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Wdd-Pttt r> Mn ,t , e MAY KEVOLUTI ONI ZE, PAPER MAKING INDUSTRY ' ' ' ' Digester and Blow-Pit. The Press and Chipper. EXPERTS Prove That Paper Can Be Manufac tured From Cornstalks?Lit tle Building Where Govern ment Has Been Conducting Experiments That Will Revo lutionize the Paper Business ?Looked Upon by Forestry Officials as Solution of the Question of the Conserva tion of the Forests?Dr. Bris tol and His Assistants Have Been Experimenting for Two Years?They Claim That the Paper Made From White Fir Pulp Is Superior to That Made From Spruce?Farmers Will Reap Great Financial Benefit From Sale of Waste Cornstalks. DISCOVERIES which are calcu lated to revolutionize the paper making industry of the country have recently been made by the wood chemistry experts of the United States forestry bureau. These discoveries have been made in a email, unpretentious red brick building at the southeastern end of^Pennsylvania avenue, where for more than a year and a half government experts have been la boring on the manufacture of wood pulp. The experiments which they are now concluding are expected, it is said, to settle two great national questions?how to save the forests of the country from depletion and how to make commercial use of one of the largest of the waste products of the farm. The experts say they have proved, and are now demonstrating, that pulp, which was heretofore made only from wood, can be manufactured from ordinary corn stalks. Such pulp, too, can be made more cheaply and its quality is as good, if not better, for paper-making than any other. The far-reaching effects of this dis covery are readily apparent if the results claimed prove true. It will probably put an end to the bitter war between the newspaper publishers and the American pulp and paper manufacturers over the annually increasing cost of paper; will <Jo away with the necessity of the removal of the present high tariff on imported pulp and finally will open a new and al most boundless field of prolit for the farmers. The discovery is due In a large measure to the newspapers of the coun try. Simultaneously with the opening boom of the newspaper cannon and the roar of the legal rapid lire guns which pro claimed the battle royal againEt the paper trust nearly two years ago, I'ncle Sam started an investigtion. He found, first, that the cost of paper had increased more than 100,000.000 within two years; second, that the continually increasing consumption of timber was surely and Inevitably resulting in the total destruc tion of the once vast forests of spruce, poplar and hemlock?supposedly the only Washing and Screening Machine. woods from which commercial pulp could be manufactured. These facts led to the establishment of ft government factory In this city, a fac tory perfect In detail and appointment, but not extensive. Dr. H. S. Bristol, chief of the section of wood chemistry. United States forestry service, was placed in charge and, aided by a score of govern ment chemists, began the experiments which he Is now bringing to so sucess ful a conclusion. However, It was only recently that he began his experiments with cornstalks. His first steps were guided by the theory that other woods could be employed with as good or better results than the rapidly disappearing species so exclusively used. This Idea caused the paper manufac turers of the country to smile pityingly. They had tried other woods and they were sure that for the manufacture of pulp, at least, they were useless. Nevertheless, samples of every kind of wood were obtained by the government factory, their fiber and chemical com position carefully studied and then they were put through the pulp making pro cess. The results proved that while each species demanded a particular treat ment. one was quite as good as another and that a particularly fine quality of pulp and paper can be made from white fir and scrub pine, of which there are millions of acres of vast, uncut tracts. I'p to the present time these specie* have been going to waste for lack of some commercial means of disposing of them. They have been but little used for lumber, and their proportion In the forests has therefore tended to in crease. On the other hand, spruce, pop lar and hemlock have yearly grown more scarce, a fact easily understood when one considers that last year alone the manufacture of pulp necessi tated the stripping of an area half as large as the state of Rhode Island. The Possibilities Discovered. The substitution of white fir and scrub pine for these woods is In itself enough to Insure against the destruction of the forests for the time being, but so contin ually does the demand for this product Increase that even the supply of these substitutes must eventually be exhausted. With the cornstalks, however, no