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ICopyrijffct. 1907. by John Elfrfth TVatktna)
FP.i'M a ( np-timf populous an<l lon^foreott n suzerainty of th?> proud ar..l powerful Mnntoiuma, ruler of the Aztf s, l>r Jessp Waiter Fewkes brings to Washington a tnof Interesting story of lost American civilization* of hith<-rt? undt-scrt > d pyra rr. us and ldoI-sKrewn temples, of flourishing cities Ions: crumbled and covered with Jungle T'nder a special grant from the 8m!tnsonlan Institution this distinguished archaeologist of the bureau of American ethnology has m-id#* a reconnaissance in eastern Mexico to gather material bearing on the question whether the mound bu!d ere ot our MIik? sslppl valley were the d? ?c?n<1arT? of the scattered Totonac and Jiuaxtec tribes peoples as far advanced as j the Aztecs, of whom they were vassals. Cempoalan, LAnd of Pyramids. 5?l?fak!r.K of his exp orations. l)r. Fewkes ffaid: "When C irt. p disembarked Lis army in what Is now Vera <'r;z he fouxl It lr. haMted by aboriirin'*s of comparatively Ii-'sr: culture The inhabitants called themselves Totonar, nnd their territory was known Tot<?nac?ipan. The conqueror was \ not loiip In discovering that th? Totonac were subjects of Montezuma, a grr^at ruler In tho mountains t<? whom tiiey unwillingly flaitl tribute, anil that thev rhifol 11 rt<r hlf? yoke. Shortly after : a ruling Cortes visited th?lr settlement* at Qiiaulstlan and I Cennp.->ala.n. n^ar ti p former of which he | laid th" foundation of a city that hp called Villa Rita <i la Vera Cruz ft; e Rich T wn j of tie True Cross) He was well reo lvei by the Inhabitants of these cities, maki- p ; friends with those above mentioned ami with thirty other dependent pueblo? \vh sv I Rid greatly facilitated hi" mar h t?. tie interior of Mexico. But this friend hip of j the natives of Cempoalan and the), set- ; tlements for Cortes was not shared by all the Indians of the Mexlca:, jfuif ' <st Jn the valleys of thj Panuco avd Time-: rivers- that is. In w! at Is row northern Vera Cruz and southern Tarr.au'ifn>":w .t th? F')-^a!!?.'d Huaxtf" people. hud I populous tnwns, having reached n hlg'h 1 degrreo of culture, a: ,1 they had neve r been . conquered* l?y the Aztecs At first they reF'ntfd t.\r- Spaniards, but n:h e u?nt\v were u' ti.ied by Cortes and the.r main city and other settlements were destroyed. Tr.e rur- ; vlvors of th'se v'l ;\fz s who escaped s aver y or masc.ere fled to the in. unla n? w'... re their d-svndan 8. h :eft of amtral nrt?. !os* ir.u of the'r ? ulture an i Puttied In ne.v aliti- s. At t:.' tim oI the conquest Cenipoaian was s > str-'kin^; a metropol'^ that it t d th sdm'r tl'T. of the E:in?pt ans. an 1 from i?? many tempV^ C ?w rs ) anvl large bui'.d n?s was j car d s.'Villa. I*s str ets a*.d p!aras are j aii i '> nave 6T.ir.nri una people, o.e author e."ti:natin5 the population at 30 Mil) SP'il?. Whether this statement was exaggerated or nut we may mvtr know, but th ' siz ' an I number of tlie tetip!es pr ve that the <!ty had a considerable popu'.r.tlf :i After tlie conquest Oempoalan rapid v declined in cower and I s population so b A PYRftggj dwindled that In 1S80. according to Patlno. It l.ad shrunk to thirty Inhabited houses; It Is stat>- I that In t'he year 1000 only one or two t v mj o.Uanus lived on the old site, the must of them having lieen distribute d In ni >\ Yonsrr nations' by the then viceroy of Mexico the fount of Monterey. The aftiacenl f r sis an 1 an exuberant tropical wis'-tatlon ra;?M y gr?w over the deserted b.illn.ts of the once populn^js city, so that in t few pern-rations its slt> was prac- j tically fot\i:i>:ten by students. But although j lost ami forg.ittin by the outside worll, j the name of ti.a Totonae metropi lis elnng | to n loiailty near the left hank of tie Ac- ' topsin river, where certain mounds and j ruined nvramids are still known to til- p> oj>ie of tiie neighborhood as tiie remains of a; . i. r.t Oempoalan. In 1MU the Mexi<-ari governm-nt mad" a survey of Ompoa!an and neighboring ruins. Th" almost impenetrable JunKle covering tne mounds was thoroughly c ea red and tie walls of Severn". large" buildings were laid open to view. But the ruins of Cempoalan pass <1 tiie r.ext decale without bdng dlB'urbed or even visited, and a new jungle spr. ad it * .? . * ? 