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Practicing in Sunny France for the Mastery of the Skies.
HOW MR. FARMAN, WHO KNEW NOTHING OF MOTOR-AEROPLANES, ORDERED ONE READY MADE. LEARNED TO FLY AND BROKE ALL EUROPEAN RECORDS. Ignorant of Aeronautics, He Astonishes France by Becoming an Expert in Short Order. F Special Correspondence of The Star. PARIS. November S, 1007. * ? LYING Is now an open secret. ? ? I ? Any one will fly within a few months!" So speaks Henry Farman to his brothers and Intimates of the Falais de 1'AutomOblle. He Is the Paris sport who has flown oftenest, swift est and longest, both In time and dis tance; he is the second to have made h curve while flying; he flies daily, al ways beating his own records nnd all others: and. before these lines are printed, be may easily have done the "closed kilometer" of the Deutsch-Archdeacon prize, conditioned to proclaim the scien tific success of a true flyipg machine. Henry Farman Is also the Paris sport who. knowing nothing of these motor aeroplanes, ordered one ready made and simply began learning how to fly in It. He Is no flying machine Inventor. He lias made none of the disheartening ex periments with forms of planes, with gearings, propellers, motors, rudders, cen ters of pressure, centers of gravity and all the rest that have kept Santos-Du niont. Ernest Archdeacon. Louis Bieriot, tJabriel Volsin, t'apt. Ferber, Henry Kap fcrer. Louis Vuia and Robert Esnault Pelterle busy on the ground. Henry Farman is different from an In venting gilded youth like Santos; dif ferent even from those strangely modern Paris business men who And both taste and time to be hard sports. Born of English parentage in Paris he, with his two brothers. Maurice and Richard, grew u ;> in the automobile trade from the be ginning, became road racers of renown and entered the rich retail trade at the . right moment. Business has not pre vented him from giving much time, not only to spherical ballooning, but to as tronomy?which is a hobby with him; and at once utterly practical and com 1 lete'y a dreamer, man of commerce and i disinterested technician, he also saw I the right moment to begin to fly?and lost no time in useless preliminaries. It was at the mora, nt when the Dela grange motor-aeroplane, built by the first flying machine factory in the world had flown with a man laXJ feet in a straight line. Delagrange, the Paris sculptor, had or dered it from Bieriot & Voisin, building for the general public at the Surcouf plant, near Billancourt. outside Paris. Delagrange may have had his ideas about its form and disposition; but the Voisin brothers had enjoyed immense experience i with motorless aeroplanes towed over | I.ake Geneva by Ernest Archdeacan's 100 horsepower motor boat and later on in motor-aeroplanes that scarcely worked, with Louis Bieriot. a studious gilded youth, possessing a big block of motor stock. Learning the Bird's Trade. For Delagrange they built a motor aeroplane that actually flew in a straight line, on March 30, 1907, over the famous grounds of Bagatelle in the Paris Bols. It was not so long a flight as Santos Dumont had accomplished in November previous, but It was the flight of a machine that could be duplicated for cash, on an order, in straightforward business manner, without asking favors. That same day. therefore. Henry Farman made a contract with Bieriot & Voisin. The contract stipulated they deliver him a motor-aeroplane within a year. Be fore payment be made it must have done TENTH ANNIVERSAEY TEN MENUS, DECORATIONS AND SUITABLE GAMES. The tin wedding that ma. -s the tenth anniversary may be made a very brilliant affair and one provocative of much fun. The invitations sent out may be of little squares of sheet tin, the wording being made with paint or a sjiarp-pointed in strument. These may be inclosed In en velopes to fit. For the buffet luncheon have a large table set entirely with tin and suitably decorated. On the buffet have the tin plates, tin cups, knives, forks and spoons for the different courses. The guests may stand or sit in the dining room. | Leave the buffet table bare excepting for doilies made from tinfoil or silver paper, or put on a white cloth with deco rations of tinfoil. The centerpiece may be a jelly mold holding at this season any of the wild flowers, such as golden rod and asters or queen's lace with bay berry sprigs. On either side of the cen t.