such fear need be eptertalned. Billions of stalks are yearly used as fodder, but be sides these, statistics of the forestry bu reau show that there are more than enough annually going to waste to supply twice the annual demand for pulp. It is a source which has not only been un touched, but which can be employed at a very low cost to the producer, with the best results, and which has the Inesti mable advantage of offering a new supply every year. A tree takes from eight to fifteen years to mature, and, once cut down. It cannot be replaced before that time rolls away again. A cornstalk, how ever, matures In a single season. Indeed, in some sections of the corn belt there are two annual supplies. What this means to the farmer can be readily realized. Heretofore, with the exception of a very small portion which he utilized in feeding his stock, thousands of stalks were left to rot on the fields. Dr. Bristol's discovery is expected to con vert this waste into a useful and market able product. What it means to the manufacturers of pulp and the purchasers of that prod uct in its various forms Is. perhaps, dif ficult for the lay mind to grasp. Yearly the demand has advanced with gigantic strides', until in 1907 the enormous total of 3,ti00.000 cords of wood were used In the manufacture of pulp. This is an increase of more than a million and a half cords in eight years, and no for ests, however dense, could long with stand such inroads. And, corresponding with the increasing demand and the diminishing supply, there has been an enormous Increase In the cost of the articles made from wood pulp. During the past five years the cost of paper has Increased at the rate of from 35 to 50 per cent per annum. The price of imported pulp has Increased over 40 per cent in a like period, for In all other parts of the world It has become yearly more difficult to obtain the nece.? sary amount of the few species of woods which have been considered exclusively necessary. 4,000,000 Tons Last Year. And the failure of this supply would be a more serious affair than Is at first realized. Nearly four million tons of pulp were made last year, most of which was used In the manufacture of paper for magazines, books, and newspapers. But there are a multitude of other uses to which wood pulp is put. From the pulp factories It goes In a crude form to other establishments, where It is made Into a number of different articles. Among these articles Is the water pail, made of wood fiber, which is now a more familiar sight than the one made of actual wood. In addition to palls, wood pulp Is used in homes in the form of basins, dishes, boxes and picture frames. .Its use in the manufacture of car wheels has long been known, but a new use reported from Germany is for telegraph poles. Articles of wood pulp have a considerable bearing on electrical Industries, as In the case of conduits and insulators in various forms. Americans now use wood pulp steam and water pipes, shoe heels, horseshoes, spools, tool handles, buttons, pulleys, pav ing blocks and coffins. Paper?or wood pulp?surgeon splints have many advan tages over those of other materials, in their lightness, strength and flexibility, but of all its uses, none is probably so unique as that for observatory domes. Here again its lightness, strength and flexibility commend It and. in addition, it has nonfe of the disadvantages which arise from the use of metallic substances near to sensitized Instruments. It is probably used in the greatest quan tities however. In the newspapers through out the country. One big metropolitan dally, a paper with morning and evening editions which are said to have an aggre gate daily circulation of nearly a million copies, used 77,333.875 paunds of white paper last year. This is an average of 211.873 pounds a day. Since there is now only a comparatively small acerage of spruce, hemlock and poplar remaining in the country, tlie fail ure to produce a substitute for these woods, together with a continuation of this rate of consumption on the part of newspapers, would mean that within a very few years the country would be com pelled to obtain its supply of wood from foreign countries. There need be no such waste in the employment of cornstalks, however, or. if waste there be, it need arouse no quaims. The supply is as unlimited as it is inex pensive. Conducting the Experiments. There is no more interesting department of the government service than the little, one-story brick building in which Dr. Bristol and his assistants have made these discoveries which will revolutionize the pulp industry. In an iron shed just out side the building are stored the wood samples used?for they are still experi menting for better and cheaper results with species that have hertofore been con sidered worthless. These samples, con sisting