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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, November 10, 1906, Image 13

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QUEST OF SUPERMAN
Pnmmittoo nn Pnnoninc Pnn.
wvi i i ii i iuu vii buvjuiiivg wuii
sisting of Six Scientists.
IMPROVING THE HEREDITY
To Urge the Passage of Laws Prohibit
ing Certain Marriages.
DOOMED TO EXTERMINATION
Establishments for Oiants and Rus
sian Experiments to Produce a
Fairer Race.
(Copyright, 1906. by John F.lfreth Watklni.)
"To suggcs* methods of improving the
heredity of the family, the people or ti.e
race" a committee of six scientists?all stu
dents of human heredity?has Just been ap
pointed by Prof. W. M. Hays, assistant
secretary of agriculture, on behalf of the
American Breeders' Association, of which
he Is the founder and secretnrv. Thi? *??:
sociaticn. J 000 members strong. Is to en
large its scope and include the study of
the breeding of human beings as well as of
animal and plant species.
"The committee on eugenics' Is the desig
nation of the six scientists appointed. They
will rt their theories as to the Im
provement of the human race at the next
tnwlng of the association at Columbus,
Ohio, January 15-18 next. Eugenics, ac
cording to the Century Dictionary, is "the
science of generative or nrni?r?ativ?
opment; rh?- doctrine of progress or evolu
tloD, especially in the human race, through
Improved conditions in the relations of the
eies." After the committee has reported
the Breeders' Association will authorize a |
aerie* of practical investigations, but will
not suggest methods for the breeding of
men for experiment. Prof. Hays, who con
ceived this interesting scheme for system
atic research, has been a scientific breeder
of animals and plants. When appointed as
sistant secretary of agriculture last year
he was in charge of the Minnesota agricul
tural experiment station, where he bred
many new and valuable species of nlant I
life. One of the foremost members of the
Breeders' Association whirl) he originated
w I^uther Hurbank. the wizard of Santa
Rosa, who has lately kept the world agog
by his wonderful inventions of new fruits
and flowers.
To Prevent Marriages of Defectives.
Whether two deaf mutes should marry,
whether two blind persons, or two persons
otherwise deprived of their senses or fac
ulties. should be allowed to beget chil
dren are some of the Interesting ques
tions to be reported on by the committee
on rugenics. The members who will give
special attention to this phase of the
Investigation is Prof. Alexander Graham
Bell, the Inventor of the telephone, who
has been making a study of the problem,
especially as it relates to deaf mutes. If
Prof. Bell will demonstrate to the associa
tion that Intermarriage of such defectives
causes handing down of their deficiencies
to their progeny the association will prob
?m.j uiqv vii- |Msaa^r Ut 1<1W9 pruIUUtllllg
such marriages.
The effects of immigration will l>e con
sidered especially by Major Charles K.
Woodruff, surgeon. U. 8. A.. another
member of the eugenics committee. After
years of study of this problem I>r. Wood
ruff has lately come to (tome interesting
conclusions. He says that blond immi
grants and their descendants cannot thrive
In this country, save In the cloudy regions
of the extreme northwestern corner, and that
Kuropeans generally who have lived at
home among simple and secluded environ
ments also degenerate after taking up
their lot with us. Nervous disorders are
frequent nmong them, and although with
their nervous irritability great talent and
genius develop, their physiques soon be
come poor and their brilliant careers soon
end with such diseases of degeneration as
consumption and cancer.
uausc ui itcivuus uegcutiuuuu.
"It seems that extinction is Inevitable
In time, and that our hordes of Immi
grants are not to be assimilated, but
slaughtered off. except those physically
fitted for our climate," says Dr. Woodruff.
"There Is now a great deal of thought
oeing expenaeu un mr niurKeu increase or
nervous diseases in America, the main dis
order being neurasthenia. Every now and
then we learn of some great man collaps
ing of nervous breakdown before forty
five under loads which Europeans seem
to bear safely until sixty or sixty-five.
Suicides, which are nearly always due to
mental or n?rvou? Diseases, are Increas
ing in the I'nlted States." Dr. Woodruff
attributes this nervous degeneration to the
unsuitabtlity of our climate to a large
class of our immigrants from Europe. At
* recent meeting of the American Pedlatic
Association, he says, the American girl
of the middle class was pronounced "a
bundle of nerves lnca?e?i In a fragile
frame?the artificial product of an ad
vanced civilization" ? unable to stand
much schooling. one In twenty giving up
school work on account of ill-health.
These conditions, he adds, are not found
in Europe, but they are In Australia and
New Zealand, whose white populations,
like ours, are made up of European im
migrants. and whose latitude is. like ours,
unsulted. He finds four-fifths of the neu
rasthenia patients in Vanderbllt clinic and
two-thirds of the insane in New York to
be Immigrants or their children. Outside
of New York a half of our insane are of
foreign-born parents and of the others .'JO
per cent are foreign born themselves. He
a> 9 luav umii J ihiiiiiki aius I'nuo licit"
because they are defective and failures at
home. Especially the Armenians. Slavs.
