Newspaper Page Text
REMAPKABLEv ' '
Wdd-Pttt r> Mn ,t , e
MAY KEVOLUTI ONI ZE, PAPER
MAKING INDUSTRY ' ' ' '
Digester and Blow-Pit.
The Press and Chipper.
EXPERTS Prove That
Paper Can Be Manufac
tured From Cornstalks?Lit
tle Building Where Govern
ment Has Been Conducting
Experiments That Will Revo
lutionize the Paper Business
?Looked Upon by Forestry
Officials as Solution of the
Question of the Conserva
tion of the Forests?Dr. Bris
tol and His Assistants Have
Been Experimenting for Two
Years?They Claim That the
Paper Made From White Fir
Pulp Is Superior to That
Made From Spruce?Farmers
Will Reap Great Financial
Benefit From Sale of Waste
DISCOVERIES which are calcu
lated to revolutionize the paper
making industry of the country
have recently been made by the
wood chemistry experts of the
United States forestry bureau.
These discoveries have been made in a
email, unpretentious red brick building at
the southeastern end of^Pennsylvania
avenue, where for more than a year and
a half government experts have been la
boring on the manufacture of wood pulp.
The experiments which they are now
concluding are expected, it is said, to
settle two great national questions?how
to save the forests of the country from
depletion and how to make commercial
use of one of the largest of the waste
products of the farm.
The experts say they have proved, and
are now demonstrating, that pulp, which
was heretofore made only from wood, can
be manufactured from ordinary corn
stalks. Such pulp, too, can be made more
cheaply and its quality is as good, if
not better, for paper-making than any
The far-reaching effects of this dis
covery are readily apparent if the results
claimed prove true. It will probably put
an end to the bitter war between the
newspaper publishers and the American
pulp and paper manufacturers over the
annually increasing cost of paper; will <Jo
away with the necessity of the removal
of the present high tariff on imported
pulp and finally will open a new and al
most boundless field of prolit for the
farmers. The discovery is due In a large
measure to the newspapers of the coun
Simultaneously with the opening boom
of the newspaper cannon and the roar of
the legal rapid lire guns which pro
claimed the battle royal againEt the paper
trust nearly two years ago, I'ncle Sam
started an investigtion. He found, first,
that the cost of paper had increased
more than 100,000.000 within two years;
second, that the continually increasing
consumption of timber was surely and
Inevitably resulting in the total destruc
tion of the once vast forests of spruce,
poplar and hemlock?supposedly the only
Washing and Screening Machine.
woods from which commercial pulp could
These facts led to the establishment of
ft government factory In this city, a fac
tory perfect In detail and appointment,
but not extensive. Dr. H. S. Bristol, chief
of the section of wood chemistry. United
States forestry service, was placed in
charge and, aided by a score of govern
ment chemists, began the experiments
which he Is now bringing to so sucess
ful a conclusion.
However, It was only recently that he
began his experiments with cornstalks.
His first steps were guided by the theory
that other woods could be employed with
as good or better results than the rapidly
disappearing species so exclusively used.
This Idea caused the paper manufac
turers of the country to smile pityingly.
They had tried other woods and they
were sure that for the manufacture of
pulp, at least, they were useless.
Nevertheless, samples of every kind of
wood were obtained by the government
factory, their fiber and chemical com
position carefully studied and then they
were put through the pulp making pro
cess. The results proved that while
each species demanded a particular treat
ment. one was quite as good as another
and that a particularly fine quality of
pulp and paper can be made from white
fir and scrub pine, of which there are
millions of acres of vast, uncut tracts.
I'p to the present time these specie*
have been going to waste for lack of
some commercial means of disposing of
them. They have been but little used
for lumber, and their proportion In the
forests has therefore tended to in
crease. On the other hand, spruce, pop
lar and hemlock have yearly grown
more scarce, a fact easily understood
when one considers that last year
alone the manufacture of pulp necessi
tated the stripping of an area half as
large as the state of Rhode Island.
The Possibilities Discovered.
The substitution of white fir and scrub
pine for these woods is In itself enough
to Insure against the destruction of the
forests for the time being, but so contin
ually does the demand for this product
Increase that even the supply of these
substitutes must eventually be exhausted.