-rpiece have four tin candlesticks, using candles of a color to fit in wuh the central decorations. Have shades covered with tinfoil For serving plates, pie and layer cake tins should be used. Slender tin mugs for tumblers, individual gem pans for * ilad, and tin trays for sandwiches and ca ke. If you wish to carry out further the tin 1ilea the refreshments may all be tinned, and here again is a bountiful supply to choose from. There are baked beans in tin cans or baked in individual tin molds, tinned meats for the sandwiches, tinned bouillon, tinned biscuit and wafers, tinned fish of various kinds, cheese and bonbons In tinfoil. The menu might be something like this; Bouillon or consomme served in tin cups, lobster or salmon creamea in little dishes wit!: sandwiches. Jellied chicken or chick en croquettes with rolls, and ice with cake, then cofTee. For games you can play the children's old-fashioned game of "Spin the Platter," or "Tin! Tin!" Furnish eacli guest with some musical instrument of tin. appoint a leader and have an impromptu presen tation of some popular opera or simply a collection of popular songs. Among the tin instruments suited to the tin orches tra are trumpets, harmonicas, jews-harps, cymbals, horns, a comb and a tin pan for a drum. This in case you have leni ent neighbors or are a suburbanite with ample room. In decorating the house use tin palls, pans, quart cups, steamers, etc.. for hold ing flowers and vines, (jet from some tinner the wavy trimmings of tin and hang from the chandelier down, inter spersed with vines. If your guests are expected to bring with them tin gifts, ask each one as she or he arrives to tie the favor to uneven lengths of yellow and green baby ribbon fastened to a doorway or the chandelier in the parlor, where they will keep up a merry jingle. How the Japs Pull Teeth. The Japanese dentist does not frighten his patient with an array of steel Instru ments. All his operations In tooth draw ing are performed by the forefinger and thumb of one hand. The skill necessary to do this Is acquired only after long prac tice. but when once It is obtained the operator is able to extract half a dozen teeth In about thirty seconds, without once removing his fingers from the pa tient's mouth, says Home Notes. The dentist's education commences with the pulling out of pegs which have been pressed into soft wood; It ends with the drawing of hard pegs which have been driven into an oak plank with a mallet. Algerian vineyards produce more grapes per acre than those of any other country. a kilometer and a half In a closed loop and descended to earth without harm. As a fact, they delivered him his motor aeroplane In less than six months; and it is the series of trials to fulfill the last conditions of the contract that the cable Is reporting to you almost daily at the present moment. This explains why Gabriel Voisin is so much in evidence In Henry Karman's flying. He, with his brother and young Blerlot, are probably I more Interested in its winning the ! i Deutsch-Archdeacan 100,000 francs prize. ! in a business way. than is the sport who | amuses himself by learning the bird's : trade. There you have the situation. A flying machine?Improved on the model of one | that has flown short distances?is ordered by and delivered to a road-racing, break neck automobile sport, jvith a dreamy astronomical bent and any quantity of Knglish practical straightforwardness. Is? It Is a flying machine without any ! gas bag to help it rise into the air. Tou can take a playing card and throw | it so that it will skim the air for a long distance. This is what the motor-aero plane should do once It Is high enough in the air, with a swift-turning scre\$ propeller at its rear to keep pushing it on that it may continue skimming. Kites find support upon the air while held still by their oord, so long as the natural wind of heavefi rusrties beneith them, on condition that the boy has_rig ged the kite at the right angle. When the wind dies down, however, every boy j knows that he must run with his kite, ! pulling It against the still air. ? This is what the motor-aeroplane does? it must ,?kim onward always or it will begin to fall. If you Imagine a boy running with his kite on a, still day you will have the conception?very much, at least. Why must the boy continue run vertical partitions are simply to hold Its two plane surfaces together. It works on a leverage point at the front of the aeroplane, and Farman, sitting there in front, controlling its rear han dles. lifts or lowers?what? Why. he practically lifts or lowers the front end of his aeropla,ne. Close heBind him is the 50-horsepower Antoinette eight-cylinder motor, working very directly, without loss by gearing, on the two-bladed aerial propeller. There are plane surfaces on each side of him. plane surfaces above him like an awning? and more such plane surfaces behind him ?just to give a total surface for the wind to push up?as compact, strong and untip ping as possible?on condition that the wind can get beneath and push it up. How d#ss the>wind get beneath to push it up? Why. Farman lifts that vertical rudder?lifts the front of