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IN WASHINGTON. George Washington University. SOTH SESSION*. 1009 1010. Opens Wednesday, September 20. 1900. Undergraduate, Graduate and Professional courses of study. Graduates of the Washington High Schools and other accredited schools are admitted to the undergraduate courses on cer tificate. ORGANIZATION. THE DEPARTMENT OK ARTS AND SCIENCES? The Faculty of Graduate Studies. The College of Arts and Sciences. The College of Engineering and Mechanic Arts. The College of the Political Sciences. The Teachers' College. The Division of Architecture. TIIK PROFESSIONAL DEPARTMENTS? The Department of Ijiw. The Department of Medicine. The I>epartnient of Dentistry. National College of Pharmacy. The College of Veterinary Medicine. BUILDINGS. Unlversitv Hall. Fifteenth and 11. !.??? Building. 1420 H. Medical and Dental Building. 1323 H. Engineering. 1528-30 I. Architecture, 1532 I. Teachers' College, 1M4 I. Woman's Bnllding. 1536-38 I. College of the Political Science*. ?10 Fifteenth. The University Hospital H, lljOti"* 15 H. Nurses' Home. 1412 I. National College of Pharmacy. SOK I. ^ ^ ^ College of Veterinary Medicine, 2113?115 Fourteen fh. For catalogues, application Msnks and^ fur ther information communicate with the Secre tary. Fifteenth and II streets. se3 30t-r.O aBa6Si-ii'i3fISSSi#5aiS3=62SSsBt*siaSEE!>?! S Stenography and Typewriting. i We make a specialty of training for ?? h? government examinations, as well as pri vate office positions. The Temple School, jb 1417 G ST. N.W. , Elevator service. Phone M. 3258. J j 21 1 ."fetriiisiaiissssSiiofiieiiHMwmi^Mwi!! i ENROLL. AT THE COLLEGE. (Academic, Classical. Commercial and Aeronautical depts.) LAW SCHOOL (Evening Courses I.eading to Degree) AND OTHER DEPARTMENTS. Special Reduction This Year. Address PROF. HOLLER. 14th and C et?., Washington, D. C. aull-w.sa.17t 55 Tlfoe Armniy and Navy j I Preparatory School | 4101 Connecticut Avenue, Washington. D. C. A 25 A select boarding school for young :& men and boys. Thorough prepara- -/? tton for colleges, universities, the w w United States Military and Naval jjf Academies and also for business, jr ?jf Number limited. Small classes and If individual instruction. Special J?? '?S courses. Fine athletic field. Foot 3l ZZ ball, base ball, track teams. For A * catalogue address E. SWAVELT, Principal. sel-30t.2S w ^ 'i ?'rf'i i~ A~CI r*3 "t vV *i V;V "i $*"*> V '/ c ' V *>V"i c "7V ri~ C-?f -J -/ i* C " NEW HOME OF Strayer's Business College j 9th and F Sts. N.W. i Old Masonic Temple, j Accommodations for 600 Students. 8.000 square feet of j floor space. Open All the Tear. Day & Night Classes. WRITE FOB BOOKLET. sel-tf Boys and girls, 9 a.m., ages U AI I . T to 2f>. Full graded and high school depts. ADULTS, 7 P.M., "NTf^'VETC graded and college preparatory. IN W I J-*o Certificate admits to college. Seventh year, Sept. 27. Cata- SCHOOL, leagues. Phone Main 3877. FRANCES MANN HALL. A.M., Principal, 221 E at. n.w. ?cl.tf ! Tihe Misses Eastman's BOARDING AND DAY SCHOOL FOR GIRLS, 13<V> 17th st. (cor. Massachusetts are.) Primary. Intermediate and advanced courses. j Special advantages in French and music. School i opens October 1. Catalogue on request. sel-90t,7.; W. F. DALES, PH. D.. 1763 T ST. ; Classical teacher. Pupils thoroughly prepared ; for college entrance or for other examinations in ' language and mathematics. cel-13t j United States College of ?? 222 O ST. W W., WASHINGTON, D. O. SESSION 1900-10 BEGINS OCTOBER 1. fSTFor prospectus and full Information addp>sa C. BARNWELL ROBINSON. V. S.. Dean. sel-15t Phone Main 2712. HOLY CROSS ACADEMY Select school for yotfng ladies and children. Academic and preparatory departments. Complete courses In music and art. Commer cial erfurse. Reopen* Sept. 20. . 29th and Upton sta. f e 1 -30t Domestic Arts <& Sciences, 175ft M ST. N.W. Normal and special courses. | I'misual advantages. Cooking, serving, millinery, i Send for catalogue. sel-?J0t.5 j St. John's College, Vermont Avenue Near Thomas Circle. Conducted by the Brothers of the Christian Schools, A Select Day College for Yowng Men and Boys. Collegiate, Commercial. Academic and Primary Departments. School opens September 13. Catalogues sent on application. nel-aot.15 BROTHER DOROTHEUS. Pres. PENMANSHIP AND BUSINESS SCHOOL? Shorthand, typewriting, bookkeeping: 25 years' success In public and private schools. Number limited. Mrs. EMILY A. FLYNN, sel-90t-ii S.W. cor. 8th and K sts. n.w. PRIVATE INSTRUCTION TN MATHEMATICS, science*, languages, music; university graduate; twenty years experience; literary work revised. PROF J., Station G. Box 2513, city. au28-30t* National Cathedral || School for Girls, Mount St. Alban, Washington. D. O., Opens October 5th. Coaches for day pupils leave Dupont Circle at 8:25 am.; return 5:30 p.m. Cars leave Georgetown at 8:30 and 8:50 a.m. Preparatory and Academic Departments. Students ad mitted to college on certifi cate. Graduate courses. Instruction in art without extra charge. Spcclal at tention given to music. Steinway pianos for prac tice. Mrs. BARBOUR WALKER, M. A., Principal. ? ao23 30t _ DAY AND EVENING CLASSES. Second Year. In preparation for college, army, navy or civil fervlce examination*. Open Sept. 29. Classes lim ited to five members. Certificate admits to The George Washington University. Apply H. C. JEN >ESS (A. B., Harvard). Apt. 41. 1723 G st. n.w. au23-30t.S Phone Main 6293-M National University Law School EVENING SESSIONS EXCLUSIVELY. OPENS OCTOBER 1. 1900. coar* leading to degree . th* decree of BC-helor-of ro^ejtalo,. .ppl^tlgdbUntr^ey,Wl.rro,, |B " llf- aal-tf-28 ?VripnK?JIC5fPJ2i>M'D2? FOR 9TKNOG* |^RS- *lkouIWtrSS' Information free, strater^ bosivwm ?OLLEQK?llTH AMD r STS. 5SOT" EDUCATIONAL. I> WASHINGTON. BC COLORADO BUILDING. Hay rate. $7.50 per month; night. $5.00. Indl vlduitl instruction. Complete course 'in Pitman S30.00: Gregg. $25.00; Syllabic, $20.00, Including typewriting. Positions guaranteed. myS-sa.Sn.w.tf.7 Bllass Electrical School ~ Is the oldest and best school in the world teach ing electricity exclusively. Theoretical and prac tical course complete In one year. Students ?c- 1 tually construct dynamos, motors and electrical Instruments, Graduates hold good positions In the electrical industries throughout the world. Seventeenth year begins September 22. Catalogue on request. BLISS ELECTRICAL SCHOOL. ?u3-tf,14 Takoma Park. D. O. THE BERLITZ SCHOOL OF LANGUAGES, 723 14TH ST. N.W. Telephone Main 3217. - rivate and Class Lessons at School or Residence. Day or Evening Best Native Teachert. SCHOOL OPEN ALL SUMMER. Popular Evening Classes. $2 Per Month. 