina will always be a competitor and India and Australia like wise." New Railroads for Canada. "Can Canada handle her big wheat crops when they come?" "I think so," replied the railroad flee president. "The march of railroad build ing Is rapid In this part of the world. The wheat belt is being opened up by trunk lines and branch roads will be constructed to meet the demands of the farmer. We expect to build a great deal of new track this year, and we shall double our tracks wherever needed. We have been sending 500 grain cars a day from Winnipeg to Lake Superior, and by this time next year we shall have a double track between those two points. There are other rail roads being constructed in addition to ours. The Canadian Northern Is building a line through the wheat belt above us, and the Grand Trunk Pacific will have its route through the same region. Our explorers have surveyed that country to ascertain where the most fertile of the wheat lands ai tr, auu wr suoit lKivr uui unu 1i uciva, nnu branch lines. Railroad building in the wheat belt will go steadily on, keeping as far as possible in advance of the settle ments. Such construction is not a matter of experiment. We know that we shall have the settlers just as soon as the lines arc built. Indeed, they begin to buy be fore the tracks ?xe laid, and we are finding that our branch roads pay from the very start. The farmers know that they will get the roads and they are going ahead and taking out their homesteads on faith." The Government and the Railways. "I see. Mr. Whyte. that both the Domin ion and the provincial governments of Canada are going Into railroad building. Ontario is pushing a line northward to ward Hudson's Bay, and the Grand Trunk Pacific, from Winnipeg to the Atlantic, is to be built by the federal government. Will It pay the governments to own and operate their own railways?" "I think not," was the reply. "Railroad ing is a profession, and Uptakes trained men to manage the business successfully. Politicians cannot make good railroad I operators. They are dependent upon the people for their election and continuance tn office, and they must take their con stituents into consideration in making rail road appointments. Bad men may, there fore, through political influence retain rail road positions, and good men may lose their jobs. Indeed, I do not see how a railroad can be successfully handled by our 1811 rising from the sea near St. Michael, accompanied by smoke and ashes. The Asores were once on the verge of becoming a power in the world. Discovered, or rather rediscovered, toward the middle of the fifteenth- century, by Vander Berg, a Flemish merchant, stranded by accident on one of the islands Lisbon fitted out an expedition and took possession of them. Under the rule of Pombal. a wise Portu I Kuese minister, the Asoreans "were taught that they might become a people, and Por tugal that ahe might ceaae to be a despot." But that happy time did not last long. The islanders were forbidden to trade, except with Portugal and the western isles grad ually sank Into sullen sloth under the rule of "bigoted ecclesiastics." There came a time, however, when the Aaorean wine aad orange* aad the magnificent wood were > allowed to pass freely to England and fovernment with our preaent political ma* ehinery. It will not pay." Line* to Hudson's Bay. "What do you think of the plan of mak ing the future wheat route to Europe via Hudson's bay?" "That matter la yet to be settled. We do not know how far the bay or the ? Units which lead Into It can be navigated. Hud son's bay is said to be free from !ie. but It Is uncertain how Ion* the straits can be kept open. If a dear channel can be maintained there for a Rood part ot (he year mucn or the wheat may no t.? Ku rope that way. The haul from the Sas katchewan val!^- to Hudson's bay would be much shorter than to Uake Sup. rlor; and Hudson's bay is much nearer I.ivr pool. If the straits are to be ope.i for only a short time the (Train would nare to be stored until the year follow in* it* hat vest, and that means elevator cna><(es and heavy Insurance. Indeed, there .ire nu-ny questions entering Into the ,>rob lem. We ought to know exactly wnat we can expect as to the navigation of 'he straits before building roads or protect ing them." . Americans in Canada. "Is the Canadian Pacific railroad luiiijf lnjs In many Americans?" I asked. "Yes. we are gettinst your people from all parts of the I'nited States. They are settling everywhere throughout th* wheat belt. They are the most desirable immigrants that pome to Canada. i'iiey understand our conditions and make more headway than any other class. Many of them are well to do. and they are bring ing stock and money with them. i'iiey buy lands and go right to work, often putting in a crop the first year." "What sisse farms do thev nurcna.