his whole ma chine at the right moment. He tried it good rate over the ground. Then, when he reached a certain speed upon the ground, Henry Farman lifted the head of the apparatus. Correcting the Line. It is called the "angle of attack" upon the air. The machine rushed against the air diagonally. The air rushed beneath the machine. The wheels quit the earth? the whole apparatus rose and skimmed diagonally upwardl The machine was fly ing! "Come down!" cried the Volsins. Henry Farman saw as well as they that he must corrie down instantly: there was a fence a:head and buildings on beyond. He lowered1 the vertical rudder. The wind no longer caught the onward-rushing planes at an up-pushing angle, and down came the apparatus by its weight, diag onally, like a hawk skimming downward. Daily thenceforth Farman practiced fly ing in a straight line. On October 15, for example, he mad? ten flights. On October 25 he made fifteen flights, each varying between 100 and 200 yards. Even flying in a straight line takes a deal of practice. Regularly Farman would rise diagonally to a height of ten or twelve yards and try to go onward hori zontally. He tried, but the air-skimming machine rose and dipped, and rose and dipped, and' rose and dipped, but always dipping more than it would rise, until at last in struck the earth. The line was something like this: Birds often have to do the same thing, only they recover and mount up again more promptly alter each dip. Farman would get up proper speed on earth, then lift the machine's head. The air would get beneath the on-rushing planes, and it was extraordinary to see the machine And the first thing Henry Farman does Is to sit in the machine quiet'.y, before it is actually finished, practicing the handling of its all-important vertical rudder. The vertical rudder?it is the secret of the motor-aeroplane. You understand what a motor-aeroplane ning with his kite? To arrive at the same thing as making wind pass beneath it, backward, and keep pushing it,, upward as it moves on. And this brings us to the all-important vertical rudder. You can see it plainly in all the photographs?the box-like thing projecting in front of tho machine. Its the first time on. October 1, 1!X>7, Jn the Bleriot-Voisin yard, with Gabriel Voisin calling1 to him to fro slow and not break the apparatus! The motor started. The prop Her began whirling 1,500 revolutions. It caught hold of the air and pushed the whole appa ratus, rolling on its little wlueels, at a He had stopped the motor. The machine rolled on its wheels awhile and stopped. j tiey took it to a far greater field?the milita-y maneuver grounds of Issy, out side Paris, where eight or ten other flying machine experimenters had obtained per mission to build their sheds and all ex periment together. mount on up diagonally like Elijah's chariot; only why did he not go on up. up. up? First, therp was caution not to go too high and como down smashing a valua ble machine not yet paid for; there was lots of time ahead to practice. Secondly, there always came a moment when Far WHERE WILL AMERICA BE WHEN OTHER POWERS BUILD WINGED FLEETS? Written for The Star. WHERE will the at-ri.t! navy of the United States rank in the days to come when the great powers go to war in the skies? This question appears to have aroused Uncle Sam from a nap into which he had fallen. A congress of aeronauts met -n New York only the other day and heard speeches from a number of men who know something of diplomacy, who read 1 the signs of the times arid who, above all, axe patriots. These men?Rear Admiral C. N. Chester. U S. X., and Gen. Allen, j U. S. A., among the number?sounded a j note of warning which found immediate answer in a recommendation to Congress, and which has echoed through the coun try. In a word, the speakers at the congress showed just how America had failed to realize the significance of what her rivals were doing with the airship a3 an auxil iary to their naval ar.d military establlsh ] ments. They showed that Uncle Sam had ! dozed for a moment, and that while his head drooped on his bosom a toy of yester day had become a powerful engine which was destined to play an important part i in the history of the future. And they showed, too? that the brains and hands which brought about this de j velopment were English, French and Ger | man, but. not American. America is used to leading, and Ameri I cans are not comfortable in the rear 1 rank of any procession, so it did not take i the convention of aeronauts long to pass j a resolution urging upon Congress the lm ' portance of providing funds fox an aerial fleet. They chered loudly at a statement of Gen. Allen, who said tnat ..e thought Secretary Taft would a3k ior J200,(>00 at i the next session to maintain an aero nautic branch