of about a thousand pounds of each species, are being continually collect ed by the forestry assistants in the field and are shipped to the laboratory in Washington for future use. InBide the building proper are the en gines, vats, digesters, strainers; in short, everything that is necessary to the equip ment of a full-fledged paper mill, and be sides there are a great many things which would be considered unnecessary Tn a large plant that they use there for the furtherment of their experiments. Just at present the walls are lined witli great bundles of cornstalks which are daily be ing made into pulp and paper. Years ago. when the industry was in it3 infancy, pulp was made by a mechanical process. In this the wood after being cut into suitable sizes and barked was held against the revolving wheels of a grind stone in a swift stream of water. This re duced the wood to the proper condition, but it also destroyed the fib?-r to such an extent that this pulp was worthless by it Barrels in Which Sulphite Liquor Is Made. t>t- tt r "Rrictol. Chi?f nf Birreau of Wood Chemistry. setf to hp used for paper. Tt had to be mixed with fiber that was long enough to hind it together. In later years the ground wood process gave way to the newer and better soda and sulphite pro ?'-esses that are now used. Still even to day for reasons of economy there Is a great deal of the ground wood used, mixed with pulp obtained by the sulphite proc ess, in the cheaper papers. This is only used in the case of newspapers and wrap ping papers, as most other papers have to he of a much better quality and stronger. Only the sulphite and the soda processes are used at this government factory, so when the laboratory is ready for a test the material is barked?in regular facto ries this is done by machinery, but in this government establishment by hand?and is fV?wed. with the grain, into disks five eighths of an inch thick. These disks are then fed into a machine which reduces them to chips of a uniform size and thick ness. A weighed quantity is then taken to the digester to be what is technically termed "cooked." The rest of the sample is examined for a determination of the moisture contained. "Cooking" the Pulp. The chips to be "cooked" are treated witii a mixture of liquid sulphur dioxide and steam, which thoroughly destroys the cementing material of the fibers and leaves practically pure cellulose. The "cook" lasts for varying lengths of time, according to the nature of tlie substance and the conditions under which the ex periment is made. When the time limit has expired and only the cellulose re mains it is "blown" through the pipe which leads into the "blow pit." This is fitted with a perforated tile bottom through which the waste liquor escapes. After being thus drained, the remaining stock is weighed, the moisture contents of pulp determined, and the yield com puted. Then it is placed in a beating machine, where all of the fibers that have not as yet been separated are beaten into a li(|uid mass. Thence it passes to the big tank, where it Is screened. All of the extraneous matter is there strained out and only the pure wood pulp re mains. There is hardly any chance of anything else getting by. as the operation consists of drawing tl\e fibers through two brass plates fitted with slits .012 of an inch in thickness. The suction of a rubber diaphram which vacillates under the plates causes the fibers to be drawn be low. Ninety-tlve per cent of the pulp usually passes through these screens, and this is pressed into paper of any required thickness or quality. The remaining five per cent is fit only for the making of a very coarse grade of \-rapping paper. With the cornstalks the operation is similar, but before it can be cooked the pith must be separated from the outer covering:. This Is done by machinery. Once separated, both may be used, the pith making a very strong wrapping paper, while the outer covering produces a line quality of puip. very white in color and with long strong fibers. Each re quires only about one-third as much cook ing an does the pulp made from wood. Paper made from this pulp. too. yields readily to the bleaching process, and it Is said to be generally superior to that made from any wood, with the exception of the formerly despised white fir. The entire operation of converting cornstalks into paper consumes a little less that twenty-four hours. When wood is used more time is required. The Made Paper. The workers at the government labora tory press all their pulp into paper, scores of shelves being piled high with the results of their experiments. They press it into sheets of two sizes, the smaller about 8 by 10 inches, and th? larger i!4 by .SO inches. Once pressed into sheets a microscopic examination of the fiber is made. The length and fine ness of the fibers are