-eI I asked. "The most of them begin with .wtiona or hnlf sections. A farmer oiiRht to h.ive about 320 acres to operate succsssiully. He should let his land rest at loa.it > no year out of three, and this gives him about 200 acres to put in wheat o.- other crops. So far we have but little l>o.; t.iza farming In the northwest. Several \?nor lcan companies have bought large liaits, a few having purchased millions of at res. Such land companies buy to colonize and f.ell again. The moat of them have dis posed of their lands. "In addition to the land purchasers," continued Mr. Whyte. "we have the l.iime steaders. The government Is still giving 160 acres of land to actual settlers. Many Quarter sections adjoining." Poor Canadian Farming. "What kind of farmers have you here In Canada?" "We havo all kinds?some wise and some otherwise. At present much of the land Is poorly cultivated. RlgHT here about Winnipeg are farms which <1o not I yield more than twelve bushels if ? heat to the acre. They are so tilled with need* that the wheat grown is almost worth less. Our country roads are twice -is wide as they should be. and the waste ianda William: "Whyte. e Of The. ltaafT Mem Ira IfogijK rToiqK-'Vfefr along their sides are nurseries for weeds and trash. Some of our furmers are not careful in their seed selection; they will sell their best wheat and save the poor est to sow for the next crop. Indocd, I have known men who have shipped tnelr good wheat and kept that which naj been frosted for seed." Teaching the Farmers. "We have much to learn a-bout farming." continued Mr. Whyte. "and we are making new discoveries every day. The latest 1? that to which I have alreidy referred as to the winter wheat for the dry lands. We had no idea that we could produce grain In tho seml-arld beM. One of the settlers tried ?l auu out i i7?-uvrti. x iiv11 nie v. auauid 11 rn" clfic railway brought two car loads of turkey red seed to Alberta and gave thfin to the farmers at cost. This was planted and it was largely from that seed that we got the 2,000,000 bushel crop last year. Wo are doing all we can to improve the farm ing conditions; for the gre iter the crops tlio greater our traffic. We have now what I might call education cars, which we have equipped with different kinds of seed wheat. We expect to send them from station to station and have lecturers who will explain the different seeds and show the farmers how to make the most out of their lands. I understand a similar educational movement !ius been going on in the L'plted States." Mixed Farming in Canada. "Tell me something about the Canadian west, Mr. Whyte. Is it dependent entirely upon wheat for its success 'r' ay no means, repi.ea me ranruaa vice president. "A large part of Alberta and Saskatchewan Is adapted to mixed farming. There is a great dairy country right near Kdmonton which is now producing butter for British Columbia and the western mar kets. That region Is adapted to mixed farming, and a great many of your Penn sylvania and Ohio people are settled there. They have big barns, just as In the United States. The land there produces the finest oits. I know farmers who grow from MJ to 100 bushelj per acre and the oats will weight forty pounds to the bushel. It grows timothy as tall as a man and also barley and other grains. It Is not Go cold near the Rockies as farther east, and In many re spects It Is more desirable for settlement than the wheat belt proper. "British Columbia promises to develop somewhat like your states of Washington and Oregon. It bas many small valleys which can be Irrigated and which will pro duce the finest of apples, pears, peaches and prunes. That country is Just opening up and we expect It to have 41 great In crease In population In the near future." FRANK O. CARPENTER. America. Since then the Asora* hare been re-created. The King Angry. Prom tbe London Troth. xji? m?Wv la aiid tn hav? Wn ffrniHw annoyed by the numerous and flagrant blunder* In the heraldy which is displayed on the roof of the new chapel of the Knights of the Order of St. Mlchacl and St. George in St. Paul's Cathedral. There are mistakes of the moat flaring character In the representation of the arms of the king, the Prince of Wales and the late Duke of Cambridge. It would be Interest ing to learn who Is responsible for the miserable muddling which has taken place, for It Is understood that the officials of the Heralds' College were not consulted in the affair.