Greeks, Huns. Servians and Bulgarians
thrive best here, because they rtnd the
same environments which they have at
borne. The blond Immigrants axe too far
ttouth even In Boston, and tend to de
teriorate.
Race With Germ-Proof Lungs.
When the blond types from northern
Europe die out here as they did in Italy,
Dr. Woodruff predicta that our civilisation
will degenerate Into the condition of
I
1ffucii u icii ill vu ine iiauuo ui iunct
types. Tie points out that it Is estimated
that 10.000.000 people now living In the
United States are doomed to die of eon
sumption. but adds that it will not take
many centuries of such destruction to
evolve a surviving fittest race not sus
ceptible to the white plague. This evolu
tion has occurred among the Jews, whose
blood has thus developed a germ-killing
power, destroying the bacilli of disease
breathed into their lungs.
Sociological aspects of the problem will
be considered especially by Prof. Charles
R. Henderson of the University of Chi- I
j cago, and biological aspccts bv Prof. David
Starr Jordan, president of Iceland Stan
ford University, who also are members of the
eugenic committee. The remaining mem
bers are Rev. J. E. Gilbert, a Methodist
minister and temperance advocate of Wash
ington. D. C., and C. W. Ward of New
York. Besides those mentioned, the duties
of the eugenic committee will be "to de
vise methods of recording the values of
the blood of individuals, families, peoples
and races; to emphasize the value of su
perior blocd and the menace to society of
Inferior blood."
Man-Breeding Experiments.
Several Interesting experiments In
man-breeding by selection have beon at
tempted In recent times. Two. in fact,
are now being carried on. Probably ihe
first systematic experiment was thut com
menced ;n 1S4S by John Humphrey ."Jjyes,
at Oneida. N Y. Geo. Bernard snavv, who
devoted some space *o it In his "Man and
Superman." refers to it as "one >%t loose
chance attempts at the superman which
occur from time to time in spite r.; the
interference of man's blundering restitu
tions."
Noyes for the first time in the history
of the human race made a deliberate at
tempt to apply to an entire community
of men an! women the rules that govern
scientific stock breeding. He was born
in southeri. Vermont-In 1811, wa* ex
pelled from the 'Congregationa.1 ministry
for heterodoxy, and later organized a sect
called "lerfectionists," seeking 'salva
tion from sin. disease and death." I'*or
this sect he devised what has been aptly
called 'a system of regulated promiscuity
Ul Iirarriii($C. lie nna IUI ^
Vermont ir 1S-I0 and bought land .iear
Oneida. N. Y., where, two years later. he
founded tht "Oneida Community."
His methods for producing oUj/crman
were, as suggested, based on sttK.K-rais
ing experiments, and he subjected the
people of his community ?o selected n
and-ln breeding with occasional mingling
of foreign blood. Members of the com
munity selected as the healthiest and
holiest were chosen to beget children.
The intellects of the parents were only
partially considered, and the selected fa
ther was always older than the ^looted
mother. The women wore long trousers
and. over these, short skirts. All ilicm
bcrs lived together in the large
"unity house" shown In the accompany
ing photograph. It was Noyes' aim that
each generation should surpass '.he pre
ceding one. morally and physically. No
member could be married to another, and
love between couples was frowned upon
as Hellish. Each must love the tntire
community. Community of property vas
practiced, and everything in the settle
ment belonged to every member alike.
Sixty Saperchildren.
Sixty superchildren were born ot this
experiment between the years 18ti9 and
1879. Fifty-Ave survived and were brought
up with the greatest care. Infanta were
cared for exclusively by their mothers
until nine months old. and thence irtil
tl.fy were eighteen months old they re
ceived the maternal care only at night
From then on the Individual responsibil
ity of the mothers ceased and tne little
one: were placed in charge of competent
ruises In the "children's department,"
apart from the large community builu'ng.
Nine years after the experiment co-n
rr enced these children were repoi tu?I by
Lr. T. R. Noyes. son of the founder, to
have a death rate less than one-lhlid
ti.at of the I'nited States at largo and to
1 > taller and heavier than Boston chil
li* en.
11 is an Interesting fact that thi3 r.->m
n.unity system of "complex marriages"
l.au to be abandoned because th-j spirit
of monogamy some time before the ?nd
of ten years had Infected all of the mem
bers, who were found to be drifting into
pairs. Noyes, foreseeing failure oa tnis
account, gave notice to members, in 1879,
suggesting that in deference to public
sentiment complex marriage be renounced
and ordinary marriage or celibacy be
substituted. Only three members ?otecl
against this proposition. Twenty-hve
couples who had been married when ifcey
entered the community immediately re
sumed life together and twenty other
- ouples married within four months. At
this time there were U99 members. In
cluding eighty-three children under
twelve years. Community of goads was
a'mndoued. and the property was trans
ferred to a Joint stock company, which
row thrives with certain co-voeraiive
features.
The Oneid* Children Today.