in the army. So the matter will come right before ; Congress, and while every effort to in j crease the strength of the naval or mili tary establishment of the country raises ! more or less opposition. It is believed' I that the national lawmakers will not hesitate over a matter which, advocates of the plan argue. Involves the prestige of the nation. Senators and representa 1 tives are to be appealed to upon pa j triotic grounds, and the scream of the J eagle will doubtless echo through the i halls at Washington next month. In France and Germany. Over in France there are a couple of 1 dirigible airships which have been tested ; officially and found to operate nearly per fectly. "I-a Patrle" and "Ville de Paris,'1 j two steerable balloons, have beert ma ! neuverlng successfully for some time, j and only recently Premier Clemenceau | and Gen. Picquart took a voyage in "La Patrie." which served to indicate how seriously official France viewed the air ship as a military aid. With Santos Du mont, M. Deutsch, Count de la Vaulx and other enthusiasts working and en couraging work on the aerial problem, and aided. by the government, the de velopment of the airship has moved more swiftly in France than with any other European power. Germany, too, has been very busy. The kaiser himself, is an enthusiast on the subject of aeronautics, and he has Uncle Sam Begins to Realize That France, Germany and England Are Providing Themselves With Aerial Armies. On "BOA-ED THE. YlLLE. De BtfilS, A SUCC EL 5S FULi JFbemch Akmy* Ateship. 4ent Ills aid to every move which had for Its objsct the development of a practical dirigible balloon. As a result Count Zeppelin has produced an airship which recently made the remarkable record of remaining aloft seven hours, during which it was under complete control. Another army airship Is making dally flights over Berlin, and recently It circled about the kaiser's palace 1n the lace of a ; heavy wind, fully 1,800 feet above the ground. This balloon is fitted with a screw and vanes which drive the ship for ward at the rate of 45 feet a second. Tlie motor is run by gasoline, which is kept in a receptacle in the framework above the car. There are two small bal loons holding compressed air inside the grt-at envclo-pe, and by filling or emptying these the airship is raised or lowered without affecting the main gas bag. John Bull in the Ring. England has been the latest power to join the aerial fleet movement. A few days ago she launched her first war air ship at Farnbjrough, and the flight was a complete success. The British balloon is h cigar-shaped affair, 100 feet long, and Is fitted with a more complicated set of sails and vanes than the French and Ger man machines. It was made at the Aldershot balloon factory, but the de tails of its construction have been very carefully guarded. Meanwhile war experts, artists and seers have vied with one another In de picting the battle of the future, a terrible struggle in the air between the winged fleets of contending powers. The war balloon has been designated as an lnstru ment for dropping high explo:ivs from the clouds, upon cities and camps of an enemy, and for serving a belligerent as a means of scouting and observation. The "heavier-than-air" aeroplane?the cloud ship which depends upon its forward velocity to maintain its position aloft? has been depicted :4fc^he armored cruiser of the sky on which the great guns -will be mounted and from which torpedoes and shells will be hurled. Call for Federal Aid. But through it all Uncle Sam seems to have slumbered until the congress of aeronauts woke him up, by calling for fed:ral aid. American inventors have experimented with both kinds of airships, most notably the Wright brotthers, whose aeroplane has performed some remarka ble feats, but up to date the govern ment has declined to recognize the im portance of federal encouragement. In deed, It is reported from time to time that the Wrights ara nsgotiating with a foreign power for the sale of their inven tion. An experimental department of aero photograph taken from deck, of feench . jsjesjitp4 high ? a"bovefc pa~z 13 I nautics Is needed far more than a con struction department, inasmuch as the present-day airship, with all Its startling feats, is far from perfection. While It will undoubtedly play a most Important part in the battles of the future, its opera tion will entail a tremendous risk to the lives of the men who sail it, unless some safety device now unknown is developed. With this thought in mind, the powers across the sea are straining every nerve In aerial experiments. Will America ignore a sign of the times so vital in its bearing upon the country's future prestige? Houses and Their Names. House owners are sometimes rather un fortunate In their selection