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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, June 06, 1908, Image 25

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T"*HKRE has been so much talk about "landscape gardening" and "garden engineering" in recent
^ vears that we arc in danger of forgetting how to do fine gardening ourselves. Vet it will
surclv strike the observant amateur that some of the most successful achievements of land
scape and scenic gardeners of the modern school have been the production of the effects that were
so charming in the old-fashioned country gardens.
Simple Devices and Little Tricks by Which Droughts and
/ Floods Are Checked.
ABOUT this time the very young
and delicate plants that are just
springing up from seed in the
t garden borders are very liable to
destruction from being washed
nut by the frequent thunder showers. A
simple way to save them is this:
Around each group of little plants lay
slats so rut that they will form a perfect
frame. I.ath is the ideal stuff. It oan be
either Wid flat or set in edgewise. This
wooden frame around the various beds
where the dainty plantlets are will be
Just enough to prevent the water from
running over them out of the other parts
of the bed. Thus the plantlets so pro
tected will get only the water that actu
ally falls on them, and this will not be
enough to do them any barm, except in
extraordinary cases. Seedlings are rarely
ruined by the shower itself. It is the
water flooding and running over the beds
that destroys them. Occasionally birds
will develop love for certain young plants.
Usually they bother the vegetable garden
more than they do the flower garden,
though the latter Is not entirely safe from
them. Their greatest damage among the
very young flowers, however, is done by
their hunt for worms and insects, in the
course of which laudable endeavor they
frequently scratch up the plants. In the
vegetable garden, on the other hand, they
love the young peas and similar tender
To keep them away it is merely neces
sary to drive a stick at each end of a
row or side of a bed. letting It stand about
a foot above the soil. Stretch a string
across and on this hang thin strips of
white rags. Very few. if ato. birds will
venture near this contrivance.
A most effective and easy way to writer
a garden patch of any size in a drought,
where^ no hose can be used and lots of
water is needed urgently, is to draw fur
rows between the plants with a long,
pointed stick, beginning with'a very shal
low impression and making the furrow
deeper and deeper toward the end. When
a sufficient number of these furrows has
been made pour water in the shallow ends
as fast as the furrow will take it. It will
run down the inclines and soak away in
Its course, thus reaching the roots of the
Cutworms, the brown grubs with stripes
and a pair of pincecs at the head, which
cut off plants just under the ground, can
often be caught by putting stones or chips
near tl*? plants and Lifting them carefully
early in the morning. Mr. Cutworm
works underground at night, and at dawn
creeps forth to seek a sleeping place for
the day in just such spots.
Always have a little ??an of Bordeaux
mixture handy Well diluted, according
to the directions that come with it. it will
uo wonders in a Inrge proportion of the
mysterious ills and blights that come to
plants. both flowers and vegetables.
When halves turn yellow or ?et g ust spot
ted. or w 11 en they wrinkle up and droop
itrd you cannot find any insect at work,
give the plant a spraying with the mix
ture. Be sure to wash all vegetables
carefully hel'nre using them for the table
if they have been sprayed, as the stuff is
Keep a little nitrate of soda in stock.
Almost every plant will be the better for
having a pinch of it dug near the roots
now and then. Where plants look poor
give them a little more. A pound costs
only T. or 6 cents.
A pointed stick about three feet long
and half an inch in diameter, hidden be
hind a cluntp of plants, where it will be
handy, is one of the great labor savers
tn a garden. At a p.neh it will take the
place of spade, hoe, rake and trowel for
emergency work.
PRACTICALLY any vegetable grow
ing in the ordinary garden can
be transplanted, especially if the
transplanting is confined to re
moving it to another place close
by. Therefore, as the t'.me comes for
thinning out lettuce. beets. etc., study
the ground first to see whether sr not you
can arrarge to plant the thinned portion
You may have some rows set to late
growing vegetables. In that case it may
he possible to let the thinned stuff grow
to maturity between the rows there be
fore the*other vegetables will need the
room. Or there may be places in rows
where the stuff has not come up.
Transplanting is simplicity itself if done
right. First prepare very carefully the
spots where the transplanted things aro
to go. Make the earth very fine and soft,
?so that a mere touch of the finger will
make a dent in it. But don't dig a hole
to receive the plant. After the ground
has 'been thoroughly prepared level it per
Now take a garden trowel and lift the
vegetable to be transplanted. Take it
up with as much earth as you can afford
to remove from the row. Be sure to in
sert the trowel deep enough to get far
under the roots.