The present statifs of the carefully select
ed new race born at Oneida is this: The
oldest are thirty-seven. The men axe tall,
several over six feet ? "broad-shouldered
and finely proportioned," according to a
physician not connected with the commu
nity, who has kept track of them. The
girls are robust and well built. In spite of
the fact that the parents were generally of
the laboring class, one of the boys Is a mu
alcian of repute, -another a physician, an
other a lawyer who won several scholar
ships, and others have been graduated .rom
colleges. Only one became a mechanic. Of
the girls, two are college graduates, and
one Is a kindergarten teacher. Speaking of
these children when I questioned him lately
concerning them, Wm. A. Hinds, the presi
dent of the Oneida Communlt;-, limited,
said:
"There are among them some line 'ex
amples of both physical and Intellectual
vigor, and a considerable number of .uem
have for several years tilled positions of
v. ?
Breeding Establishment for (Hants.
The next systematic attempt at man
breeding by selection was commenced In
France five years ago. The eccentric Count
Alfred St. Ouen de "Plerrecourt of Rouen In*,
that year bequeathed to that city his for
tune of 10,(100.400 francs on the novel con
dition that the city annually make a mar
riage gift of 100.000 francs to a couple of
giants, in order to regenerate the human
species. The candidates were to be medi
cally examined and the healthiest couple
chosen. The natural heirs of the count be
gan litigation, which resulted in an agree
ment that the city should spend 80),000
francs in founding an institute for the pro
pagation of giants, should keep 3,000,000
francs in reserve for expenses, and should
give me t>aiance 01 tne iortune to tne legit
lmate heirs. It was arranged to maintain
a score or more of giant couples, to estab
lish workshops for them, and to so arrange
that scientists might-observe and study the
resulting progeny.
Present Experiment in Russia.
M. Raschatnikow. a wealthy landowner
of Perm, northern Russia, has for several
/IOfflHPC hp<>n narrvinff r?n a coriaa nf intor.
esting experiments aimed at the propaga
tion of a fairer ra<je of men. From among
his many laborers he selects a number hav
ing the most perfect beauty and physiques.
He selects the.n in pairs for marriage,
choosing oniy those promising the most
perfect offspring. He has gradually formed
a colony of the "selected specimens, and has
undertaken a veritable stockfarm for the
improvement of the human species. He has
already united in marriage forty selected
couples, and these have produced up to
date 100 children described as having really
extraordinary beauty.
One recent marriage is the first from the
ideally propagated generation, and from
this will now commence the third genera
tion of supermen. I recently saw an ac
count of the wedding in a German scientific
review, which stated that the bridegroom is
a peasant?"an actual Antinous in youthful
beauty."
"The bride,"' the account went on to
state, "is a cnarming maiden ot eighteen.
The pair was driven to church in the land
owner's own carriage, and received from
him a dower consisting of a handsome
house and a rich farm. The landowner also
paid for the wedding feast, and himself
proposed a toast for a third generation of
his proteges."
The American Breeders' Association's
committee on eugenics, now to pry Into all
of these fascinating problem*!, might con
sider these further words of our friend
Bernard Shaw, extracted from his "Man
and Superman:"
"That may mean that wc nrtist establish
a state department of evolution, with a seat
in the cabinet for its chief and a revenue
to dt-fray the cost of direct state experi
ments. and provide inducements to private
persons to achieve success.jl results. It
may mean a private society or a chartered
company for the Improvement of human
live stock."
JOHN KLFRETH WATKINS.
ART NOTES.
The hemlcycle of the Corcoran Gallery
of Art has been filled this week with an
admirable little exhibition of student work.
There were landscapes, still-life studies,
portraits and decorative work in variety.
0iaiiuui6 ac an cai nc.iv vi mc muuju y UI
the pupils of the Corcoran School. It was
summer work, done during vacation hours,
without guidance or criticism, and was for
this reason the more significant. Only
when a student Is left to his own devices
will he discover his own strength or weak
ness; only when he goes to nature alone
will it be found whether or not his in
struction has profited him. Of course no
school produces all geniuses, the feeble and
the strong must go hand in hand, and there
will always be the proverbial few of the
latter, so It Is the general average alone
which must be taken Into consideration,
and that in this case was unusually high.
The work, taken aa a whole, displayed more
than ordinary promise. There were some
landscape sketches which possessed real
spoiltanlety and indicated both freshness and
originality In vision, some still-life painting,
which was strong and sincere, and some
decorative work, both simple and effective.
No doubt timidity was manifested, struc
tural weakness, technical stumbling, but
the purpose of a school is to teach, and
there was evidence here of right striving
and of correct ideals. There was real
pleasure to be found in the exhibition and
good reason to congratulate both the In
structors and students of the school.
*
? .
On Monday afternoon. In the lower heml
cycle. Mr. E. C. Messer gave the first of
this season'* "art talks" before the stu
dents of the Corcoran Schcol and their
friends. The subject was "Veracity in
Art," and the lecturer amplified It in a
new and thoroughly interesting manner.