1t16-i?hi OUT OF WASHINGTON. ST. MARY'S* ACADEMIC. ALEXANDRIA. VA Home school for sir's. English. buslne.?? and Music cr>urs?s. Write for catalogue aul'.-30t SISTERS OF THE HOLY CROSS. RANDOI.PH-MACON ACADEMY FOR BOYS branch of Randolph-Macon System. In Valley of Virginia. Equipment cost $100,000. Large gifts make rates $230 a year. Prepares for College or Scientific Schools. Gymnasium and Athletics. 18th Session opens Sept. 14. A-ldress CHAS. L MELTON. A.M., Prin., Bos 402. Front Royal. Va. jr2S- 40t.eSu.7 MONTROSE - A SELECT BOARDING SCHOOL In the country for girls and small bovs: terms very moderate; location the most healthful part of Maryland. Address Miss HARDEY, Clarks v'"e. Md. ,ni.tf 1856 . 1909 Maryland Agricultural College Equips young men for life's work. Terms mod srate. For full particulars address R. W. SILr VESTER, President. College Park, Md. an2S-10t.20 maflewood, a-sr^^ 4?th year. W akes up boys to duties of life; $375: J?.r V"'e bo-vs' 12 rears and under. $.'125; limited to 40 boys; college or business; no haring line gym.; manual training; all outdoor snorts' SHORTLIDGE, A. M., Yale, I'rin. a;i.?l-2nt.*?Sii. ? SWEET BRIAR COLLEGE FOR WOMEN. Treated in the foothills of the Blue Ridge mountains on an estate of 3.000 acres The buildings an- new and magnificent, and the con ditions f.ir health are unsurpassed. It offers a college course equal In its standard to the courses given In colleges of the first rank. In additirtti, two years of preparatory work, corresponding to th?? Inst twn years of a high school course, are offered. Fourth year opens Sept. 21, 1900. For catalogue aritfro.ss DR. MARY K. BENEDICT. President. ...u-.A'A1""" Br"r- Vl,el?u ,..NA St JJM iillisi, ANNAPOLIS. MD. Department of Arts and _ Sciences of the University of Maryland. EstaMished 10:16. Classical and scientific col lege courses leading to degrees. Special advan tages for students purposing to study law or medicine. Military department under army officer. Also preparatory school for boys fitting for St. John s or other colleges. Term begins September 15. For catalogue address , ... ? THOMAS FELL, LL D. .1vl3-tn.th.sa.20t. 12 STEAMSHIPS. CLARK'S CRCISE OF THE "CLEVELAND." 18,000 tons, brand-new, superbly fitted. i ?rT.fo[Lr. Masimnro Convenience. Sm?k ??.K THE ENTIRE CRUISE. v\ 1th Elevator, Grillroom. Gymnasium. Deck Swimming Pool. FROM NEW YORK. OCTOBER 16, 1909. Nearly four months, costing only $650 AND I P. including all necessary expenses; princely traveling In balmy climates: entertainments. ?t52E?,: rard Parties and chaperonage for ladies 8PEf"IAL FEATURES?MADEIRA, EGYPT* INDIA. CEYLON, BURMA, JAVA BORNFO' PHILIPPINES. CHINA, JAPAN. AN UNUSUAL Tve'places. visit unusijally attract^ CLARK'S 12th Annual CRUISE Feb. 5 to April 19 T? BY S. S. GROSSER KURFUERST. Seventy-three days. Including 24 DAYS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND (with side trip to Khartoum), costing only $400. AND UP In cluding shore excursions. SPECIAL FEATURES-Madelra. Cadiz, Seville. Algiers Malta Constantinople Athens, Rome the Riviera etc Tickets goorf to stop over In Europe, to Include Passion Play, etc. FRANK C. CLARK, Times bldg., New York 13?* P St" D W"' ^^ington. 5sB?,rmudck TOO MILES In Atlantic Ocean. Round Trip, $30 and Up 5?. Twin Screw Steamship "BERMT7 DIAN (5.500 TONS) In forty-five hours. Tem perature cooler than at the Middle Atlantic iw LSmm11-,! Go?d filing, sea bathing, sail ing and bicycling. Bermuda is now In all Its Oo?1 ?'or*. whole hedges of flowers in bloom. *or illustrated pamphlets and rates address ? -A. E. OUTERBRIDGE & CO.. Agts. Quebec S. S. Co.. Ltd., 29 Broadway New York ARTHUR AHEIIN, Secretary. IJiiebec^ Tanada. ati21-s.tu.th.37t, 19 ' The Most Delightful Short Sea Trip on the Coast. 1 Sailings from Pier 20, East River. New Tor* Mondays, Tuesdays and Wednesdays at 10:00 a n> J/iday, and Saturdays at 4: Off pm. folder Ripply to?* and Illustrated descriptive Mfe&jt.U^A"SHIP ??- 200 Broadway, N. *. OCEAN TRAVEL. ?_ ^ x ftA OATliA^T Direct Line to Havre?Paris (France) Pier N?o 42 eve^?. nVr^ay at 10 a m rier No. 42. North River, foot Morton at NT M? P[OT^- ?-Sept ?| *La Provence Sept \ ?La Savole... .Sept. 16l#Lii Tr.umin* fwT* 4 23 I ?Twin-screw steamers. 14 c o.. ^XTRA SAILING. S. S. LA GASCOGNE. SEPTEMBER 18 Second and Third Class only GENERAL AGENCY. 19 State st M Y B. P. ALLEN. Agent. 14th .t. and X. Y L Telephone Main 7B8. mhllsflBt* AMERICAN LINE PLYMOUTH ? CHERBOURG - SOUTHAMPTON rHILADELPHIA-QUEENSTOWN-UVRRMOL Atlantic Transport Line NEW YORK?LONDON DIRECT RED STAR LINE *,E.W' ?RK-DOVER-ANTWERP. WHITE STAR LINE ?QCE'STOWN? HOLYHEAD?LIVERPOOL (i'iSSSK,n=q?uhi5S^K^0s=ls,0^5^??;' B?TONTOi ITALY t ECYIPT VIA AZORES. MADEIRA AND GIBRALTAR Romanic Sept. 15. Oct. 23, Dec. 1, Jan. is Cretlc..........Sept. 23. Nov. 6, Dec. 8 Jan 29 Caaopic Oct. 2. Nov. 13. Dec. 18 Feb 12 CEDRIC (21.035 tons)..Nov. 25, Jan 5* Feb' 18 ?CELTIC (20.904 tons) .Feb 2 ]| "tamers to the Mediterranean WASHINGTON OFFICE. 1308 F ST N W myl8-t?,eSu? HICKS" * HAMBURG-AMEINSAH All Modern SSfety Devices (Wireless, etc ? n LONDON?PARIS?HAMBURCL ># ^.<?r?PA P-Lincolni new). Sent >2 Cincinnatltnow).SeDt! 2o U ill A rtli Blueclier Sept. ' J) tKaiaerin A.V.. .Sept. 11 ?Pennsylvania.-Sept. 15 Deutschland|.?.Sept. IS tAmerika.. .'.V.rOc't ^ tRlti Carlton a la Carte Restaurant. " ?Hamburg direct. OTAB V VIA G,BRALTAR. NAPLES U U inl IJ=I U AND GENOA. 'Calls Azone. S. S. MOLTKE 'Sept. 9. *Oct. ?1 " HAMBURG *Sept. 20, Nov. 18 Trsvelers' Checks Issued. Toorist Dept. for Trips Everywhere. COMPANY'S OFFICE. 