of names for their abodes, and in suburbia house nam ing is occasionally rather ludicrous. Thus, "The Maples" have never a maple near, "The Rosary" only exists in the imagina tion. "Sunnyside" is the most depressing villa residence, and houses named after i the English lakes no more suggest the! lake district than Fleet street suggests the Bois de Boulogne. The Anglo-Saxon word "hyrst," signify ing a forest or wood, has become "hurst" in house naming, and "wood" and "nolt" have the same meaning; all house names ending with these terminations are pretty 1 and not unsafe to choose. It is curious to note tfat in Hastings and St. Leonards quite a number of houses have typically Saxon names, perhaps to commemorate the great Saxon tragedy of which the name of Hastings is reminis cent. says Woman's Life. A curious custom in parts of America is to call a house by its owner's Christian name transposed, thus in Quebec an old residence is locally known as "Darnoc, and In other districts may be found "Senga," "Aidyl" and "Trebor," and some times a combination of two names is used, one favorite being "Lillemyn"?a fanciful union of the names of Lillian and Minnie. Drop Earrings Worn Again. The fancy for the old-fashioned long drop earrings is more than a fad; it has become an actual fact, and is put into practice for street as well as for evening wear. A stunning looking blond wore a lovely pair of these ornaments in Jet, such a fttting linish to her handsome toilet. Stones lightly set with gold are pre ferred to those entirely gold?turquoise, coral and amethysts being generally fa vored. Drop pear!s are also used, and those who have the screw earrings are ha"lng the drops added. This can be done with any kind of screw earrings, the drops being selected to match if desired. First Pocket Handkerchief. The pocket handkerchief was not in vogue until 1540, when a beautiful Ven etian lady appeared carrying one, and from this time it became common use in Italy. The French were quick to follow the fashion, and pocket handkerchiefs were made of costly materials and richly embroidered. They were brought to Eng land from France, says Home Notes, but Germany was slow to adopt their use, and when at last the pocket handkerchief was introduced it represented the great wealth and noble lineage of its possessors. Italy's Future King. Prince Umberto of Piedmont, the heir to the Italian throne, who is now three years old, is a strong, sturdy boy. brought up by English methods, going barefooted when at the seaside and wearing sandals in Rome, says Home Notes. He already chatters in Italian and knows a little French and English, and of these two languages he understands English ttie better. Finds Turning Difficult, But Says Any One Will Fly Within the Next Few Months, man would unconsciously move hi* body forward, which would lower the 'lead ot the machine, or lean to one side which would give a tip that must be compen sated. or the motor would give less force, slowing the attack upon the air. Ami so on. Each such accident would cause a downward dip. He would lift the machine's head In stantly, and the rise would follow the dip; and, day by day, the upward curve would more and more begin to equal the down curve, until on Saturday, October 26, 1907, In presence of the official time keepers of the Aero Club de France, he flew in a straight line 350 yards and then 403 yards. This latter was the str.Ught across limit of the Issy maneuver grounds ?making allowance for the necessary space to get up speed upon the ground. "I'll try it diagonally." called Farman. and. starting from one corner, new a straight 780 yards to the far corner at tne other side?and could have kept on. easily, a kilometer, two. three who knows? A hundred witnesses affirm It. There aro photographs, Bnap-shotted as he came down. They show that be came down by a willful downward ma neuver of his vertical rudder. "X have got the trick of straight ahead flying," he said that night to his admirers at the Palais de l'Automoblle. "Now I'll attack turning!" At this writing he has turned again and again from the straight line by a quarter of a circle. Several times ho has come down and slightly damaged the machine, and there are scientists on paper, mostly from the Polyteehnlque, who explain why turning with one screw propeller will be quite impossible. Practice or Theory, Do you know what they call the gyro scope? It is a scle?tiflc toy?a. round top that, by its rapid revolutions, gets pecul iar immobility. On the point of a pencil it maintains Itself straight. Give It a push over and it comes back. To changa its plane of rotation requires a compara tive effort. Now, they say, the single screw-propel ler of the Farman aeroplane, revolving at 1,500 turns, becomes a gigantic gyroscope. Going