determined, and numerous bleaching tests are carried out. Finally estimates are made of the amount of sulphur dioxide and lime required in making a ton of the pulp In question. Many and variegated in color, quality and every other particular are the sam ples which are daily obtained. Some are long and thick fibered, while others are short, thin and brittle. In color they range from an almost pure white to a very dark brown. Some are fit only to be used as wrapping paper, 'while other.4 have such a fine, smooth texture that they immediately remind one of the most expensive stationery. Strange as It may seem. too. the paper made from the white tir is considerably better than that made from the commer cial spruce, which has been heretofore the uncontested favorite of paper manufac turers the world over. Its fibers are white and lustrous, and sheets made from it. even without any beating, are remark ably tough and strong. In length, the fibers are one-half to two-thirds as long again as those of the spruce. Continually the chemists are experi menting and studying the characteristics of each sample as carefully as does a physician his patient. New methods a*-0 tried, but always with an eye to prac ticability and economy. The work that has been accomplished. It is said, has brought joy into the hearts of those most practical of practical men?the farmers. Their waste cornstalks tan probably be utilized for paper-making. Those inter ested in the preservation of the forests see the dawn of a n<?w era, and the pubTlo at large will receive the greatest benefit of all. MRS. CLARENCE MACKAY, WIFE OF A MILLIONAIRE, WORKS FOR WOMAN'S SUFFRAGE. WIFE of the Head of the Mackay Family and Chief Heir of Its Millions Is One of the Grand Dames of American Life?Mrs. Mackay Is a Practical Philanthropist, Who Devotes Her Wealth and Her Talents to Upbuild ing the National Schools? Her Ideal School and Its Obligations to the Present? Husband Admires and Sup ports Many of Her Radical Ideas. BY MARGARET B. DOWNING. WIKN Mrs. Clarence Mackay. wife of one of Gotham's rich est men. a few weeks ago publicly joined the ranks of suffragists and celebrated the event with great eclat, there were vari ous comments in the world of wom^n. Those who favor the propaganda of Susan B Anthony rejoiced at such a worthy convert. Those who relegate suffrage to the category of fads and nonsense averred that they thought Mrs. Mackay had bet ter sense But to examine the reasons which underlie Mrs Mackay's action, to hear her side of the case. Is to place the question of woman's participation in na tional affairs in a different light. "It Is some years ago." said Mrs. Mac kay. "since I became convinced that the apathy which people, myself among the number, display toward the mysteries* of life was at the root of social, political and economic evils. Take the school ques tion. for instance. Hitherto we have ac cepted dumbly the dictum of our progeni tors that schools were intended to teach the three R s. For the poor classes their primal duty was to develop respectable clerks for employers or drudges for exact ing masters or mistresses. Now. after many months of meditation on the way the public schools were fulfilling: their obligation In the present and in the realm of the future. I believe that book learning is but one part of the duty entailed in their responsibility. Some School Ideals. "The schools should first develop the best that is in a boy or girl. should awaken the noblest instincts of their na ture. the instinct of the fireside, the in stinct of mutual aid. That the occupa tions or pastimes of life should have a motive is one of the wonderful things which we cannot dwell on too much. The school which arouses Interest in life, in what life really means to poor as to rich, is doing the finest work. and. according to my philosophy, women, the naturaj teach ers of the young are the beat calculated to arouse this needful interest. That is the principal reason which Induced me to force my way upon the school board in my home village. That Is why I uphold the principle involved in giving women a vote in national affairs as well as In local municipal ones Tlielr power for good is unquestioned, and that there may be bad woman voters is as old as the contention that there are bad men who have the right to cast the ballot. I believe in the reawakening which comes from genuine patriotism, the patriotism of women?not to hold office and get an easy life berth, which Is the inducement which public careers usually hold out for men?but to make their country better; to raise the standard of manhood and womanhood and to get going the reform 1n schools which produces the education which edu cates. not the spurious article which goes by the name of education." In Mrs. Clarence Mackay. daughter-in law of the great