45 BROADWAY. N. T. E. F. DROOP & SONS CO.. 925 PA. AVE. anl7-tu,th.f.sa 3 CRUISES During January, February and March to the West Indies By the Twin-screw Cruising S. S. "Oceana." 16 AND 31 DAYS' DURATION. Also cruises to Orient and South America. HAMBURG-AMERICAN LINE, 41-45 Broadway. New York. ??9?p * SONS CO., ?2S I'A. AVE. ?ol7-tu, th, f ,?a, tf,14 OCEAN TRAVEL. CUNARD LINES ! From Piers 51-52-56 North River, N. Y., 10 a.m. QUEENSTOWN?FISHGUARD?LIVERPOOL. LONDON?PARIS. Lusitania Sept. Sil'ampanla Sept. 22 C.irmania Sept. 11 Caronia Sept. 2." Mauretania ... .Sept. 15 I Lusitnnia Sept. 29 MAURETANIA? LUSITANIA. Largest, Fastest Steamships Afloat. Sail Wednesdays. CARONIA -CARMA MA. Among Largest and Most Luxurious Steamers. Sail Saturdays Fortnightly. SPECIAL CRUISES. Magnificent New 20.000-ton Steamships CARMANTA AND CARONIA. Italy and Egypt. Via Azores?Madeira?Gibraltar. rarnianla Not. 6. Jan. 22. March 5 Caronia Not. 27, Jan. 6, Feb. 19 HUNGARIAN-AMERICAN SERVICE TO FIUME. VIA GIBRALTAR, NAPLES. TRIESTE. Pannonia...Oct. 7. noon ] Carmania Not. *Carpiithla..Oct.21.noon I Caronia Not. 27 ?Also calls at Genoa. Travelers' checks issued?good everywhere. The Cunard Steamship Co.. Limited. 21-24 State St.. New York, Opposite the Rattery, Or lCfi State St.. Boston. Mass. G. W. MOSS Agent, 1411 G st. n.w., Washington. fel4-d.eSu.312t ARGENTINE AND ALL BRAZILIAN PORTS By the Large, New and Fast Passenger Steamer# of the LAMPORT & HOLT LINE Sailing from New York 5th and 20th each month. 16 DAYS TO RIO JANEIRO 23 DAYS TO BUENOS AYRES For rates, etc.. applv local ticket agents or BUSK & DANIELS. General Agents. 301 Produce Exchange, New York. myl-sa.tu.th.tf.15 ' iSTBi - Al MEDITERRANEAN. ADRIATIC From New York to Naples and Trieste. Sailings Wednesday and MONTHLY SAILINGS TO GREECE. TWIN-SCREW S. S. MARTHA WASHINGTON, ALICE. LAURA. ARGENTINA, OCEANIA. For further Information apply to nearest agency o? PHELPS BROS. & CO.. General Agents. 17 Battery place. New York City, or any local agent. oc24-sa. tn.tb.156t. 15 North Qerman Lloyd Large, Fast and Luxurious Twin-screw Express and Passenger Steamships Equipped with Wireless and Spbmarine Signals. PLYMOUTH-CHERBOURG?BREMEN. Express Sailings Tuesdays at 10 A.M. Kronprinz Win..Sept. 7 | Kals.Wm.D.Gr.Sept. 21 Cecilie Sept. 14 K.Wilhelm II....Sept. 2S PLYMOUTH-CHERBOURG?BREMEN. Tvvln-screw Sailings Thursdays at 10 A.M. Washington Sept. 9l Prinz Fried.Win.Sept.23 Bremen Sept. 16' Fried. D. Gr...Sept. 30 GEORGE WASHINGTON?Sails Sept. 9?27,000 tons. Newest and Largest German Ship Afloat. Every innovation known to the shipbuilders' art. GIBRALTAR?NAPLES-GENOA. Mediterranean Sailings Saturdays at 11 A.M. K.Albert Sept. 11''Princess Irene. .Oct. ft ?Berlin (new)..Sept. 25! *K. Albert Oct. 23 ?Calls at Algiers. Independent Around-the-wor!d Tonrs. Travelers' Checks Good All Over the World. Apply OELRICHS & CO.. General Agents, 5 BROADWAY. NEW YORK. WASHINGTON OFFICE. 1337 F ST. N.W. E. F. DROOP & SONS CO.. 925 PA. AV?. ja30-3l2t.eSn If Going to Europe Have your mail addressed care the London office of The Washington Star, No. 3 Regent Street, London, England. If desired, mail will be for warded to all parts of Europe and the Conti nent. Tourists are requested to register at otu office npon reaching London. Washington Star, London Office, No. 8 Regent st. do2Qtf MEDICAL. Dr, SPECIALIST. 728 13TH ST. WASHINGTON'S OLDEST SPECIALIST. 38 YEARS 'PRACTICE TREATING NERVOUS AND CHRONIC DISEASES; also stomach, lunes. asthma, catarrh, appendicitis, liver, heart, kid neys, bladder. stricture. dlschargt-s, general de bility and special weakne*s: blood and skin dis eases. Special and private ailments of both sexes cured quickly. Consultation free. Hours: 10 to 1 and 3 to 5:30 dally. Sundays. 9:3o to 10:3n. Chandler building. Elevator and phone. au31 -30t Dn Reed, Specialist, 8U4 nth St. T7 VIPAP^' SUCCESSFUL ?4 U PRACTICE IN Diseases af the Brain and NerTous System. Skin. Blood, Heart, Stomach, Liyer, Kldheys, Bladder. Nose. Throat and Lungs. Stricture, Varicocele and Hydrocele cured. No pain. No loss of time. Blood Diseases and Disorders of the Urinary organs promptly relieved and permanently cored by safe methods. Charges low. Free consulta tion in person or by letter. Hoars: 10 to 1 mud 8 to 6; Sundays. 10 to L se21-tf,20 ~ ~3 A NOVELTY IN FANS. When Closed It Closely Resembles a Bouquet of Flowers. A decidedly novel and attractive fan, that first appeared In the ballrooms of Paris, is that shown in the illustration. The framework of the article is like that of an ordinary fan, but through holes In the tops of the sticks a ribbon is strung. At the end of each stick is sewed an arti ficial flower, rose, lily or some other type, and running from the bottom of the handle to the top is a broader piece of ribbon, tied in a bow. When the fan is closed it so closely resembles a bou quet of natural flowers that the difference is impossible to detect, except on close examination. The illustration is helped by the flowers, being perfumed so that in odor, too, they resemble the blooms they represent. A fancy metal ring which may be of precious metal, and which looks like a bracelet, runs up outside the sticks when the fan is closed and holds them together. As can be seen, the novelty combines usefulness with a high degree of ornamentality. Curfew Law. From the London Chronicle. The practical revival of the curfew law at Paragould, Ark., where it is now a fineable offense to be in the streets after midnight, reminds us that though its penalties have long since vanished the curfew bell may still be heard in Eng land, and even in London. At Lincoln's Inn 9 o'clock each evening hears the ringing of the curfew from a bell which is said to have been brought from Cadiz at the time of its capture by Essex and Effingham in l.">96. A list compiled in 1897 mentions the preservation of the custom in many towns, ranging from Carnarvon to Newport, Isle of Wight, and from Dur ham to Buckingham, where the bell is rung every day between September 129 and March 25. ? And