With the cornstalks, however, no such
fear need be eptertalned. Billions of
stalks are yearly used as fodder, but be
sides these, statistics of the forestry bu
reau show that there are more than
enough annually going to waste to supply
twice the annual demand for pulp. It is
a source which has not only been un
touched, but which can be employed at
a very low cost to the producer, with the
best results, and which has the Inesti
mable advantage of offering a new supply
every year. A tree takes from eight to
fifteen years to mature, and, once cut
down. It cannot be replaced before that
time rolls away again. A cornstalk, how
ever, matures In a single season. Indeed,
in some sections of the corn belt there are
two annual supplies.
What this means to the farmer can be
readily realized. Heretofore, with the
exception of a very small portion which
he utilized in feeding his stock, thousands
of stalks were left to rot on the fields.
Dr. Bristol's discovery is expected to con
vert this waste into a useful and market
What it means to the manufacturers
of pulp and the purchasers of that prod
uct in its various forms Is. perhaps, dif
ficult for the lay mind to grasp.
Yearly the demand has advanced with
gigantic strides', until in 1907 the enormous
total of 3,ti00.000 cords of wood were
used In the manufacture of pulp. This
is an increase of more than a million and
a half cords in eight years, and no for
ests, however dense, could long with
stand such inroads.
And, corresponding with the increasing
demand and the diminishing supply, there
has been an enormous Increase In the
cost of the articles made from wood
pulp. During the past five years the
cost of paper has Increased at the rate
of from 35 to 50 per cent per annum. The
price of imported pulp has Increased over
40 per cent in a like period, for In all
other parts of the world It has become
yearly more difficult to obtain the nece.?
sary amount of the few species of woods
which have been considered exclusively
4,000,000 Tons Last Year.
And the failure of this supply would
be a more serious affair than Is at first
realized. Nearly four million tons of pulp
were made last year, most of which was
used In the manufacture of paper for
magazines, books, and newspapers. But
there are a multitude of other uses to
which wood pulp is put. From the pulp
factories It goes In a crude form to
other establishments, where It is made
Into a number of different articles. Among
these articles Is the water pail, made of
wood fiber, which is now a more familiar
sight than the one made of actual wood.
In addition to palls, wood pulp Is used
in homes in the form of basins, dishes,
boxes and picture frames. .Its use in
the manufacture of car wheels has long
been known, but a new use reported from
Germany is for telegraph poles. Articles
of wood pulp have a considerable bearing
on electrical Industries, as In the case
of conduits and insulators in various
Americans now use wood pulp steam
and water pipes, shoe heels, horseshoes,
spools, tool handles, buttons, pulleys, pav
ing blocks and coffins. Paper?or wood
pulp?surgeon splints have many advan
tages over those of other materials, in
their lightness, strength and flexibility,
but of all its uses, none is probably so
unique as that for observatory domes.
Here again its lightness, strength and
flexibility commend It and. in addition, it
has nonfe of the disadvantages which
arise from the use of metallic substances
near to sensitized Instruments.
It is probably used in the greatest quan
tities however. In the newspapers through
out the country. One big metropolitan
dally, a paper with morning and evening
editions which are said to have an aggre
gate daily circulation of nearly a million
copies, used 77,333.875 paunds of white
paper last year. This is an average of
211.873 pounds a day.
Since there is now only a comparatively
small acerage of spruce, hemlock and
poplar remaining in the country, tlie fail
ure to produce a substitute for these
woods, together with a continuation of
this rate of consumption on the part of
newspapers, would mean that within a
very few years the country would be com
pelled to obtain its supply of wood from
There need be no such waste in the
employment of cornstalks, however, or. if
waste there be, it need arouse no quaims.
The supply is as unlimited as it is inex
Conducting the Experiments.
There is no more interesting department
of the government service than the little,
one-story brick building in which Dr.
Bristol and his assistants have made these
discoveries which will revolutionize the
pulp industry. In an iron shed just out
side the building are stored the wood
samples used?for they are still experi
menting for better and cheaper results
with species that have hertofore been con
sidered worthless. These samples, con
sisting of about a thousand pounds of
each species, are being continually collect
ed by the forestry assistants in the field
and are shipped to the laboratory in
Washington for future use.