1... of ati.lv nvr'itni.lc "I two excursions to Cempoalxn. reni'ttnlnfc there a week on mv ??-. ond visit. My work vas attended with difficulty, since t!.? clearings mailt- in 1SH1 had disappeared, the trees and underbrush having obscured i the buildings. Although much of this vegetable growth was cm away by the owner, the iunffle 19 still dense over the greater X*art of the ruins. Oempoalan .lies a short distance from the coast and two hours' ride on horseback from a station on the railroad between Jalana and Wra i'ruz. called San Kraise!s?'o. The roads from this station to the ruins pass through a comparatively level country, lined in part with groves of - ?ni rr. i m to which cling beautiful air plants Rn<l In the branches of which live ] t:, iv i.arrets and other brilliantly colored | birds. Evidi nce<? of tlin older population : crop out evei vwhere ati.l well-defin< d r< u s : of rubblestones mark the foundation walls ' of old tfc:nilos that have bevn appropriated j for the tame tmrDosr- in modern cabins. I Tho r :!ns <>f I'lnw. Ian cover a larpe e\te: t of territory M .irrds belonging to this metropolis n-r.- found extending over a territory a mile square, but thu main build- I - ^ SOLDIER John Tf lit.ss r..-v Jr., .scion of th? well- | hi.-wn I family of Maryland, member | of the J''ton varsity foot ball teams of l>:? and 'iri, brot! tr of the flvc other 1'oes. ' who "ma V" th" 'varsity foot ball team, j bushi' ss failure, volunteer In the Spanish- ' Am-rU an war, regular in the Philippines, ! i m&rui'* at 1 anama, cowpuncher in New Mexico and Tor.oj:.?h miner, has one.' moro bobbed up in an obsure corner of the world According to a cable dispatch received lust week from San Salvador, this Jtnock-about soldier of fortune lias Just tailed on the steamer San Juan for San Franc'sco to recruit a "foreign legion" to take part lu the expected war between the Central American states, says the New York Times. ''Johnny" Toe, as he is affectionately called around Old Nassau's campus, was born about ttilrty-four years ago. lia.> entered Princeton with the class (>f '8S, and was immediately put on tho 'varsity foot ba',1 tearu He was one of the star players of Uiat aea.Son. but when the faculty took - UJly (rl t?e QiMt in June examinations ?a# Tb? rNUr b? entered U? college P^'%* -7 "* . * L~ I^MS. Ill l^ T.IV. -Js ?' N fflT.T.F.r* "TFF T.mHTNIlW \j i?*y -? insrs are crowded into a limited area. Wherever one turns in this neighborhood, if vegeU.tion permits, he encounters evid? nn s of former human occupation. Not only mounds anil pyramids rise on all sld s. nut also piaster, (i wans, ana fragments or concreted road beds lined with rows of stones set in cement (not unlike curbs) arc seen on all sides. Oemnoalan was constructed alm ?st entirely of plaster and rubblestones: none <?f its wai's were made of Massive Balustraded Stairways. "The four buildings now standing are pyra -mids, the bases of former temples. They are constructed of a concrete core made of water-worn stones laid in lines on * above another and fared with concrete. The surfaces of these buildings were originally so highly polished that it was supposed by one of the soldiers of fortes that the walla w? re covered with plates of silver. These walls were decorated with yellow and red paintings, traces of which ara still visible, especially in places not exposed to the weather. Two typical forms of buildings are represented, one circular, the other rectangular. Both types have stairways with massive balustrades on one Fid". The largest pyramid found here belongs to the round type and lies in a field. Venturing into this field, which is full of troublesome insects, I discovered that near these two mounds are others forming a group. One