Canterbury still rings the curfew from the cathedral, as Oxford rings it from Christ Church at 9 o'clock. The coroner's jury in the case of the shooting of Robert Ellis, jr., by William Monday at Monday's home, near Easton, Md., has given a verdict that Ellis came to his death from a gunshot wound at the hands of Monday. The prisoner is in jail awaiting the action of the grand jury for the November term of the circuit court for Talbot county. Samuel E. Osborne', Instructor of math ematics at the Tome School for Boys, Port Deposit, Md., has been appointed senior housemaster, In charge or Jackson House. HERRINGJW OF SEA Most Valuable Fish in Waters of the World. FOOD FOR THE MILLIONS Supports Many Industries in Various Parts of Globe. IMPORTANCE IN HISTORY Many Members of the Tribe?Lives in. the Ocean and in Fresh Water?Its Characteristics. Hujrh M. Smith. Deputy Commissioner of Fish ones, in the National (ieofjraphic Magazine. When one takes a bird's-eye view of the fisheries of the -world he quickly per ceives that there is nc family of fishes and no group of aquatic animals that contributes so largely to the support of the human race as the herrings. The family has 200 members, nearly all of which exist in great abundance. Tn nearly every country having exten sive fisheries some kind of herring is of importance, and in many countries rep resentatives of the family are among the most valuable of the water products. Some of the herrings live exclusively in salt water, some exclusively in fresh water, and some alternately in the seal and streams. C haracters by which the herrings may readily be recognized are the presence of a single dorsal fin, which, like all the ! other fins, is composed only of soft or non-spmous rays; the absence of In adi pose dorsal fin, such as occurs in the -?ns and trouts; a swim-bladder, which communicates with the esophagus ; by a pneumatic duct; four gills; a ( forked tad; a terminal mouth with weak or? deficient teeth; a fully scaled body i of "la^rni the absence of a series 2u, J J * organs, and a generally | - livery coloration. The structure of the : mouth parts determines the food, which j usually consists of minute animals and plants, strained from the water by the numerous gill-rakers. On the east coast of North America mtnlhJ6 SlV ?vWelJ~kn?wn and Important fh ?i5 fami'y as the sea-her shad, the river herrings or ale wives, the West Indian sardine, and the menhaden, the last doubtless the most ? abundant fish on our shores. On the Pacific coast of North America are the! California, sardine and the sea-herring. On the shores of Europe are the Allice shad and the Twaite shad; the pilchard, winch when young is canned under the name of sardine and sent to the outer most confines of civilization; the sprat, , sea"herring. In the Caspian I and Black seas and in the Volga her i ?cc"r J" great abundance and are the principal fish of those regions. The seas that wash the shores of northern Asia, particularly those of Siberia, Korea and Japan, teem with a number of kinds ?f h?T/'!"CTfand sard'nes. in the waters of the Philippine and East Indian archipela goes small and large members of the family abound. In the rivers of India runs the hilsa, which is similar to the American shad, and on the coast of India occur schools of the oil sardine. Herrings likewise exist in Australia and New Zea land; in the rivers and coastal waters of,Africa, and at the southern extremltv "f,..he ^fster" Hemisphere, where the Chili sardine abounds. Has Determined Nations' Destiny. But the herring par excellence is the sea herring of the north Atlantic and the scarcely distinguishable sea herring of j the north Pacific. The fish?biologically j two species, commercially one specie?la ( the most abundant and most valuable in the world, and is therefore entitled to be I called king. The sea herrings are cold water fish and reach their greatest abundance in far northern latitudes. The herring of the Atlantic, called Clupea hajengus by Lin naeus, has a remarkably wide distribu tion. On the western shores of Europe its southern limit is the Strait of Gibral tar. whence it ranges to the White sea and the Arctic ocean as far north as Spitsbergen, occurring in enormous num bers In the Bay of Biscay, North sea, Baltic sea and Norwegian sea. It is thus found on the coasts of Spain, Portugal, Prance. Belgium, Holland, England] Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Denmark, Ger many, Russia, Finland, Sweden and Nor way. With Iceland as an Intermediate station, the fish crosses to the shores of Greenland and extends its range south ward and westward to Labrador, New foundland, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and the New England shores, going in winter occasionally to New York and exceptionally as far south as the Virginia capes. The north Pacific herring, first called Clupea pallasi by Cu vier and Valenciennese, exists in the j same extraordinary abundance as the At lantic fish and has also a very extensive I range, being found from California to Alaska and from Siberia to Korea and Japan. A tale as stirring as any fiction could I be based on the part played by the sea herring in the history of some of the principal countries. "Its spawning and feeding grounds have determined the lo cation of cities," and in several instances the actual destiny of nations and the fate of monarchs appear t?