straight ahead is all right. But when Farman tries to turn it opposes that pig-headed resistance, compromising lon gitudinal equilibrium. That is whiy the apparatus jumps suddenly into the air when he tries to turn to the right and dives when he attempts to turn to the lert. "I know nothing about gyroscopes," says Henry Farman, "and I can already turn a quarter circle." "Have two propellers, revolving in oppo site directions, and the difficulty will be obviated," says the Polyteehnlque school. "L<et's wait and see," says Farman. "Wo will see you go skidding!" says the Polyteehnlque. "When you shift your horizontal rudder you will turn your quarter circle ajl right, but during the next moment the acquired speed wii! oppose itself to your change of direction? and you will skid like an automobile that has turned too short on a slippery road. Slippery roads are nothing in compari son with the slippery air! "We see but one possible way out of the difficulty," conclude the mathemati cians. "You will have suddenly to tilt the whole apparatus downward on the inside curve like a bicycle racer round ing a tilted track. Birds do It when they want to turn. They do not depend on their tails for horizontal rudders. They slant their whole bodies Inward?out stretched wings and all." "That's just what I'm learning to do at present!" answers Henry Farman. STERLING HEILJG. TO PROTECT THE EARS SPECIAL CARE IS ESSENTIAL IN WINTER, Ear troubles are frequent In cold weather. They develop laTgely through the action of cold upon wax In the audi tory canal, and the proper care of this becomes a matter of Importance. To re move too much of the wax means to run danger of Injuring the hearing; to let too much remain Is neither cleanly nor wise. The safe manner of cleaning should be understood by every person, for the ear is one of the most delicate organs we have, and the risk of doing permanent damage is ever present. According to one of the best known aurists in New York, the safest meth'ol of daily cleaning is to put a bit of old thin linen, such as a handkerchief, over the tip of the little finger and insert this into the orifice. The cloth should not go deeper than the finger tips can reach. In this way there will be no chance of hurting the hearing. While this Is undoubtedly a safe, scien tific way, the average woman will find a hairpin more to her liking. Under no cir cumstances should a stick or other point ed implement be used, but the loop at the end of a hairpin prevents Its doing harm unless it is thrust in so hard as to cause pain. One is not likely to do this. To wash the Interior wet a bit of linen and rub on some soap, then wrap this with one thickness only about the pin loop and put it gently Into the ear. The cloth may be turned slowly and then at once removed and a fresh part taken to repeat the operation. Rinse by wetting the cloth another time In warm water. Cold water should never be used in cleaning the ears. It will tend to harden the wax. and once this happens deafness, though only temporary, will usuajly en sue. Warm glycerin is the greatest aid when there Is trouble caused by accumulated and hard wax. In using this put a few drops into the ear at night and rest the head so that the lotion will not run out. In the morning a careful cleaning with hot water may be sufficient to remove the obstruction, but If it Is not, one should go immediately to a physician to have the canal cleaned. Violent blowing of the nose Is a source of danger to the ears, and not infrequent ly causes temporary deafness by closing the auditory canal. On the other hand, sometimes the ears may be cleared when temporarily stopped by holding the nos trils closed with the fingers and then making an effort to blow. The air. mak ing its escape, finds no outlet through the nose, and so rushes to the ears, thus often clearing the passage. If one effort in this direction, however, accomplishes nothing, it should not be tried again. for the risk of doing harm to the ear drum becomes too great. A Charming Chinese. The style of a Chinese lady's dress ap parently never alters, but if she can afford to do so she wears nothing but silk. The first garment that she dons Is a sort of ipron, a plain plfce of silk which is tied round the waist and overlaps behind. Then comes underjacket and over jacket. Tousers and apron. In cold weather extra lackets. thickly wadded, are donned, says Home Notes. If the fair Chinese Is going to receive friends, or for any other reason wishes to ippear specially charming, she paints her ace with a paste made of rice flour, which irles and gives her a most cadaverous ap pearance. A white monkey, the first albino of Its tlnd seen In South Africa, has lately been raptured In the bush by a resident of Port Slizabeth.?Home Notes.