of the largest was called by a Spaniard 'Temple ??f the Air,' and. like all round temples, is supposed to have been dedicated to the god of the air. The many smuller mounds are crowded together, indicating houses onee possibly inhabited by priests. Nearby are fragments of walls, some of whi h. extending into the adjacent forests, are lost in the jungle. Slabs of plastering or rows of rubblestones extending in ail directions indicate the crowded arrangement of houses in this immediate locality, whi h must have been not far from tho center of the city. A mile north of the Temple of ti'.P Air I smiiit nly .-:tw rising before ne? in fact. hocking the way?a pair of ina-'ssive i > rani . s tint evidently formed parts of two Fides of an Inclosed court. Facing the OF FORTUNE again with the class of '?H?. He only suoc hvm} in nmkin.ar his collegiate history a twice-ioiu 1.11c: one" more lie was a rir.lliant success on the gridiron, hut a failure in the cla.1-.-room. Tiiat end d his college career. During th? season of he coached 111 -> foot 1 all team of th-* T'nivorstty of Virginia. The next year drifted into the steamboat business in Baltimore, and the following year tried real estate. His experience In thi s? ventures he thus sums up in a letter to a friend: "This scramble for the almighty dollar , does not appeal to me. as 1 am so utterly rotten in tht scramble." His year in the real estate business was more or less of a touch-and-go affair. He found, or took, the time to coach the Princeton foot ball team. In the^chronologlcal history of his occupations tliero Is only one entry for the year Princeton University foot ball team." ?Havd i.uek in 1898. The folio* !hgr year the Spanish war broke out, and Johnnv Poe did hie best to tackle the fooe. but luck was against him. Here follows hia own chronicle of hla soldiering: "I had been -in the 6th Maryland Regiment for ovgt three year* -when war was declared, tuid had reached tbc hlgb position of A corporal. W? viot to Plmlico (near hi nil jfc 'w %W ' - &7 *"?? w.An^ * 1' - ?S*4& I larger of these, with the smaller on my laft, I probably stood In the gre\t court of <>mP'-'dnn, where perhaps fortes marched hi? solo 11 rs on his memorable visit to this city almost four centuries ago. The lars< r <>f these t'.vo massive pyramids is iocally kn>.wn as the 'Temple o fthe Fountain' or ' Chimneys;' the otlu r is nameless. Petri nq in'o the jungle that surrounds tii;-se '.niildings. I got glimpses of other mounds hidI den for the- greater part in tin- dense lor| -St." "Temple; of the Fountain.'' The front of the larger pyramid, on which stood what is locally known as the i "Temple of the Fountain," is, 1 >r. Fev/kes saiil, indicated by a stall \v?y before which stand the ruined columns of a second building, possibly used as a waiting room for those who took part in the cere-monies 011 the temple which once crowned the pyrai mid. At the foot of the stairway lie saw t b! 1 >k! ; 1 remains of hnllow. rhimnev-like j columns formerly decorated on their flat fr-id>-s with stucco figures. The pyraMBd originally had six terraces, gradually diminishing from base to apex, and is strll traversed by a broad stairway from the ground level to the top. The stairway has I' a massive balustrade on each side and at the top ends in a cubical block made of plaster and laid over stones and concrete. Climbing these stairs he found the ruins j of the temple?walls once forming three ! sides of a chamber in which two idols i had apparently occupied pedestals. Some j of tiie stones iining the platform on which j the temple stood were perforated to allow I th-- escape of rain. The other large pyra i mid liad a larger number of terraces and I bore ruins of a temple which had evidently contained many chambers. In the walls of a temple on one of the smaller pyramids were found sunken panels forming a frieze to which rows of clay heads or human skulls had probably been attached. Below this were the remains of frescoes in red and yellow colors. In front of the lower