InBide the building proper are the en
gines, vats, digesters, strainers; in short,
everything that is necessary to the equip
ment of a full-fledged paper mill, and be
sides there are a great many things
which would be considered unnecessary Tn
a large plant that they use there for the
furtherment of their experiments. Just
at present the walls are lined witli great
bundles of cornstalks which are daily be
ing made into pulp and paper.
Years ago. when the industry was in it3
infancy, pulp was made by a mechanical
process. In this the wood after being cut
into suitable sizes and barked was held
against the revolving wheels of a grind
stone in a swift stream of water. This re
duced the wood to the proper condition,
but it also destroyed the fib?-r to such an
extent that this pulp was worthless by it
Barrels in Which Sulphite Liquor Is Made.
t>t- tt r "Rrictol. Chi?f nf Birreau of Wood Chemistry.
setf to hp used for paper. Tt had to be
mixed with fiber that was long enough to
hind it together. In later years the
ground wood process gave way to the
newer and better soda and sulphite pro
?'-esses that are now used. Still even to
day for reasons of economy there Is a
great deal of the ground wood used, mixed
with pulp obtained by the sulphite proc
ess, in the cheaper papers. This is only
used in the case of newspapers and wrap
ping papers, as most other papers have
to he of a much better quality and
Only the sulphite and the soda processes
are used at this government factory, so
when the laboratory is ready for a test
the material is barked?in regular facto
ries this is done by machinery, but in this
government establishment by hand?and is
fV?wed. with the grain, into disks five
eighths of an inch thick. These disks are
then fed into a machine which reduces
them to chips of a uniform size and thick
ness. A weighed quantity is then taken
to the digester to be what is technically
termed "cooked." The rest of the sample
is examined for a determination of the
"Cooking" the Pulp.
The chips to be "cooked" are treated
witii a mixture of liquid sulphur dioxide
and steam, which thoroughly destroys the
cementing material of the fibers and
leaves practically pure cellulose. The
"cook" lasts for varying lengths of time,
according to the nature of tlie substance
and the conditions under which the ex
periment is made. When the time limit
has expired and only the cellulose re
mains it is "blown" through the pipe
which leads into the "blow pit." This is
fitted with a perforated tile bottom
through which the waste liquor escapes.
After being thus drained, the remaining
stock is weighed, the moisture contents
of pulp determined, and the yield com
puted. Then it is placed in a beating
machine, where all of the fibers that have
not as yet been separated are beaten
into a li(|uid mass. Thence it passes to
the big tank, where it Is screened. All
of the extraneous matter is there strained
out and only the pure wood pulp re
mains. There is hardly any chance of
anything else getting by. as the operation
consists of drawing tl\e fibers through two
brass plates fitted with slits .012 of an
inch in thickness. The suction of a rubber
diaphram which vacillates under the
plates causes the fibers to be drawn be
Ninety-tlve per cent of the pulp usually
passes through these screens, and this
is pressed into paper of any required
thickness or quality. The remaining five
per cent is fit only for the making of a
very coarse grade of \-rapping paper.
With the cornstalks the operation is
similar, but before it can be cooked the
pith must be separated from the outer
covering:. This Is done by machinery.
Once separated, both may be used, the
pith making a very strong wrapping
paper, while the outer covering produces
a line quality of puip. very white in color
and with long strong fibers. Each re
quires only about one-third as much cook
ing an does the pulp made from wood.
Paper made from this pulp. too. yields
readily to the bleaching process, and it
Is said to be generally superior to that
made from any wood, with the exception
of the formerly despised white fir. The
entire operation of converting cornstalks
into paper consumes a little less that
twenty-four hours. When wood is used
more time is required.
The Made Paper.
The workers at the government labora
tory press all their pulp into paper,
scores of shelves being piled high with
the results of their experiments. They
press it into sheets of two sizes, the
smaller about 8 by 10 inches, and th?
larger i!4 by .SO inches. Once pressed
into sheets a microscopic examination of
the fiber is made. The length and fine
ness of the fibers are determined, and
numerous bleaching tests are carried out.
Finally estimates are made of the amount
of sulphur dioxide and lime required in
making a ton of the pulp In question.