He interpreted veracity to mean more than
truth and sincerity. Shewing Htrw every
painter must make his own Interpretation,
he pointed out the Impossibility of any one
manifesting the whole truth. He urged not
only care but affection in transcription. The
work, he said, that was lovingly rendered
was the one which made direct appeal.
Gorot's pictures are not always true to
nature, he declared, nor are Rousseau's,
but they are true to the vision of their
painters and were produced for the sheer
love of the doing. Other examples were
given; other thoughts thrown out; and, In
conclusion. -Mr. Messer reminded his h?ar
era that only those who had a message
really entered the gates of art?that the
longing to Impart a true Joy alone opened
the way to worthy erpressllli.
*
* *
Mr. James Henry Moser, the president of
the Washington Water Color Club, and the
director of the water-color class at the Cor
coran School, returned last week -on
Warren, Pa., where he spent the autumn,
ana nas openea a siuaio in me i_? jjtou
building. The country around Warren la
very picturesque, and Mr. Moser made
quite a number of Interesting paintings
while In that vicinity. One shows a wood*
land glade through which a tiny stream la
trickling. The trees are partly bared by
the autumn frosts and the foliage which
remains Is seared and tinted. It Is appar
ently a blustry day, the sky Is partly
clouded, and the woods are coo* and dark.
The theme la charming, and It haa baaa
delightfully Interpreted. Thar* la also a
morntnc on tha river, which finds Its spe
cial Interest* In atmospheric quality and
subtle rendering, and some cloud effects la
mountain valleys which measure up to
tha beat that Mr. ICoser haa yet produced.
*
At VenaMe*a art store there la now on ex
hibition a collection of ninety photograv
ures of Burne-Jones" paintings. To see such
an assemblage of any one painter's work
is unusual ana in tm? instance peculiarly
Interesting. The late Sir Edward Burne
Jones was undoubtedly an eccentric genius.
Studying under D. Q. Kossettl and associ
ating himself with William Morris and his
co-workers he espoused the pre-Raphaellt*
cause, hut retained at the same time his
own individuality. was a man of power,
and. what is more uncommon, imagination.
He did not follow beaten paths, but found
a way of his own. One may not admire all
his paintings, but it is Impossible not to
feel their allurement. In their chastity and
simplicity they do betray kinship with the
works of the painters before Raphael, and
yet In their subjective significance they are
truly modern. There is a decorative qual
ity In them all and a plaintive note in many
which must both attract and appeal. The
photogravures, while open to the Impeach
ment of all reproductions, are excellent, and
should be commended for the fact that
through them such works of art can be
made familiar.
*
* *
Color reproductions of twelve architec
tural drawings by Jules Guerin are to be
seen at VeerhofTs at present. Five of them
are of Washington buildings?the Capitol,
the Library of Congress, the White House,
the Smithsonian and the Monument?and
are, therefore, of special note. Not. be It
understood, because they set for^h familiar
objects, but because they interpret their
beauty In a new and significant way. Thou
sands of people pass these buildings every
day and see them always the same, but Mr.
Guerin has found in them poetic charm,
and through these drawings makes it pat
ent. The simplicity of his method is un
usual, and yet delightful?one does not miss
the omitted detail or care for a more com
plete exposition. The essence of the truth
is there?the picture is complete. The orig
inals of these and other works by Mr.
Guerin are now on exhibition in the Penn
sylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and
will later be shown in this city.
* *
Miss Jane Bartlett has removed her
arts and crafts studio from H street to
Connecticut avenue, and has associated
with her this year Miss Josephene Wey
mouth, an accomplished craftswoman.
The character of the studio remains the
same, Its purpose unaltered. At all times
an exhibition will be found there of arts
and crafts objects furnished by the leading;
workers and approved by the Boston so
ciety. There are, and will continue to be
on view hand-wrought silver and decorated
porcelain, po-tteries, wood carvings, leather
ana meiai worK?ana irom time 10 ume
there will be special exhibits. The arts
and crafts movement stands for th? In
dividual versus the machine?for good taste
in every-day life?and it has proved, and is
proving, a strong force for good in our
land.
* *
The National Society of the Fine Arts
will hold its first 'meeting for the .present
season Thursday evening. November 15,
at 9 o'clock, in Hubbard Memorial Hall. At
that time Mr. Royal tortlssoz, the art critic
of the New York Tribune, will deliver an
address, illustrated by stereoptlcon views,
on Velasquez. This society, which was or
ganized for the purpose of aiding the de
velopment of the fine arts and spreading
the knowledge of art among not only its
members, but the general public, will enter
upon its second year with a membership
increased to over 300 $md a larger oppor
tunity for usefulness. Its committees have
done good work, its officers are not only In
earnest, but enthusiastic, and its mem
bers are interested and in sympathy with
fts alms and projects. It has. ' it would
seem, an assured future?and a wide field
of beneficence.