> have been in volved in the herring fishery. Countries in which the quest of the herring is an important industry are the L nited States, the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Que bec and British Columbia; Newfoundland, England, Scotland. Wales and Ireland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark, Russia, Germany, Holland, Belgium* France, Japan and Siberia. The chief purpose the herring sub serves in nature is to be the food of a host of other creatures, some of which are of great economic value. The most Important of the fishes that subsist regu larly on herring are the cod, haddock, hake and pollock, all of which consume immense quantities of herring and her ring .spawn. Mackerel, albacore and va rious other high-sea fishes prey largely on herring at times, and numerous species of little or no value to man?like the sharks, dogfishes, sculpins and flounders? often gorge themselves with herring and their recently deposited eggs. Among the marine mammalia, whales, porpoises, dolphins and seals prey on the herring and sometimes subsist almost en tirely on this fish. On parts of our northeast coast proba bly the worst enemy of the young herring is the squid, which frequents the inshore waters in immense numbers and is most adept and Insatiable in capturing the un lucky herring, both in open waters and in the weirs of the fishermen. \ Small fishes, birds an?j a parfect host of other minor creatures find a large part of their sustenance in the eggs and young of the herring, and in the aggregate are doubtless much more destructive than any of the major enemies mentioned. As the herring is probably more exten sively preyed on than any other fish, and as it is entirely lacking in offensive and defensive powers, it is evident that its perpetuity depends on its abundance and its prolificacy. Fecundity of the Herring. The average number of eggs deposited annually by a full-grown herring Is 30, 000. Tliis is not a particularly large num ber by comparison with the egg-laying capacity of many other marine food fishes, but it is noteworthy in view of the small size of the fish and Its remarkable abun dance. If all the progeny of a single pair of herring were to reach maturity and spawn, and if all of their progeny were to survive and spawn, and if this were to go on for a few generations, the resulting volume of flsli would be beyond comn? hension. In fact, if such unrestricted mu*I tlplication were to continue for a Derinii as short as ten years, all of the seas of the earth would be filled solid with her ring, all land would be submerged, and I all other creatures in the world would1 be crowded out of existence. The extraordinary value attained by I the sea herring as a fishery product has depended in no small degree on the mani fold uses to which. It may be put and the I numerous ways in which it is susceptible of preservation. As a fish for consump tion in a fresh condition, the sea herring does not rank high hy comparison with various other marine food fishes inhabit ing the sam?> waters; nevertheless, a perfectly fresh herring, when broiled, fried or baked, is excellent. An important use for fresh herring is as bait in the line fisheries for bottom species like halibut, cod and haddock. Immense* quantities are thus consumed, particularly in New England and the British provinces. The herring for this purpose are taken mostly in winter and are frozen in bulk for preservation. The simplest method of preservation is that of drying without saJt. This is a favorite method for small herring in Japan. and such tisli, strung on straws or sticks, are seen exposed for sale in all parts of that country and are exten sively eaten. A favorite and simple way of prepar ing herring for food in America and Europe is by smoking, which is usually preceded by a short immersion in brine. Smoked lls'h, however, will not keep in definitely. and the herring that enter most largely into the commerce of tne W'?rld are preserved by various degrees oi" salting. On the coast of Maine small herrings in bulk, preserved in pickle ana seasoned with spices, are known as Rus sian sardines. . ? One of the principal uses made of tne sea herring in New England is for can ning as "sardines." In the same region the fish are also canned under the name of herring, and before the ^enactment ^ the present beneficent pure-food law we sometimes sold to the unsuspecting con sumer sis "brook trout" and In Great Britain a favorite canned prep aration is kippered herring. The waste parts of herring at the sar dine and salting establishments^ are^con vertible into an excellent fertilizer, called ?pomace" in Maine, and Japan\ ,"K to lack of markets 'or the fish, im mense numbers are caught for the -P cial purpose of being converted it. to guano. Another product, usually "ja^e in connection with fertilizer, is oil. which has a wide use in the trades. Herring in the United. States. The herring fishery of the United States has always held subordinate rank. Al though prosecuted from Puritan times and attaining great value, It has always been exceeded in importance by other fisheries in the states where the herring abounds. Owing to the distribution of the fish, Maine and Massachusetts ha\e the most extensive fisheries, and the quantity of herring taken in the other New England states and in and New Jersey is very small. At no point south of Block Island does, * occur in'sufficient numbers or with sum cient regularity to support an estab lished industry. ? - Owing to the great abundance of her ring in the shore waters of Maine and Massachusetts, and of the British P^v Inces, there has been no occasion a* >et to seek' the herring offshore, and honce the American fishery differs I^rkedly methods from the European. The oldest, and for a long time tfce most coinmon, manner of fishing for herring ist??h: ing?a method learned from the aborlgl ne? Up to about 1820 herring were caught in no other way on the eastern Maine coast. Torching depends on the well known instinct of herrl"F ht" and is fishes to seek and follow a light, and carried on with very simple p?? Projecting over the bow of a boat p nelled by oars is a small iron pasKei, u Shfch a fire of birch bark or other highly combustible - material Is kept burning while the fishing is going on. As soon as darkness comes on the^ boat la> ? to the fishing grounds, one man steering one man standing in ^.bow^wlth ^ UtUe bunches in front of the light they are readUy caught with the dip net, and sometimes fifteen to twenty barrels m y quoddy and Ipswich oays fill nets haul seines and purse shiio. are more or less extensively employed for herring on various &rts of our coast but the characteristic apparatus in the reirion oif most Important fishm* is the ePN>rBa?n^cktaa^v^?o..a. JSJrturl