sfpps of the pyramid was the ruin of an altar with a basin-like structure in front. A few milt k from this ruined metropolis lie the ruins of a. little church surrounded . "JOHNNY" Raising "Foreign Legion' cital of His Agv Princeton G Baltimore) on the 25th of Auril. and stayed there until the litth of May. being mustered into tlie service of the United States on May 14. We left for Chickatnaugua. on the J9th of May, reaching tha<t place on the 21st of llav Our rwlm.nl I Tampa from Chiekamaugua on Thursday, June 8, with seven other regiments. In a provisional division under the command Gen. .gnyder, \Ve thoroughly ?xuecte4 '? ko wllu S'naflgx'e f57^s. but I have sine? been toM that there were not enougn transports to take the division. I met Ed Munn, '95. and Gordon Johnston, '96, and Bernls Brien. '9?, In Tun i pa. The two former were In the Rough Riders and the latter In tha 6th Ohio. We stayed In Tatnta ten weeks, leaving there August 15 for liuntsvllle, Ala., where we stayed about three weeks, reaching home September 7 and being mustered out October 22." This Is the Chronological history of the next five years of his llf?: A? by crumbling walls which mark the o!dI est settlement of Europeans on the conI tinent of America?tlie permanent Vera I Cruz of the Spaniards, who destroyed the I civilization of these pyramid and temple ! building natives. Near this Dr. Fewkes i unexpectedly found an important group of ,,v , < i ucoi,iiui.u i?j- ai tuawiuftiaio, i and which, he says, closely resemble some of those of the Mississippi valley. Tracing Cortes' march from Cempoalan to Mexico, Dr. Fewkes sought tlie ruins of ail Aztec village, four days distant, whose inhabitants had been commanded by Montezuma to receive the Spaniards in a friendj ly manner and to furnish them food. ] | Through Aztec legends which he Ifarned I In the modern Indian pueblos, he identified this with an almost impenetrate ruin since called Xico Vlejo by the Spaniards. He had to climb the mountains over a trail so steep that, as lie said, "it might be called an artificial stairway." lie found the ruins on a lofty, precipitous cllft at whose base are j walls, fragrfients of potteiy and other evidences of a past poptiiit'on. Although it was said that Montezuma could draw 50,! too warriors from tiiis l esion, the a~ch& oloj gist estimates that a mere handful of men i could have defended the passes leading to | this village against a large army. On ton j j w i ii'i V iin. m; IUUHU M. Willi i a platform on one side, evidently faced with j j hewn stone?. Here he found, standing in an open court, a remarkable stone Idol. ] lie found hanging upon it several baPOE, FORMER Un His Way to 'Frisco entures?Scire of the E: ridiron Hero With the 1899?Cowpunching in New Mexico. 1S99-1901?With the 23d United States Regular Infantry in the Philippines. 1902?Surveying around Baltimore. 1002-1903? Back again cowpunching in New Mexico. 1904, January and February?In Marine Corps at Panama, and then in coal business at Charleston, W. Va. In a Mining Camp. At some unstated- time he was also a militiaman In the feud district of Kentucky. lie is next heard from in a mining camp ill Lue .unftua uceti [. rium lliui uiurumn*led corner of the glebe he thus writes 10 the secretary of the class of '95: "Dt?ar Andy: 1 sometimes feel as 1? IvipI ling's poem, 'The Lost Legrlon,' might apply Ito me: "Thougli living side by side with wife deserters, crooks, a child murderei and some '"Am 1 IL 1 * ^.s *v . . ' * . . .s * ?V ' v ^ T'"'r"Tl"MMTW Viir"iml T V?