*
* - *
Friday afternoon. November 10, Mrs. Wil
liam H. Holmes -will Rive the first of a
serie3 of twelve talks upon the house, its
furniture and decoration, at the Maderia
School. Mrs. Holmea is the wife of the
chief of the bureau of ethnology, who is
also an artist of distinction, and she has
for many years made a special study of
this subject. Her talks, which will be
given ?? alternate Fridays during the win
ter, are to be illustrated by lantern slides
made especially for these lec:ures. Tickets
for the course will be at a nominal price,
but the obiect of the course is purely edu
cational. The hope is to interest young
housekeepers in the artistic possibilities of
the home?to give in the pleasantest guise
instruction and engender aspiration. The
ursi lain win ucdi wiui inc cvuiu^uu ui
the house and later ones will take up its
furnishing and decoration, both ancient and
modern. It is a course somewhat similar
to this which Is being given In New York
this winter under the auspices of the Young
Men's Christian Association. It is without
doubt timely.
* *
Uttrh Intprpst is hplnc tnL an in thp ra.
ported offer of Mr. John G. Johnson of
Philadelphia to present to that city hla
valuable art collection, provided the mu
nicipality will erect a building, suitable for
its reception in Fairmount Park. If this
is done there is, furthermore, the probabil
ity that the Elkins and Widener collections
will be added, both of which are likewise
well chosen and of great value. Such a
gallery of art as this would enrich not only
Philadelphia, but the nation, and would be
of the utmost benefit to the art students of
America. The number of paintings in these
collections is estimated at 2.50J. and their
value has been placed at more than four
and a half million dollars. Assuredly these
are princely gifts.
*
* *
Miss Alice Foster, who. with Miss Helen
Nicolay, has been traveling abroad for the
past five months, has returned to this city
and will soon reopen her studio in the
Evans building. Miss Foster made some
n'lit.nf.dftnr Rlr?tr>h(?c vhilp in F!iirr*rw? and
spent six weeks studying In the Jullen
school. She tells most interestingly of the
extreme methods of the modern French
school as set forth in the current autumn
salon at Paris.
* _
*
Mr. H. Hobart Nichols and his family
have also recently returned from abroad,
where they have spent -almost two years.
An exhibition of Mr. Nichols" work will be
held at Veerholt's before spring, but he
will occupy a studio in New York tbla
winter.
*
? ?
Mr. Walter Shirlaw, the distinguished
American painter. Is spending a few weeks
In this city. Mr. Shirlaw is a Scotchman
by birth, but he came to this country when
a young man and for many years has been
associated with the leading art movements.
He was one of the founders of the Society,
of American Artists, and for the first two
terms Its president. Frcm the centennial
Chicago, Buffalo and St. Louts expositions
he received medals, and his works are to
be found In some of the best public and
private collections.
*
*
The recent sale of several valuable col
lections In Berlin, and the fear that many
more notable .works of art are shortly to
find their way to America, has so alarmed
the German authorities that, under the
patronage of the kaiser pnd the direction
of -Herr Bode, an alliance la to be formed
to prevent the exportation of valuable
paintings. It is interesting) io note that
while Europe Is endeavoring to keep Amer
tea from getting her works of art we are
taxing their importation.
LEILA MECHLIN.
The Higli Dive Care.
From the St. Panl Ptspatch. '
In Revere, Minn., they take drunkard*
and give them what Is locally called the
"high dive cure," by docking them la a
large tank of water situated In a conven
ient location In town. A couple of dips Is
all that has been required In any case yet,
and one chronic offender from- Walnut
Grove Who was immersed one evening baa
never shown up In Revere sine*.
B RITIS HJORTHWEST
Canada Coming to Be Uncle
Sam's Competitor.
TALK WITH WILLIAM WHYTE
Opening of the Great Wheat Belt and
Its Future.
THfi si BEBIAJ QHAXN FIELDS
Educational Movement to Show Farm
era How to Make the Moat
of Their Lands.
(Copyright, 1906, by Frank O. Carpenter.)
NEW YORK, 1906.
i recently naa a ?.. ik wrcn one or the Dig
gest men of the British Northwest. This
Is Mr. William Whyte. ithe second vice
president of the Canadian Pacific railway,
and manager of its many enterprises be
tween Lake Superior and the Pacific ocean.
The Canadian Pacific is a developing com
pany as well as a transportation company.
It not only has the longest continuous line
of roads under one management on this
continent, hut it owns millions of acres of
lands, great tracts of timber and valuable
mines, which tt operates Itself. It has un
der way by far the largest irrigation proj
ect in North America, and, in addition, has
steamship lines on the Pacific which con
nect it with Japan, China, Alaska and
Australia and the South seas, and steam
ships on the Atlantic which connect tt with
England. The company operates Its own
sleeping cars and a line of hotels. It is
now building here in Winnipeg one of the
biggest hotels in Canada at a cost of some
thing like a million dollars, and it has great
summer hotels in the Rockl* and at the
larger cities along Its line. It has the
chi?f telegraph company of Canada,, and
it operates its own express service.