pioneer, John W. Mac kay, Americans proudly point for an an swer to the oft-repeated old world criti cism, "But your women are butterflies, mere milliners' models and brainless crea tures whom the adulation of the drawing room satisfies." Here is a woman, young, admittedly beautiful, possessing wealth untold, the highest social position which birth and breeding can bestow, brains and every essential for leadership, deliberately turning her back on these things and devoting her life to the cause of pa triotism. It la und^r this name that she classes her activity in political affairs, and especially in regard to the schools. The Obligations of Wealth. Mrs. Mackay acknowledges the obliga tion of vast wealth and exalted position, and, unlike her neighbors and associates in Gotham, she is too busy with the real issues of life to take a loading part in Vanity Fair. Once Mrs. Mack-y hope 1 to accomplish her ends by writirs* Sho has two more than mediocre publications to her credit, one a novel called the "Stone of Destiny," and the other a drama, "Gabrielle." But this method was slow, and she wanted to behold something done In her own generation. Writing-, as she saw it, might mean a reform in the ages to come. Since she began her active work in the schools she has been too en grossed to spend the necessary time which literary effort requires. Mrs. Mackay's first endeavor, and the one which called attention to her person ality. was the gift which restored the library founded by William Cullen Bryant to usefulness. Tht pretty village of Ros Iyn, L. I., had neglected the gift of the gentle poet and debts had piled upon it mountain high. Mrs. Mackay paid the debts, refurnished the building, with money given or collected by herself, she added generously to the collection of vol umes and establish?d a working staff. Since that time, every dollar expended has been wisely expended, and her impress on affairs in and around Hampstead is para mount even to that of active politicians. She was elected to the school board some six years ago. after a spirited campaign, and she has been re-elected every year sin? e. She cives a good part of a working day to considering the interests of her charge, and she has, created the most en ergetic and enthu-iaatlc board to be found in New York state. Her Children Attend Public School. To show how earnestly Mrs. Macnay regards her mission to uplift the public schools, she has "sent her own little girls to the Roslyn edlflee ever since they at tained the necessary age. "If we wish to establish confidence in the public school system," said Mrs. Mackay, "it is neces sary for the rich as well as the poor to patronize them. If we draw such caste Mrs. Clarence Mackay. distinctions as in the past, it is inconsist ent to preach the benefits to be derived from governmental aid in education. The school ideal as I see it. and hope to see It still more clearly exemplified, Is tne one to which I may send my daughters with the full assurance that they will re ceive p.U and more than the so-called se lect finishing' schools impart." That Mrs. Mackay has developed such a serious view of life in the environment of 5th avenue and of Long Island is per haps the most astonishing aspect of her personality. For some years past she has elected to keep Harbor Mill, the niMgnifi cent estate on Long Island, near Roslyn. as her permanent home, and the grand mansion in New York as a place to take an occasional dip in the social waters. Harbor Mill stands pre-eminent in that region of glorious residences and estates, and looms irp from the long reach of Hampstead bay. as the most entrancing part of the view. Its neighbors are colo nial mansions, French chateaus, Eliza bethan residences and Swiss chalets, own ed by Morgans. Vanderbilts. Ooulds. "Whltnoys and others whose namqs are synonyms of wealth. The whole region seems destined to become the pleasure ground of rich New Yorkers. Already it Is a district devoted to magnificent domi ciles. vast park and garden areas, which compare favorably with "those ancient homes of lords and ladies built for pleas ure and for state." as Tennyson describes the dukerles of England. Opposition and Indifference. The Meadow Brook Club has Its social quarters here, and this alone would mark the spot as one fitted for frivolity and idleness. Yet Mrs. Mackay has drawn the attention of her set to her activities and she lias divided her environment Into two camps?those who approve and those who combat. "Even opposition is better than indifference," she said. In speaking of the hostile attitude of some of her neighbors. "Of course, ttyose who think differently discuss their views and that leads to enlightenment on both sides of the question. Many times a woman sets out very forciby against a proposition, but when she has talked it over many times she begins to get new light 011 her prejudices and she changes very radically. All I am aiming to do Is to get rich and poor to think on the problems which con front us all and for all to lend aid In reaching the proper solution. Few more entertaining personalities may be studied than Mrs. Mackay. She Is a rarely beautiful woman and her charms are the pride of her set. Her beauty is the type which wears well. Her figur-"> Is perfection, svelte and graceful. Sh?