Many and variegated in color, quality
and every other particular are the sam
ples which are daily obtained. Some are
long and thick fibered, while others are
short, thin and brittle. In color they
range from an almost pure white to a
very dark brown. Some are fit only to
be used as wrapping paper, 'while other.4
have such a fine, smooth texture that
they immediately remind one of the most
Strange as It may seem. too. the paper
made from the white tir is considerably
better than that made from the commer
cial spruce, which has been heretofore the
uncontested favorite of paper manufac
turers the world over. Its fibers are
white and lustrous, and sheets made from
it. even without any beating, are remark
ably tough and strong. In length, the
fibers are one-half to two-thirds as long
again as those of the spruce.
Continually the chemists are experi
menting and studying the characteristics
of each sample as carefully as does a
physician his patient. New methods a*-0
tried, but always with an eye to prac
ticability and economy. The work that
has been accomplished. It is said, has
brought joy into the hearts of those most
practical of practical men?the farmers.
Their waste cornstalks tan probably be
utilized for paper-making. Those inter
ested in the preservation of the forests
see the dawn of a n<?w era, and the pubTlo
at large will receive the greatest benefit
MRS. CLARENCE MACKAY, WIFE OF A MILLIONAIRE, WORKS FOR WOMAN'S SUFFRAGE.
WIFE of the Head of
the Mackay Family and
Chief Heir of Its Millions Is
One of the Grand Dames of
American Life?Mrs. Mackay
Is a Practical Philanthropist,
Who Devotes Her Wealth
and Her Talents to Upbuild
ing the National Schools?
Her Ideal School and Its
Obligations to the Present?
Husband Admires and Sup
ports Many of Her Radical
BY MARGARET B. DOWNING.
WIKN Mrs. Clarence Mackay.
wife of one of Gotham's rich
est men. a few weeks ago
publicly joined the ranks of
suffragists and celebrated the
event with great eclat, there were vari
ous comments in the world of wom^n.
Those who favor the propaganda of Susan
B Anthony rejoiced at such a worthy
convert. Those who relegate suffrage to
the category of fads and nonsense averred
that they thought Mrs. Mackay had bet
ter sense But to examine the reasons
which underlie Mrs Mackay's action, to
hear her side of the case. Is to place the
question of woman's participation in na
tional affairs in a different light.
"It Is some years ago." said Mrs. Mac
kay. "since I became convinced that the
apathy which people, myself among the
number, display toward the mysteries*
of life was at the root of social, political
and economic evils. Take the school ques
tion. for instance. Hitherto we have ac
cepted dumbly the dictum of our progeni
tors that schools were intended to teach
the three R s. For the poor classes their
primal duty was to develop respectable
clerks for employers or drudges for exact
ing masters or mistresses. Now. after
many months of meditation on the way
the public schools were fulfilling: their
obligation In the present and in the realm
of the future. I believe that book learning
is but one part of the duty entailed in
Some School Ideals.
"The schools should first develop the
best that is in a boy or girl. should
awaken the noblest instincts of their na
ture. the instinct of the fireside, the in
stinct of mutual aid. That the occupa
tions or pastimes of life should have a
motive is one of the wonderful things
which we cannot dwell on too much. The
school which arouses Interest in life, in
what life really means to poor as to rich,
is doing the finest work. and. according to
my philosophy, women, the naturaj teach
ers of the young are the beat calculated to
arouse this needful interest. That is the
principal reason which Induced me to
force my way upon the school board in
my home village. That Is why I uphold
the principle involved in giving women a
vote in national affairs as well as In local
municipal ones Tlielr power for good is
unquestioned, and that there may be bad
woman voters is as old as the contention
that there are bad men who have the
right to cast the ballot. I believe in the
reawakening which comes from genuine
patriotism, the patriotism of women?not
to hold office and get an easy life berth,
which Is the inducement which public
careers usually hold out for men?but to
make their country better; to raise the
standard of manhood and womanhood
and to get going the reform 1n schools
which produces the education which edu
cates. not the spurious article which goes
by the name of education."
In Mrs. Clarence Mackay. daughter-in
law of the great pioneer, John W. Mac
kay, Americans proudly point for an an
swer to the oft-repeated old world criti
cism, "But your women are butterflies,
mere milliners' models and brainless crea
tures whom the adulation of the drawing
room satisfies." Here is a woman, young,
admittedly beautiful, possessing wealth
untold, the highest social position which
birth and breeding can bestow, brains and
every essential for leadership, deliberately
turning her back on these things and
devoting her life to the cause of pa
triotism. It la und^r this name that she
classes her activity in political affairs, and
especially in regard to the schools.