The Canadian Pacific vug (Ka flr?t roll
road to open up this northwest, and Its
position to a. certain extent is a paternal
one. It gives special rates of transporta
tion for fine srtock In order to help (he
farmer, and not long ago when the lum
ber lords were overcharging the settlers
z Ui >"? W -
- -WW*#;'? -_-: ?
w.mnww
r ? -n? aw??lom
Mew Qeneml
Officer Of ' The
(kNApwi^TO
Ax Wtnnipe^
for building materials this company
brought them to time by threatening to
start sawmills of Its own. It threatened
to open coal mines when the coal dealers
charged exorbitant rates, and tt now pro
poses to send out education cars to teach
the farmers grain raising#
The head of all these movements Is Mr.
William Whyte, and he has been at their
head for years. He has gone over the most
of this great northwest on horseback and
l? ? Avamtninir tV-o anil anH ctiifivinv
Ill VT aguiio, CAOtlliinot, V<1? MW?. ? V.
the resources with a view to Increasing
the traffic of his railroad system. It is he
who has been largely instrumental in push
ing- out branch lines into the wheat belt,
and as the head of the land grants which
originally comprised as much land as the
whcle state of Ohio, he has laid out many
of the towns and aided in populating the
country.
As I talked with Mr. Whyte we looked
over some maps of the New Canada and
discussed its relations to the lands across
the Pacific. Mr. Whyte has been several
times to Japan and China, end he has
traveled over Manchuria and Siberia ex
amining into these countries as possible
traffic producers. My first question was as
IU IliC CllCV-V Ul HIC uaputiccirjiiuaeiuii Tfut
upon the trade of th^. Orient.
The Future of Japan.
Said Mr. Whyte: "I think that the war
will greatly benefit the Japanese. Those
people will exploit Manchuria and Korea,
and they will then turn their attention to
China. The Japanese already have many
investments In China. They do a large part
of the carrying trade for the celestial em
pire. and they have lines ofstcamboatsonthe
Japanese rivers. They are good organisers,
and they realize that their future is to be
industrial and commercial. They are tak
ing the best elements of our civilisation and
making them their own. We are already
trading largely with Japan, and I expect
to see a steady Increase in that trade. The
Japanese are largely rice eatery, but we
are now sending them wheat, and they will
in time be wheat eaters and meat eaters. J
It is this feature of their development j
which interests us, for we expect to sup
ply a large part of those products."
"How ibout the tourist travel .0 Japan?
Is it Increasing?"
"Yes. we are having a heavy passenger '
traffic between Vancouver and Yokohama.
w e nave a snorter iuuio loilu any ul me
steamers from the United States, as we :
are higher up on the globe than you are. |
We are making a specialty of our passen
ger service, and we expect to put on faster
steamers and better steamers even than
those we now have. We shall carry some
freight, but ours will be more of an ex
press than a heavy-freight business. Our
freight at present consists largely of silks.
The Azores.
From the London Chronicle.
Misfortune rumored some time ago to
have fallen upon the A sores in the form of
a tidal wave and the disappearance of sev
eral of the islands, visited the western
group in 1981. when for twelve days in sue
cession the islands were shaken by earth
quake and the Villa Franca destroyed.
Stories are told of volcanic disturbances
In the neighboring sea and of Islands flung
from the primal ooze. An English captain
ii> 1T20, approaching the A sores, says: "We
made an island of Ore?-and smoke; the
ashes fell on our deck like hall and snow,
the Are and smoke roared like thunder or.
great guns." The hot springs throughout
the Islands are no doubt the milder mani
festations of tfee Area that war* seen In
curio* and tea rather than of the heavier
article*."
"Ia Canada sending much wheat to
Japan?" I asked.
Wot aa yet. We are having some ship
ments from the province of Albert a. which
Ilea just east of the Rockies. That province
la beginning to ralae winter wheat. It pro
duced something like Two million bushels
this year, and Its possibilities are very
great. The wheat Is the turkey-red variety
wnicil t uuirB iiuui a*iru irii[M11 iru irom IViin
sas. It la superior to the Kansas wheat and
will make more pounds of bread to the bar
rel. With the growth of this product we shall
probably have a large shipment to Japan,
not only on account of the quality, hut- be
cause of the low freight rate which we
ran make from there to the Pacific and to
the orient."
The Siberian Wheat. Fields.
"Do you expect much competition from
Siberia tn your wheat raising?" I asked.
"Tea." replied the vice president- "Si
beria. outside of Canada. Is about the only
country which promises to form a new ele
ment in the wheat markets of the world.
For a few years before the war Siberia
was producing about 30.000,000 bushels of
wheat- That was its average during the
years between 18?8 and 1002. In 100.1 the
crop amounted to 60,000.000 bushels, and it
will probably exceed that, now that the war
Is closed. There is a vast tract of land
adapted to wheat raising between the lT?
euri and Araoor rivers extending from the
Pacific westward. That region Is being
settled by Russians. They come ncross
from Kurope on the Trans-Siberian railroad
or by sea from Odessa on emigrant steam
efs subsidized by the government. That
region can produce millions of bushels of
wheat. It will probably furnish a large part
of the supply of Japan and China. There
are also wheat lands in Manchuria anil
x??t ?uvt vov m uiuci to. juurru, u ia nam
to estimate Just what northern Asia will
do In the wheat markets of the future."