Carry it tQ the new spot, and with
hands or stick hollow out a very shallow
oavity about the diameter of the piece of
?arth you have removed Press this Into
the spot, forcing it in till the earth has
been compressed to the level of the sur
rounding soil. Make sure that the roots
are well packed.
After the soil has been made fine the
actual transplanting can be done at the
rate of a minute to a plant. The writer
trnnsplanted oven such tender vegetables
as beans and peas last week with perfect
success, though this is unusual at this
Of course, young flower plants may be
transplanted in exactly the same way It
is a very good thing to puddle each
transplanted growth freely with water as
soon as it is in its new spot.
The vegetable garden will profit im
mensely from this time by frequent and
regular cultivation. If the earth between
?h.? rows has been well worked during the
past few weeks, there should be no weeds
and the earth should be like a dust blan
ket. If it looks hard and naked, with
cracks in it here and there you mav be
sure that it needs raking and'tllling right
It is not necessary, however, nor desir
able. that the rake should go deep and
tear up a lot of soil. As a rule this lat
ter method will result only in breaking
earth into clods and heaping too much
up against the vegetables on .each side,
if the raking is done frequent!v it will
be sufficient merely to draw the rake
gently over the rows, working it back
and forth easily till the soil Is covered
with a thin layer of finely powdered dirt.
IMPROVEMENT of the canna by plant
specialists has made it indispensable
in the home garden, where flower
beds are desired as an ornament on the
lawn or parkway. The canna is remark
able for its endurance in the full heat
of the sun. Its leathery foliage always
looks fresh and green and the hotter
the sun the more abundantly the cannas
At the same time, cannas do well In
the shade, although they flower far less
freely under such conditions. Cannas
should be planted in good, rich garden
soil mixed with rotted stable manure in
equal portions. Water sparingly the first
two weeks after setting out the plants.
It is best to obtain plants that have been
started in a greenhouse, and they should
not be set out until the latter part of May.
when there is no longer anv danger of
When the plants are growing freely
they should be watered freely. Set the
plants eighteen inches apart each way,
and if more than one kind is used he care
ful to plant the taller-growing kinds in
th ? center and the dwarf ones along the
edge of the bed.
Varieties can be obtained which will
reach the height desired. Canna beds as
a rule, should be planted with a single
color. An excellent border for a canna
bed is made of salvia.
There are hundreds of named varieties
of cannas, with large flowers and with
small, tall and dwarf growing, and florists
in every city may be found who will
supply the plants to nil the requirements
or a gardener.
plot and house shown here are typical specimens of nine out of ten suburban "gardens."
They look neat and trim enough with their shorn bits of lawn and their carefully trimmed
borders; but neatness and primness are all they achieve, whereas a very simple use of the oppor
tunity in even a small plot would result in making it beautiful.
The great mistake made by these suburban house owners is to confine their flower bed to a
narrow border along the veranda, and to cut it invariably with straight edges, carefully trimmed.
Just the reverse treatment is needed, (iive this border a great sweep. Let it be wide and let its
edges curve and jut irregularly, according to the needs of the flowers that you plant in it. At
the corners it should extend out into the lawn three times as far as docs the one in the picture.
^llere is a simple way to plan such a border to make it \ruly arti*tic and picturesque. Im
agine that the lawn is a body of water. Xow consider your flower border as the shore line.
Can't you sec at once how it should run out and debouch and fgrm little curves in order to be
beautiful ?
Let your border around the house be the strong feature of the place instead of being merely
an accessory to the lawn, as it is in most suburbs. Indeed, the writer's own private opinion is
that a lawn is hardly worth fussing over unless one can have an immense* one?a lawn with
vistas and views on it. For the average small place, flowers and shrubbery are preferable. The
most constant work in a small garden is caused by the lawn. (Copyright, i?w. i,y As*onate<j Literary Pre??.t
Each Vine Should Be Pruned to a Single Stem and Should Be
Trained Upright.