The Obligations of Wealth.
Mrs. Mackay acknowledges the obliga
tion of vast wealth and exalted position,
and, unlike her neighbors and associates
in Gotham, she is too busy with the real
issues of life to take a loading part in
Vanity Fair. Once Mrs. Mack-y hope 1
to accomplish her ends by writirs* Sho
has two more than mediocre publications
to her credit, one a novel called the
"Stone of Destiny," and the other a
drama, "Gabrielle." But this method was
slow, and she wanted to behold something
done In her own generation. Writing-, as
she saw it, might mean a reform in the
ages to come. Since she began her active
work in the schools she has been too en
grossed to spend the necessary time which
literary effort requires.
Mrs. Mackay's first endeavor, and the
one which called attention to her person
ality. was the gift which restored the
library founded by William Cullen Bryant
to usefulness. Tht pretty village of Ros
Iyn, L. I., had neglected the gift of the
gentle poet and debts had piled upon it
mountain high. Mrs. Mackay paid the
debts, refurnished the building, with
money given or collected by herself, she
added generously to the collection of vol
umes and establish?d a working staff.
Since that time, every dollar expended has
been wisely expended, and her impress on
affairs in and around Hampstead is para
mount even to that of active politicians.
She was elected to the school board some
six years ago. after a spirited campaign,
and she has been re-elected every year
sin? e. She cives a good part of a working
day to considering the interests of her
charge, and she has, created the most en
ergetic and enthu-iaatlc board to be found
in New York state.
Her Children Attend Public School.
To show how earnestly Mrs. Macnay
regards her mission to uplift the public
schools, she has "sent her own little girls
to the Roslyn edlflee ever since they at
tained the necessary age. "If we wish to
establish confidence in the public school
system," said Mrs. Mackay, "it is neces
sary for the rich as well as the poor to
patronize them. If we draw such caste
Mrs. Clarence Mackay.
distinctions as in the past, it is inconsist
ent to preach the benefits to be derived
from governmental aid in education. The
school ideal as I see it. and hope to see
It still more clearly exemplified, Is tne
one to which I may send my daughters
with the full assurance that they will re
ceive p.U and more than the so-called se
lect finishing' schools impart."
That Mrs. Mackay has developed such
a serious view of life in the environment
of 5th avenue and of Long Island is per
haps the most astonishing aspect of her
personality. For some years past she has
elected to keep Harbor Mill, the niMgnifi
cent estate on Long Island, near Roslyn.
as her permanent home, and the grand
mansion in New York as a place to take
an occasional dip in the social waters.
Harbor Mill stands pre-eminent in that
region of glorious residences and estates,
and looms irp from the long reach of
Hampstead bay. as the most entrancing
part of the view. Its neighbors are colo
nial mansions, French chateaus, Eliza
bethan residences and Swiss chalets, own
ed by Morgans. Vanderbilts. Ooulds.
"Whltnoys and others whose namqs are
synonyms of wealth. The whole region
seems destined to become the pleasure
ground of rich New Yorkers. Already it
Is a district devoted to magnificent domi
ciles. vast park and garden areas, which
compare favorably with "those ancient
homes of lords and ladies built for pleas
ure and for state." as Tennyson describes
the dukerles of England.
Opposition and Indifference.
The Meadow Brook Club has Its social
quarters here, and this alone would mark
the spot as one fitted for frivolity and
idleness. Yet Mrs. Mackay has drawn
the attention of her set to her activities
and she lias divided her environment Into
two camps?those who approve and those
who combat. "Even opposition is better
than indifference," she said. In speaking
of the hostile attitude of some of her
neighbors. "Of course, ttyose who think
differently discuss their views and that
leads to enlightenment on both sides of
the question. Many times a woman sets
out very forciby against a proposition,
but when she has talked it over many
times she begins to get new light 011 her
prejudices and she changes very radically.
All I am aiming to do Is to get rich and
poor to think on the problems which con
front us all and for all to lend aid In
reaching the proper solution.