Uncle Sam and Canada as Wheat
Farmers.
The conversation here turned to Canada
as our chief competitor In the foreign mar
kets. Mr. Whyte said:
"Your people do not appreciate our possi
bilities. Your wheat lands are well defined.
You had something like 48.000,000 acres un
der crop last year, and your average was
about thirteen bushels per acre. Canada
has 250,000.000 acres upon which wheat can
be grown. It has five times as much
t? 3 I- ? '? J *? ??
micai taiiu (u la nun cuilivairu in IMP
United States, and even If you deduct 100.
000,000 acres on the account of swamp, mos
keg and other bad lands, we have three
times as much good wheat land, left as
you have. As to our acreage crop. It is
twenty bushels and upward per acre. In
stead of thirteen. When our land Is all
under cultivation we shall be able to supply
the greater part of the European demand
and aid in feeding you."
"Who are to be your chief competitors in
the wheat market of the future?"
"The United States will compete for a
time," said Mr. Whyte. -but your popula
tion Is growing so rapidly that it will
eventually consume aH you raise and will
probably have to call upon ys. Among
other competitors Russia and Siberia will
probably lead, but Russia is still very poor
ly farmed. Argentina will always be a
competitor and India and Australia like
wise."
New Railroads for Canada.
"Can Canada handle her big wheat crops
when they come?"
"I think so," replied the railroad flee
president. "The march of railroad build
ing Is rapid In this part of the world. The
wheat belt is being opened up by trunk
lines and branch roads will be constructed
to meet the demands of the farmer. We
expect to build a great deal of new track
this year, and we shall double our tracks
wherever needed. We have been sending
500 grain cars a day from Winnipeg to
Lake Superior, and by this time next year
we shall have a double track between
those two points. There are other rail
roads being constructed in addition to ours.
The Canadian Northern Is building a line
through the wheat belt above us, and the
Grand Trunk Pacific will have its route
through the same region. Our explorers
have surveyed that country to ascertain
where the most fertile of the wheat lands
ai tr, auu wr suoit lKivr uui unu 1i uciva, nnu
branch lines. Railroad building in the
wheat belt will go steadily on, keeping as
far as possible in advance of the settle
ments. Such construction is not a matter
of experiment. We know that we shall
have the settlers just as soon as the lines
arc built. Indeed, they begin to buy be
fore the tracks ?xe laid, and we are finding
that our branch roads pay from the very
start. The farmers know that they will
get the roads and they are going ahead and
taking out their homesteads on faith."
The Government and the Railways.
"I see. Mr. Whyte. that both the Domin
ion and the provincial governments of
Canada are going Into railroad building.
Ontario is pushing a line northward to
ward Hudson's Bay, and the Grand Trunk
Pacific, from Winnipeg to the Atlantic, is
to be built by the federal government. Will
It pay the governments to own and operate
their own railways?"
"I think not," was the reply. "Railroad
ing is a profession, and Uptakes trained
men to manage the business successfully.
Politicians cannot make good railroad I
operators. They are dependent upon the
people for their election and continuance
tn office, and they must take their con
stituents into consideration in making rail
road appointments. Bad men may, there
fore, through political influence retain rail
road positions, and good men may lose
their jobs. Indeed, I do not see how a
railroad can be successfully handled by our
1811 rising from the sea near St. Michael,
accompanied by smoke and ashes.
The Asores were once on the verge of
becoming a power in the world. Discovered,
or rather rediscovered, toward the middle
of the fifteenth- century, by Vander Berg,
a Flemish merchant, stranded by accident
on one of the islands Lisbon fitted out an
expedition and took possession of them.
Under the rule of Pombal. a wise Portu
I Kuese minister, the Asoreans "were taught
that they might become a people, and Por
tugal that ahe might ceaae to be a despot."
But that happy time did not last long. The
islanders were forbidden to trade, except
with Portugal and the western isles grad
ually sank Into sullen sloth under the rule
of "bigoted ecclesiastics." There came a
time, however, when the Aaorean wine aad
orange* aad the magnificent wood were
> allowed to pass freely to England and
fovernment with our preaent political ma*
ehinery. It will not pay."
Line* to Hudson's Bay.
"What do you think of the plan of mak
ing the future wheat route to Europe via
Hudson's bay?"
"That matter la yet to be settled. We do
not know how far the bay or the ? Units
which lead Into It can be navigated. Hud
son's bay is said to be free from !ie. but
It Is uncertain how Ion* the straits can
be kept open. If a dear channel can be
maintained there for a Rood part ot (he
year mucn or the wheat may no t.? Ku
rope that way. The haul from the Sas
katchewan val!^- to Hudson's bay would
be much shorter than to Uake Sup. rlor;
and Hudson's bay is much nearer I.ivr
pool. If the straits are to be ope.i for
only a short time the (Train would nare
to be stored until the year follow in* it*
hat vest, and that means elevator cna><(es
and heavy Insurance. Indeed, there .ire
nu-ny questions entering Into the ,>rob
lem. We ought to know exactly wnat we
can expect as to the navigation of 'he
straits before building roads or protect
ing them." .