> has dark eyes and hair and her complexion of the envied clive kind would do credit to a belie of eighteen. Nor lias Mrs. Mackay neglected tlie art of gowning her self well. She lias divided her day into infinitesimal parts in order to accomplish all that she has planned, lint a good por tion goes t<> consulting with her maid and modiste. She is one ?'f the women in public life who recognizes the advantage of the rich going among the poor well arrayed. She spends as much time in getting ready for a visit to her beloved schools as she would for the first opera night in Gotham. She thinks out what is rich and appro priate. Her little girls are dressed in the plainest sort of way. The most modest householder in Roslyn may send his chil dren to school as well gowned, and this also is part of Mrs. Mackay's propaganda. Husband Shares Her Ideas. Some speculation has progressed In Gotham as to whether Mr. Mackay alto get her approves his wife's growing in clination toward public life. But those who know best aver that Mr. Mackay finds no fault with any part of his wife's activity and that he really admires and supports many of her radical measures. In the broadest sense this brilliant young philosopher may claim to be a grande dame. She is the direct descendant of that lovely Kitty Duer. daughter of Lord Stirling, who turned the bends and cap tured the hearts of whigs and tories dur ing revolutionary days. She can till her halls at Harbor Hill with grand old family paintings by Gainsborough and Revnolds and Sir Peter Lely, of Lords and Ladies Stirling who have figured in history. Through h<?r mother, who was the daughter of William R. Travers, she ran claim kinship with the gentlest and most distinguished of Virginia aristoc racy. Her marriage with the enormously rich son of John W. Mackay did not alto gether meet the approval of some of her blue-blooded kinsfolk, but the marriage, though it is said to have been founded on ambition on both sides, has turned out remarkably well. Through it Mr. Mackay became allied with the best which New York, his selected home, could offer in exalted station, and Mrs. Mackay secured a devoted husband and the means to carry out the mission which has been her ideal since she was a small child. Mrs. Mackay recently showed another trait of her character, that of fearless ness and absolute independence. Her controversy with a Catholic parish priest in Long Island, who criticised her benevo lence toward tlie public schools and vir tuallv demanded a contribution for Catho lic parocliials. is well remembered. Mrs. Mackay declined to give even a small do nation. holding that all lie'r interests and all her energies were bound up in the public schools, with which she was af filiated. The storm of criticism to which she was subjected moved her not one inch from her position. Her friends came cheerfully to her defense and showed how generously both Mr. and Mrs. Mackay had aided all Catholic causes In New York and Long Island, and that it wai the manner of the request and not the request itself which had led to her re fusal in the particular case of the parish school at Roslyn. (Copyright, 1UUS. by Margaret B. Downing > It Ran Ahead. Oscar HAMMERSTEIN was talking in Philadelphia about the wonderful success that he has had with opera. "And yet at first," he said, "succese came very slowly?as slowly as the trains on that southern line?you know the one. It doesn't advertise. "I was waiting for the train In Nol% f^hucky one morning. One hour, two hours, three hours passed. The train wai three hours late. I was indignant. "After a while the ticket agent saun? tor(ed out of the office and lighted ft cigarette. " "Look here.' I said 'won't that trait be a!ong soon?* "The agent looked down the track and yawned. " 'Ah. yes,' he said, 'she'll soon be here now. Here comes the conductor's dog.' *? Always Exciting.! itT VISITED E. R. Thomas and foun# A him doing well after his motor acci dent," said a member of the Automobile Club of America. "Thomas, as usual, railed against our bad roads. "He said that a friend who lived in the country had been in to see him. " 'The country is all right in the sunt* mer,' Thomas admitted, but in the fell and winter don't you find it dull?' " 'Dull?' said the other. 'No, indeed. Why, out our way some motor car CP other gets stuck in the mud every nigtu.'"