a?o numerous: but Its essential ia an ^ rsiss and from whicb tney^r, ? ^ ftnd the ex'k by the fall of tide, by the closing of the entrance, or by peculiarities of ^heTeJring brush weirs of the north eaUcoSar? very substantially bum """SeTalue' ThS S K *5 trees running horizontally, these pushed to the bottom ** weir forked stick. The upper part of tne weir is of loosely woven brush extending ver tically two or three feet above high wa ter As the average tidal movement . twenty feet, and in spring nearlj rtA feet the amount of material re^ considerable. Some circular inclosures. whi e others are pro na ^nssr a,^?w take out the fish with huge dip nets. In S^lnrmrM^'b SSaSt to the Internatlotml boundary hctween Maine and New BrunswicK. Thev supply herring for bait, smoking, Sting and canning, and often yield very large profits to their owners. The unit of measure in this fishery is the hogshead, holding fifteen bushels, and many hun dreds of hogsheads?sometimes several Sand-may be taken in a single weir in tho course of a season. Upward of $20,000 has been received for the herring taken in one fortunately located weir, and there is a record of a weir on the Canadian side of Passama quoddy bay which was l^ed b'LA,^ lh cans at an annual rental of $-000, wnth a bonus of $3 for each hogshead of fish caught* yet, notwithstanding this seem ?ngly exorbitant price, the lessees, before the close of the first season, were able to L three years' rental in advance, owing to the large catch and high prices of 8 The prosperity, if not the very exist ence. of the herring weir fishery on the northeast coast depends on the presence of a large number of canneries at East nort Uubec and other places on or near the Maine border, where herring are con verted into "sardines." ^eirs have also been constructed along the central and western districts of Maine in order to supply raw material for canneries and smokehouses, and 'arge catches are often made at points remote from the center? the hearing Industry It is re corded that in October and November. 190N a brush weir in the Bagaduce riv er near Castine took 20,000.000 small herring -a Quantity so large that no local market could be found and the catch ha<* to t>e sent to places as far eastward as Taibee. The American "Sardine." The most valuable branch of the Ameri can herring industry is the canning of small herring under the name of "sar dines." The business began in 1875, pre ceded by six or seven years of experi mental work, and has continued up to the nrecent time. 'Hie factories are located at suUable Points along the entire Maine roast but are most numerous on or near [he eastern boundary. These factories eive employment to many thousand men. women and children; utilize immense quantities of herring that would other wise find little market, and produce a wholesome food that for many years was marketed largely under French labels, but E nJw sid under its proper name and on Its own merits, with a resulting improve mThe'mosfvaluable herrings for can ning are the young, from three to five irches long, suitable for packing in "quarter" cans. The demand for these has at times been so active that fabulous prices?far beyond the real worth of the fish?have been paid. As much as $111 per hogshead was given one season, and a price of $30 per hogshead has not in frequently prevailed; but, on the other hand, the price has often fallen to 5 and has not averaged more than from $5 to $8. Herring of larger size are put up In oil, mustard and tomato sauce in "half" and "three-quarter" tins, but the chief use made of the larger fish is for smoking. The Maine coast is dotted with herring smokehouses, some independent, others in connection with canneries, and several million boxes of delicious smoked herring are there placed on the market each season. The New Englanders have rot been content with the supplies of herring ob tainable from home waters, but have for many years engaged in a herring fishery and trade on the shores of tbe Canadian maritime provinces and of Newfound land. This business has been conducted mostly In winter, when the fishing ves sels! were otherwise idle, when the fish were schooling In the waters of the neigh boring provinces, when there was a scar city on our own shores, and when there was a good demand for herring for use as bait In the line fisheries. For this pur pose our vessel fishermen resorted to va rious regions and engaged in the business iri various ways, depending on local con ditions, sometimes catching the herring themselves, sometimes hiring the provin cials to fish for them, sometimes buyinn outright the herring already caught and awaiting a purchaser. The principal lo calities thus visited by pur vessels were Passamaquoddy bay arid other waters neax the mouth of the Bay of Fundy, the Magdalene Island and the treaty shores of Newfoundland- At present only the last-named region Is concerned in this trade. EDDIE HODO.HISGUESS 'Twas Way Ahead of Time, But as Good as Gold. REAL AEROPLANE PROPHET Predicted Many Things That Have Since Happened. BUT HE ALWAYS WAS WISE Bead This Pine Tarn of His About the Highways of the Upper Air. Under the title "Aerial Traffic. Its Reg ulations and Limitations," Edwin M. Hood, better known to public men as "Eddie" Hood, a veteran "Washington newspaper man, contributed to The Sun day Star Illustrated Magazine of July 8. 