THE simplest method of tomato
raising in large 'commercial
quantities is to let tiie vines
sprawl along the ground; but
this plan produces less and
smaller fruit and causes the loss of more
fruit through rot than even the crudest
methods of training.
It is probable that the very best results
are obtained from training the tomatoes
upright, pruning each vine to only h slngie
stem. In this method the side shoots are
all pinched off, and after three or four
clusters of fruit have set all subsequent
blossoms are pinched off. This is tlie way
to get, not only the earliest fruit, but also
the most regular in size.
Another upright training system con
sists in training each vine with two or
three stems.
In this upright training the main prop
is a strong stake set deeply into the
ground, letting at least four feet remain
above the soil. Crosspieces are nailed to
this at intervals, if the tomato is grown
to more than one stem. In all forms of
upright training great care must be taken
to tie the plant very firmly at frequent
intervals to the sake. Every few days
it will need more tying, if the tying is
carelessly done or-neglccted entirely the
fruits arc almost certain to break the
sfniR down before they have ripened.
I^ess carefulness is needed when the
more common method is used for lotting
the plants grow, as they will, over low
supports* that are near the ground and
just serve to hold the tomato away from
actual contact with the earth.
in every method, let the gardener re
member that the aim of all forms of grow
ing and training is. after all. only to give
each fruit all the sunlight it < an possibly
get. Plenty of sunlight will prevent two
apparently contradictory troubles. It will
prevent the check in ripening that often
comes to shaded fruits. It will also pre
vent the rotting that comes to fruits that
start to ripen fast and then suddenly
Therefore, even if the tomato plants
are permitted to sprawl over the popular
barrel hoop or similar supports when they
will need no tying, it will pay to see that
the leaves do" not shade the fruit. Toma
toes make enormous leafage. It is not
difficult, however, to keep bending the
leaf stems back and training them under.
The barrel-lioop support Is made simply
by nailing three sharpened stakes to a
barrel hoop, driving the "????*<?? into the
ground and training ftie tomato plant over
the hoop. A cylinder of poultry netting
set over each vine and held tightly by
deeply driven stakes makes an excellent
If lath is plentiful, a very good system
of supports for vines planted in rows may
be made by laying one slat on another
and driving a wire nail through the upper
ends so that the two laths will swing
open like scissors. Set a series of these
between tomato rows so that every two
slats will form a triangle with the ground
as the base. The vines, will climb on
each side and will need some tying, as In
the ease of upright supports.
A makeshift arrangement Is to drive
two short pieces of wood at each end of
the tomato row and set long slats on them
tu run along the row. The plants are
trained between the slats. The contrivance
keeps them within bounds, but does lit -
tie else. It is mentioned because it is a
quick expedient; otherwise it is the least
desirable of all that have been named.
An extremely effective but troublesome
and space exacting device is to make a
regular latticework of slats and set this
over the entire tomato patch so that the
plants will run oves it exactly as they
would over the earth. This latticework
need not be raised more than a few
inches above the ground.
NOTHING is more interesting to
farmers trian the ns wmethod
of farming, which requires
only ;i very small piece of land
and is enormously protitable.
From the idea that immense tracts are
nece.vsu ry in success fill farming persons
with farsight ami business acumen are
turning i<> test the theory that greater
success s achieved on a tiny farm man
aged its ti e right way.
As the plan of farming on a small scale.
wilii out-of-?eason vegetables as the
product i>a* passed tlie* experiment stage,
it is possibl ? to teil the story with the
confidence of knowledge. The hothouses
for vegetables that have heen selected as
the basis of this article is one of several
that have sprung into existence since the
immense profit In the new method of
farming became assured. At the time the
accompanying photographs were taken
it was tiie season for growing radishes.
That is to say. it was the hothouse sea
son for radishes, which means that It
was not the season for radishes elsewhere.
Nothing is grown on these hothouse farms
except those things that cannot be pro
cured in the usual way. In this country
of luxurious livers there are always a
sufficient number of well-to-do persons
who will pay almost any price asked for
fruit or vegetables provided they possess
the magic property of being out of season
and therefore not to be had by those who
cannot afford extravagancies.
The vegetables are planted in beds. A
medium sized hothouse is about 200 feet
long and twenty-five feet wide with two
paths running the full length. It can bp
heated either by steam or hoi water. In
preparing a lied for planting it is first
well manured and dug under. Then it
is gone over with the utmost care. In
fact, there must be a pebble or a single
piece of foreign substance left in the soil.