&f : : *,.ik A (tttPOALitfl Templi- ? | lianas, lately placed there as offerings by | natives of the neighborhood, who evidently ; retain their belief in this mute divinity i of their superior ancestors. The head of tills Idol has elaborately carved ear pendants and a peculiar nose ornament. On the back of the head is carved a rabbit's head under a circle. TIrs symbol possibly represents the date of the foundation of the town. Thfi moiiprn inlinlutnnt? nf Mia rp gion hfive a legend that this ruin was founded by the immediate predecessor of Montezuma I. On a hillside in the same neighborhood Dr. Fewkes found on a rock the carved figure of a gigantic serpent represented as crawling out of a spring. It is about twenty feet long, and the tail of the . monster is cleverly hidden in the s?r!ng. | Dr. Fewkes thinks that it was probably | worshiped as a water god. Although these I ruins are Aztec, others which he visited at the base of a voh-auic mountain in this region he believes to have been constructed by a highly cultuied people, superior even to the Aztec. A pyramid called "The Lightning," near the town of Pa pant la, also in Vera Cruz, was also visited by Dr. Fewkes. This Is one of the most magnificent prehistoric monuments of Mexico. It is solid throughout, and around the four faces, with the exception of the space occupied by the stairway, are, one r-bove th? other, seven rows of niches in which idols nrobab'y stood. The temple proper crowned a platform, the uppermost of six terraces. Fai FOOT BALL C_ J rx. X it. Ill Urill UdIV4UUI ivctperiences of This Wanderlust." of the scum of the earth, I think the fact of being a Princeton man was a pillar of cloud by day and tire by night In keeping me from sinking to their level, and the knowledge that old mother Princeton wishes to believe of her sons as Isabella of Croix did of Quentln Durward, 'If I hear not of you soon, and that by the trump of fame, I'll conclude you dead, but not unworthy.' I suspect some of the '05 men have feared that I have taken as awkward a way of gratifying this wish as did the recruit when he loaded lute rifle by shoving the cartridge down the muzzle, and when | reproved by his sergeant, replied: 'There is more than one way of loading a rifle.' "I was on a ranch in 190Ci and 11MJ8. with Dutcli Hager and Hugh Hodge. Dutch had a d'sagreement once with a 'bad man' about the ownership of a cow. Dutch said it wfus his, and he intended to take it, and if the [ man didn't like it he could help himself. Dutch and he were both armed, but If the FCO w> tat Aztec 'G^tll Or a YW11P pantla, the modern pueblo nearby, stands in the midst of tho vanllia zone of Vera Cruz, and is occupied by the descendants of the Totor.ace, who built these pyramids. Although these people have lost tha cul luro or their ancestors, they retain some ot their peculiar customs. Aboriginal Man-Flight Fever. That the man-flight fever had a foothold In America before the coming of the white man Is proven by one of their ancestral games still repeated by those people. This is the game of "The Flyers." "In this play men disguised as birds mount to the tops: of upright poles and, attaching themselves to ropes, jump into space, seeming to fly through the air," explained Dr. Fewkes. "An old woman, the so-called 'witch,' makes offerings of copal. 1 aguadiente and a fowl, which are placed in ' tho hole where th3 pole is placed in the 1 ground." I An Aztec pyramid known locally as the "Castle of Teayo," and which is crowned ! with a modern building ereet.d upon the I ruins of its former temple, was visited by i | the archaeologist at Teayo, a pueblo also I | of Vera Cruz province. Ail image or idol I that once stood on the summit is now in I a Mexican museum. Nearby have been i i found stone images which indicate that j this was an Aztec garrison town. Dr. j Fewkes examined numerous specimens | 7 starTa w I other fellow nail started anytning i 11 o<-i Dutch would have sent liim wi'nging his way over the great divide so soon that he would have still had a surprised look on his face when he grabbed a harp and caused an all-around discord in the heavenly ci;olr. ' "Well. Andy, when we take the trail j where there are not any outfits coming back may we all exclaim, as did the Ro- i man gladiators to Caesar: 'About to d:e. Oh i t>5 and Prfnceton, we salute thee!" Very sincerely. JOHN P. l'OE, Jr. | Tcmopah, February, '05. j Soldiering in Central America. But TonopaDi and her "bad men" soon staled for Johnny Poe. He sought diversion