Few more entertaining personalities may
be studied than Mrs. Mackay. She Is a
rarely beautiful woman and her charms
are the pride of her set. Her beauty is
the type which wears well. Her figur-"> Is
perfection, svelte and graceful. Sh?> has
dark eyes and hair and her complexion
of the envied clive kind would do credit
to a belie of eighteen. Nor lias Mrs.
Mackay neglected tlie art of gowning her
self well. She lias divided her day into
infinitesimal parts in order to accomplish
all that she has planned, lint a good por
tion goes t<> consulting with her maid and
modiste. She is one ?'f the women in public
life who recognizes the advantage of the
rich going among the poor well arrayed.
She spends as much time in getting ready
for a visit to her beloved schools as she
would for the first opera night in Gotham.
She thinks out what is rich and appro
priate. Her little girls are dressed in the
plainest sort of way. The most modest
householder in Roslyn may send his chil
dren to school as well gowned, and this
also is part of Mrs. Mackay's propaganda.
Husband Shares Her Ideas.
Some speculation has progressed In
Gotham as to whether Mr. Mackay alto
get her approves his wife's growing in
clination toward public life. But those
who know best aver that Mr. Mackay
finds no fault with any part of his wife's
activity and that he really admires and
supports many of her radical measures.
In the broadest sense this brilliant young
philosopher may claim to be a grande
dame. She is the direct descendant of
that lovely Kitty Duer. daughter of Lord
Stirling, who turned the bends and cap
tured the hearts of whigs and tories dur
ing revolutionary days. She can till her
halls at Harbor Hill with grand old
family paintings by Gainsborough and
Revnolds and Sir Peter Lely, of Lords
and Ladies Stirling who have figured in
history. Through h<?r mother, who was
the daughter of William R. Travers, she
ran claim kinship with the gentlest and
most distinguished of Virginia aristoc
racy. Her marriage with the enormously
rich son of John W. Mackay did not alto
gether meet the approval of some of her
blue-blooded kinsfolk, but the marriage,
though it is said to have been founded on
ambition on both sides, has turned out
remarkably well. Through it Mr. Mackay
became allied with the best which New
York, his selected home, could offer in
exalted station, and Mrs. Mackay secured
a devoted husband and the means to
carry out the mission which has been her
ideal since she was a small child.
Mrs. Mackay recently showed another
trait of her character, that of fearless
ness and absolute independence. Her
controversy with a Catholic parish priest
in Long Island, who criticised her benevo
lence toward tlie public schools and vir
tuallv demanded a contribution for Catho
lic parocliials. is well remembered. Mrs.
Mackay declined to give even a small do
nation. holding that all lie'r interests and
all her energies were bound up in the
public schools, with which she was af
filiated. The storm of criticism to which
she was subjected moved her not one
inch from her position. Her friends came
cheerfully to her defense and showed how
generously both Mr. and Mrs. Mackay
had aided all Catholic causes In New
York and Long Island, and that it wai
the manner of the request and not the
request itself which had led to her re
fusal in the particular case of the parish
school at Roslyn.
(Copyright, 1UUS. by Margaret B. Downing >
It Ran Ahead.
Oscar HAMMERSTEIN was talking
in Philadelphia about the wonderful
success that he has had with opera.
"And yet at first," he said, "succese
came very slowly?as slowly as the trains
on that southern line?you know the one.
It doesn't advertise.
"I was waiting for the train In Nol%
f^hucky one morning. One hour, two
hours, three hours passed. The train wai
three hours late. I was indignant.
"After a while the ticket agent saun?
tor(ed out of the office and lighted ft
" "Look here.' I said 'won't that trait
be a!ong soon?*
"The agent looked down the track and
" 'Ah. yes,' he said, 'she'll soon be here
now. Here comes the conductor's dog.' *?
itT VISITED E. R. Thomas and foun#
A him doing well after his motor acci
dent," said a member of the Automobile
Club of America. "Thomas, as usual,
railed against our bad roads.
"He said that a friend who lived in the
country had been in to see him.
" 'The country is all right in the sunt*
mer,' Thomas admitted, but in the fell
and winter don't you find it dull?'
" 'Dull?' said the other. 'No, indeed.
Why, out our way some motor car CP
other gets stuck in the mud every nigtu.'"