Kvery pound of soil is treated with minute
attention, raked and sifted and mixed so
that it becomes the finest soil that care
and experience can provide.
When the soil has been thus carefully
prepared toothed rollers mark the smooth
beds with little "pots" or holes in rows
about three inches apart. Then two seeds
are dropped by hand into each pot. The bed
is then smoothed over with a trowel.
Fancy such farming on the ordinary truck
When the little seed leaves make their
appearance through the soil they need
watering two or three times a week. When
they acquire a height of about an inch It
is necessary to thin them out. for when
two seeds sprout together It is necessary
to weed one of them, the weaker one, out.
in about eight weeks. In the case of
radishes, the crop is ready to be gulled.
When they are pulled up the bed is imme
diately planted with something else. Sticii
soil as is used in this kind of a farm is
entirely too valuable fo be permitted to
rest for a minute. Ii must l?e earning
something for its owner ail tiie time.
By til? lima the radishes are ready to
be pulled the lettuce is just ready to
spread out. Three rows of radishes are
now pianted in between. After these are
pulled another crop is planted with two
row* and by the time those two rows of
radishes are ready for pullitiK the lettuce
is full grown and also ready for the mar
Another vegetable that is grown profita
bly i ntlvese out-of-season farmhouses is
cauliflower. Large beds of parsley and
mint are also grown, these latter being
planted in rows from six to eight inches
apart. When the parsley or mint is cut
one or two rows of radishes are planted
In between.
The secret of success in this novel farm
ing is in keeping the soil always at work.
The space Is so limited that unless this
is done the farm will not pay. It is of
course a most expensive way to raise
vegetables, but as the growers have a
market peculiarly their own and one in
which they can dictate the prices the
profits of the business are assured.
? Sunday Menu.
Straw tierrles on ihe stem.
Hioe eooked with milk aud cream.
J'resh Mackerel brolb'd. Watercress.
French souffle potatoes.
Noodle aouif.
Radish"*. 1>llves.
Fried breast of lamb, tomato satire.
J?cw potatoes. , Asparagus.
Lettuce with French dressing.
t'lieese biscuit.
Strawlierry i<e. Sponge cake.
Blai k i
Cold boiled salmon with mayonnaise.
Sliced cucumbers. Bread and butter.
1'iueapplc. Chocolate cake.
WHIM: brides ^nd sweet girl
graduates are not scattered
promiscuously in every fam
ily-mores the pity?few in
deed are the homes or indi
viduals not affiliated in soiih- way. by ties
of blood, marriage or friendship, with
these adorable "dear delights" of June.
"Sons and brothers" are just as essen
tial in all June's festivities, even though
they art* to play the second fiddle, pic
turesquely and pictorially. and the rela
tives of grooms or boy,graduates may re
joice in the fact that the show could not
go on without them. Class reunions are
just as often held nowadays at the homes
of the boys as the girls, and though the
wedding is invariably given by the bride's
family, there are other social functions
modeled on the #ame lines as the old
Nantucket "second day weddings," where
the groom's friends show their good will.
In the Matter of Gifts.
Commencement gifts are as essentia] as
bridal presents. All the book catalogues
make a. tine showing of books specially
adapted for this purpose. Kine editions
of the poets, favorite authors for hoys and
girls, attractively illustrated and bound,
and "commencement buoks" with place*
for class autographs and photographs, dl
plomas. tlowers and even a place for a bit
of the graduation gown, are jjopular.
Pieces- ?.f jewelry and fans are. also much
appreciated by the girls as commencement
Kifts. while for the boys a watch fob or
bordered silk handkerchief becomes the
acme of elegance. _ ,
Wedding gifts are no longer ticketeu
with the names of the donors. As fast as
presents are received a note book ready
for the occasion is used to list the
and donor so that in the grand whirl that
envelopes the last days 'here need be no
danger of forgetting "who is who ' and
' which is which." If possible the note of
thanks is dispatched immediately, men
tioning the gift by name instead of the
vague "your charming present." In se
lecting the wedding gift thought and a lit
tle of self should go along, as "The gift
without the giver is bare."
Duplicates Not Wanted.