1906, an article that was full of inter est. At that time 99 men out of every 100 looked upon aerial navigation by means of aeroplanes as a wild dream. But in his article Mr. Hood wrote: "That such a machine can be construct ed admits of mathematical demonstra tion." The Wright brothers, Curtiss and Bleriot were then practically unheard of. But twenty-five years of active work in the newspaper field of Washington throws a man in the way of learning a good many things. Mr. Hood, as a rep resentative of the Associated Press, has spent that length of time in and about the State, War and Navy Departments, where he came Into contact with scien tific experts of the army and navy and watched the perfection of many marvel ous Inventions. Two years ago he knew what had been accomplished by the Sig nal Corps of the army with balloons, and he knew what experiments were being made with aeroplanes. So to him what has occurred In two years did not ap pear at all impossible, or even improb able. Here Is His Prophecy. Speaking of the regulation of aerial traffic, he wrote: "The safety of human life and property being the first consideration, it will fol low that aerodromes must conform to legal regulations in many respects. Of course, the strength and stability of the machine must be established beyond ques tion; this certainly as to public carriers and probably also as to individual ma chines. As the owners of automobiles strenuously resisted the application of laws regulating their speed and prescrib ing the numbering and lighting systems, and limiting the emission of noxious va pors and smoke, so will the future aero naut protest against local laws that limit his freedom, but also without success. "So it will happen that, at least in populous centers, the aerodromes will be required to start from and alight at cer tain prescribed points, probably on the outskirts of the cities. It cannot be con templated with equanimity that a score of persons below should be put in jeopardy of their lives through the pos sible carelessness of an aeronaut above them in the management of his machine. Apart from the danger to life below of a falling machine would be the dropping of oil and refuse. "So the machines must not flv over the cities and towns; that must be "prohibited by law. And even in the agricultural country farmhouse and yard would appear to have a claim to protection, and the farmer's vote will probably be as po tential in the future as now with the lawmakers. His protection would Involve stringent prohibition against the dis charge from above of any objectionable matter. Possibly it might be found difficult for the aeronaut entirely to avoid this; certainly It would be in the infancy of the science of aerial flight, with crude and experimental machines. Highways of the Air. "This fact naturally suggests the feasi bility and desirability of prescribing aerial routes of traffic connecting the great centers of population, corresponding with the ocean lanes which are followed by the steamships of the world with in estimable benefit to the mariner. At first suggested by the economy of taking ad vantage of seasonable currents and winds of great circle navigation and avoidance of Icebergs, the establishment of these lanes was found to have largely eliminat ed that dread of the sailor?a collision at sea. So the aeronaut of the future, though naturally chafing under the re strictions upon his freedom of movement, may in the end?though the primary pur pose of the law establishing aerial lanes of flight will be the protection of the peo ple below?be glad to reduce the chance of a frightful collision in midair by fol lowing the rules of the road. "The mere thought of a collision In mid air is enough to shake the stoutest spirit, but how much more dreadful to the imag ination the terrible crash of the two great but fragile machines, laden with human freight, in the shadows of night and speeding in opposite directions at the rate of a hundred miles an hour. Destruction to every living being in such crafts would appear to be inevitable. "It may be reasonably expected that in its initial phases the science of aero dromics will follow in general lines the rules of navigation upon the high seas. Airships will be fitted with simple horns or whistles, sounding one blast to pass to starboard or two to port. Likewise at night, if there are aeronauts so venture some as to try the upper darkness, the aerodromes must carry the familiar red and green lights on left and right. Other signals common to water navigation will be adopted to give notice of the intention of the aerial captain to pass to one side or another of a slower craft ahead, as well as to signal his approach to his home station, just as the returning river ex cursion boat calls out Its dock hands to catch its mooring lines. Harbors in the Clouds. "Successful aerial flight must obey many of the laws of navigation. Ships on long voyages must make port between [ to take on water and fuel, if not fresh food. So must the aerodrome, and in the beginning of the science of aerial flight the stops must be often because of the small size of the machine. Two hundred miles, straight away, at full speed, would tax a good locomotive. That distance would be but the decimal of the perform ance of an ocean liner; but it might, in the beginning, at least, mark the limit of endurance of an aerodrome in average weather conditions, and in bleak and ad verse head winds the possible flight might be less. I "And so there is to be the aerial relay station. Just as there is the water tank and. the coal hopper alongside the rail way trunk lines. The shape is problem atic at this stage. Probably on some high hill a tall steel tower with a broad plat form and tanks filled with water ?n<* with naphtha or alcohol; suitable devices for grappling strongly, yet flrmly, tno hovering air craft, and for swiftly inject ing, through flexible hose, the element* necessary to its flight, or?a wilder fllgnt of Imagination, perhaps?in the case or the rapid express and mail aerodromes, relay-supply aerodromes of great and large storage tanks, capable of rising swiftly and soaring along in company with the liners, of making flying connec tions and replenishing their depleted wa ter and fuel tanks. 1 "And this fuel, what shall It Naphtha or gasoline at first, probably. But already the supply is diminishing and the price increasing; so that lu Europe, for economical reasons, j>etro leum is beginning to be supplanted by alcohol. Fortunately, wherever vegeta tion may be found, the production of al cohol is possible, so that an endless store of that essence which is the basis or power of the motor of the future is In sight. Policing: the Sky. "Laws without penalty provisions and the means of enforcing them are of little avail. Of what use. therefore, is it to prescribe lanes of flight for aerodromes and to lay down other regulations for their use unless their application can be enforced? And how can this be done? Existing police methods will not meet the needs of the future. Immense diffi culties beset the imagination, but an aerial police must be provided. On points of vantage, well chosen, powerful ob servatories must keep und?