Americans in Canada.
"Is the Canadian Pacific railroad luiiijf
lnjs In many Americans?" I asked.
"Yes. we are gettinst your people from
all parts of the I'nited States. They are
settling everywhere throughout th*
wheat belt. They are the most desirable
immigrants that pome to Canada. i'iiey
understand our conditions and make more
headway than any other class. Many of
them are well to do. and they are bring
ing stock and money with them. i'iiey
buy lands and go right to work, often
putting in a crop the first year."
"What sisse farms do thev nurcna.-eI
I asked.
"The most of them begin with .wtiona
or hnlf sections. A farmer oiiRht to h.ive
about 320 acres to operate succsssiully.
He should let his land rest at loa.it > no
year out of three, and this gives him
about 200 acres to put in wheat o.- other
crops. So far we have but little l>o.; t.iza
farming In the northwest. Several \?nor
lcan companies have bought large liaits,
a few having purchased millions of at res.
Such land companies buy to colonize and
f.ell again. The moat of them have dis
posed of their lands.
"In addition to the land purchasers,"
continued Mr. Whyte. "we have the l.iime
steaders. The government Is still giving
160 acres of land to actual settlers. Many
Quarter sections adjoining."
Poor Canadian Farming.
"What kind of farmers have you here In
Canada?"
"We havo all kinds?some wise and
some otherwise. At present much of the
land Is poorly cultivated. RlgHT here
about Winnipeg are farms which <1o not
I yield more than twelve bushels if ? heat
to the acre. They are so tilled with need*
that the wheat grown is almost worth
less. Our country roads are twice -is wide
as they should be. and the waste ianda
William: "Whyte.
e Of The. ltaafT Mem
Ira IfogijK rToiqK-'Vfefr
along their sides are nurseries for weeds
and trash. Some of our furmers are not
careful in their seed selection; they will
sell their best wheat and save the poor
est to sow for the next crop. Indocd, I
have known men who have shipped tnelr
good wheat and kept that which naj been
frosted for seed."
Teaching the Farmers.
"We have much to learn a-bout farming."
continued Mr. Whyte. "and we are making
new discoveries every day. The latest 1?
that to which I have alreidy referred as to
the winter wheat for the dry lands. We had
no idea that we could produce grain In tho
seml-arld beM. One of the settlers tried
?l auu out i i7?-uvrti. x iiv11 nie v. auauid 11 rn"
clfic railway brought two car loads of
turkey red seed to Alberta and gave thfin
to the farmers at cost. This was planted
and it was largely from that seed that we
got the 2,000,000 bushel crop last year. Wo
are doing all we can to improve the farm
ing conditions; for the gre iter the crops tlio
greater our traffic. We have now what I
might call education cars, which we have
equipped with different kinds of seed wheat.
We expect to send them from station to
station and have lecturers who will explain
the different seeds and show the farmers
how to make the most out of their lands. I
understand a similar educational movement
!ius been going on in the L'plted States."
Mixed Farming in Canada.
"Tell me something about the Canadian
west, Mr. Whyte. Is it dependent entirely
upon wheat for its success 'r'
ay no means, repi.ea me ranruaa vice
president. "A large part of Alberta and
Saskatchewan Is adapted to mixed farming.
There is a great dairy country right near
Kdmonton which is now producing butter
for British Columbia and the western mar
kets. That region Is adapted to mixed
farming, and a great many of your Penn
sylvania and Ohio people are settled there.
They have big barns, just as In the United
States. The land there produces the finest
oits. I know farmers who grow from MJ to
100 bushelj per acre and the oats will
weight forty pounds to the bushel. It grows
timothy as tall as a man and also barley
and other grains. It Is not Go cold near the
Rockies as farther east, and In many re
spects It Is more desirable for settlement
than the wheat belt proper.
"British Columbia promises to develop
somewhat like your states of Washington
and Oregon. It bas many small valleys
which can be Irrigated and which will pro
duce the finest of apples, pears, peaches
and prunes. That country is Just opening
up and we expect It to have 41 great In
crease In population In the near future."
FRANK O. CARPENTER.
America. Since then the Asora* hare been
re-created.
The King Angry.
Prom tbe London Troth.
xji? m?Wv la aiid tn hav? Wn ffrniHw
annoyed by the numerous and flagrant
blunder* In the heraldy which is displayed
on the roof of the new chapel of the
Knights of the Order of St. Mlchacl and
St. George in St. Paul's Cathedral. There
are mistakes of the moat flaring character
In the representation of the arms of the
king, the Prince of Wales and the late
Duke of Cambridge. It would be Interest
ing to learn who Is responsible for the
miserable muddling which has taken place,
for It Is understood that the officials of
the Heralds' College were not consulted in
the affair.

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