-Mlhough many articles may be dupli
cated without objection, no one wants a
?lozen soup ladles or butter knives, hoi
tins reason it is becoming more and more
Uie custom to restrict presents of table
silver to the relatives an<5 more intimate
friends who may be supposed to compare
notes and avoid duplicat ons. The bride's
girl friends frequently t.*iite in purchasing
the bride's chest, and *n some cases part
ly furnishing it. Candlesticks are among
the popular odd gif'.s, and now th.it they
are used so much in lighting the table and
bedrooms and for decorative purposes
there is small danger of becoming over
stocked. At a recent wedding a pair of
colonial brass candlesticks held pale green
bayberry candles. These dips are all
made in an old country village, layer by
layer, by hand, in the quaint old fashion.
Oil the card attached to the sticks was
the legend "Burn a bayberry dip and
think of a .friend." This allusion 1s to the
old days when a pretty maid searched the
woods for the fragrant berries and with
her own hands molded two slender tapes,
one for herself and one for lover or friend
far away.
On an appointed evening they lighted
their "dips" and the incense?so runs the
tradition was supposed to drift together
as a synibol of their love.
From Old Daguerrotypes.
Another unique gift at a recent wedding
was the photographed daguerrotypes of
the bride's great grandmothers, grouped
in one frame. They were charming,
every detail of face, coiffure and gowns
coming out with clearness of detail. The
coloring of these daguerreotype photo
graphs is striking. The white lights are
clear and the dark tones are rich, as in
the photographs of old masters. For all
the quaintness of costume, the pictures
have a modern look and where the sub
ject was handsome to start with the pic
tures are wonders o>f artistic charm.
Pot Pourri Jar.
Another unique and greatly appreciated
present to a bride a few years ago was
a beautiful pot pourri jar that was after
ward filled with the roses and other flow
ers preserved from the wedding. As flow
ers were used in great profusion, there
was abundance of material to draw upon.
While I do not know the exact propor
tions of the various flowers and spices
used in this special case. I can give you
a good general formula that can be al
tered to suit existing conditions. As a
jar of this kind will hold its fragrance for
years, the sentiment attached to thus
preserving the wedding blossoms is at
once apparent. When roses are gathered
little by little until the desired number is
obtained, gather early in the morning
while the dew is still on. This is the time
the roses are gathered in Bulgaria for
the famous attar of rose. Strip off the
leaves and dry on papers spread on the
floor in an unused room. When you have
a half peck, fine, dry leaves, take a large
china or glass bowl, strew a handful of
table salt on the bottom, then three or
four "handfuls of the leaves. Follow with
more salt and more leaves, and so on until
all the leaves are used, covering the top
with salt. I>et this remain five days, stir
ring and turning twice a day. When they
seem moist add three ounces bruised all
spice and two ounces bruUed stick cinna
mon. This forms the body of the stock.
Let this remain a week or so, turning
daily from top to bottom. Now it is
ready for the permanent jar, which
should have a double lid.
How to Mix It.
Mix together on* oiUNe each bruised
cloves and cinnamon* two nutmegs
coarsely powdered, two ounces ginger
root sliced thin, oue-half ounce bruised
anise seed, one-half pound dried laveiul**
flowers, two ounces sliced orris root, two
ounces dried orange and lemfcn i>eel. ten
grains musk and whatever you have tn
the way of dried violets. clov? pinks,
tuberoses, orange blossoms, lemon ver
bena and bergamot. A little dried rose
mary is also an addition. Now pack the
rose leaves in tli? jar in layers, putting
the fragrant mixture of spices, etc., be
tween each layer. \Vh?-n filled pour in a
liquid mixture made from a pint of Flor
ida toilet water, the same amount of mag
nolia water, with the essential oils of
jassemine, rose geranium, violet, rosemary
or any other perfumes desirfd. Snake and
stir once or twice a week and open dally
for a few moments, taking care not to
leave it uncovered any length of time.
The best time to open the Jar Is in tha
morning after the rooms have been fresh
ened and prepared for the day. Ros-*
leaves and other fragrant flowers may b*
added all through the season, but salt
must hi- used also as in th<; beginning
This will retain i^s delicate fragran<-? for
a quarter of a century and should be in
evidence at the fciiver wedding.

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