*r constant sur veillance every square mile of space above the earth's surface. "Day and night must the quest be kept jup; for here is a watch not only for the lawbreaker above, who is tempted to shorten a flight by varying from the es tablished lane, but also for the aerodrome in distress, for the craft with failing power of flight through exhausted motor power, or weakened or storm-battered framework and in need of Instant assist ance. Even In the daylight hours the task will be difficult; at night. In storm and darkness, it would seem almost hopeless unless electrical science comes to the aid by the development of electrical range finders of a delicacy not known at pres ent. Still, again touching the methods of the sailor, recourse will at first be had to powerful searchlights, which, mechanical ly actuated, will sweep the darkened skieS with rapid beams within established zones. "To capture the lawless aeronaut or to succor the aerial derelict, a new govern mental agency must be organized, akin to the revenue cutter service on the hlgli seas. Swift, powerfully motored hawks of the air will be these aerodromes; manned by daring and well-armed and expert crews; an aerial police, capable of over taking and overpowering any wrongdoer. Extra hazardous service, this, and it must be well compensated. In It will be bred the future Paul Joneses and Farragnts and Deweys of our aerial navy. Imagine the awful details of a battle in midair be tween a desperate smuggler and an aerial cutter? the attempt to grapple; the repel lant blasts of blazing gaseous vapor; the collision and terrible mile-high drops of entangled machines to certain destruction below! Yet these may be merely incidents In time of peace and only faintly fore shadow the awful events of aerial war fare. The Aerial Smuggler. Keeping within peaceful lines, the sug gestion of smuggling opens a wide field of speculation. Will It be possible to suppress this revenue-sapping practice under these new conditions? Upon the solution of this problem may depend the existence of the whole system of custom house collections. Land routes may be guarded; seaports are not so numerous that they cannot be readily watched. But what of the boundless approaches of the air? How would It be possible to police the whole boundary Une between the United States and Canada on the north, or Mexico on the south? And every West; Indian Isle might be a starting point for smuggling aerodromes. Unless this pred atory warfare upon the customs revenues can be restrained within narrow limits*) perhaps the whole system of protectlva, tar!IT 1s doomed through the inexorable developments of science. "Fortunately, the limitations of the ? aerodrome, as at present conceived, may for a long time postpone the necessity of meeting this great Issue. Freight means weight, and many years must pass' before the airship can undertake to carry heavv burdens. Passenger traffic will be the main source of income, and that will be expensive. Articles of small weight and compass but of great intrinsic value may be smuggled In the aerodrome, but so they now are in ships, and the Illicit process will be detected and punished as it Is at present, through the backward tracing of the Incoming valuables. No Good for Freight. "But the great bulk of the world's com merce will probably never be moved through the air and above the earth. Now and then a bold air captain may find it worth his gillie to carry a few China men or other would-be immigrants of the excluded classes across the International boundary, but this will be. after all, only a vexatious incident in the life of the Im mieration inspector, and the sum total of such an addition to the population will not be considerable, and it may be confi dently expected that the resources of the lawgiver will prove equal to the de velopment of the aerial traffic of the fu ture." TO STOP RUNAWAY. When Horse Bolts Brake Is Re* leased and Stops Carriage. Runaways are robbed of their terrors by the invention of a Michigan man. A horse may bolt if he likes, but unless he wants to tear up the roadbed at the f expense of extraordinary effort he will stop immediately when the device works. Underneath the carriage is a pointed rod, inclining downward and forward and held ! above the ground by a strong spring. The reins pass through rings on the top of the dashboard and the ends are fastened to the brake device In such a way that when there is unusual pressure on them the spring Is released and the rod shoots down and acts as an effectual brake. If a horse runs away the driver can first exert all his or her effort to stop him naturally and if this is ineffectual can let go the reins or pull on the end attached to the brake. At first thought it would seem that this brake would stop the team so abruptly as to pitch the occupants of the carriage out, but the spring prevent* this. Name Signs for Villages. From the London Chronicle. The office window suggestion (writes a correspondent) that villages should be labeled with their names "fore and aft" is an excellent one. As a rule, the name of a village 1s discoverable if you happen to see the post office, which Is usually labeled "So-and-so post office"; but, as often as not, the post office is hidden In creepers, or round a corner. In a few districts the name of the place Is marked. If I remember rightly, for instance, some at least of the villages between Canter bury and Whitstable?where, as somebody remarked, "they make the oysters"?have their names conspicuously stuck up. If local councils won't do it, surely every village has some magnanimous inhabitant with a paint pot who would do it (or mere honor and glory.