In Central America, the premier hotbed of revolution and warfare. Last June he wrote to another classmate, this time from Bullfrog, Nev.: I Dear IIos: I reoelrpd your letter nome time npo asking for an account of my Honduras trip. I must beg ofT from writing that. Some day I hope to have the pleasure of telling the salient points at the Princeton Club, in New York. I must confess that my ambition is to see wars In new countries. an<l my regret is that I haven't the monoy to gratify this wish. If I only had enough money now I should stait out to Turkey and get with the Turkish troops who are lighting the tribesmen in Arabia. Money would enable m*? to hire Interpreters, buy pack hone* ami riding W 13 . I i IPr ' t? IMS I found near all of the ruins visit-d during the expedition. These included not on!y idols, but numerous vises, weapons, yokes, rings and collars of Rtone. paddl '-shaped and padlock-shaptd stones, human heads of clay, stone feathers, etc., about which practically nothing has tnen recorded In English. The stom- yokes and collars aro believed by somo Mexicans to have beeu used In human sacrifice. It Is s.iid that they were placed under the back of the victim to make the chest protrude and make it easier for the officiating pri-st of the tempi.- to extract the he.nt. A> riling to other traditions they w?re f.-.sten'i about tho nocks of the victims to produce strangulation or to weigh them down anfl prevent their escap?. Dr. Kewk-r, regards thesa uses as Improbable, and sxtgg-. r.ts that they may bo fetiches or charms. Tho result <>f th expedition was th 1 discovery that thee - pyramid mounds of eastern Mexico closely rosembl ? the socalled t -mple mounds of our >1 ssisslppl valley, some of which bore sup i.structures, said to have bean used as temples. Tin r? is also a gen ral us. relilance b twe>n tlia relics from tiie "an mounds a; 1 thosa found in the Mississippi vail y mounds. Until further field work is eoniph ted in this Interesting r.glon, however, I)r. Fewkes will not draw any concluefons as to tha ? t t\ I if f vi-. , !) 1111 r nioiitu! I.1, i lilf m and thes Aztec pyi :.mM ? Idirs ?n<l iheir vassuls. JOHN' KLFHKTIl U ATKINS. ANDERER. ^ animals, get permission from t! ? sultan to follow ttloh? and cct miiwl np ii* th? fitfhtl >;r. M.'XlcO :.:*?! (luaf.-u:. i.i ? ?:? to I., at loggerhead*, ami. should war start. 1 shall prolahl.v jeo ruJ get with Guatemala. It ink's n?N,;h t ;\o from San Francl>c'? to <Ji: it? i.iala. T. ?-r?- i. m? muclt hot air at?out the*e ?Vuf.-:l A i \.n ?,'?:i!rover?b * that 1 hate To F)ii*ud i ?-iH? J i*t !?? run il"?u on the strenjrt . of a ru?i.< r. My I experience ? ?used i; e to go to work in 11: :n'i;ea ncio iii order to get 11:0111 y ahead, so that I biiull bo prepared for the next one. It teems easy enough until on* I.h- tH?* ! It to g<> to, say. Arabia. tut l?*t one with no knowledge >'?C the laiuruaee and no money try it an 1 he will And it u hell of a Job. Of course, if England were to start something? I wouldn't n?1inl enlisting. as I ran buy my way out of the British service for You do not know of any rich young fellow who would delight to go to war, no matter wher-- or ou which aide- they are f*oth usually \\ r*?ug. so it doesn't make much differ n^e which one <hooseS. He to pay the expense* and I'll volunteer to show him h side of life that, thougn rough in spots au<1 monotonous as a (Quaker meeting for long stretches i of time, will be*t hell out ? f the usual round of clubs, theaters, dances, ccrd parties, summer resorts and all that the eonxcntlonal rich mau doe*. Iios, try to think up some rich young man who is a rebel from the business world and would llko to (iy bis hand at war ?vbl<'h. nrcordituc to Kipling. Is, next to love, the gr?-atei?t thing lu tin* world. There must he tome atirh man who. r!l*gu#tc<l with the awful rameM-m* ?.f things, would enjoy observing how the grnn<\e*t game on earth Is eou- < ducted In fhlr.n. Arabia. tVntral An erica, Formosa, Borneo or the Congo. A a ever, JOHN P. POE. Jr.