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t'1* firemen found very little work to do.
The fire had started tn the pile of coal near the furnace, and It was quickly ex tinguished. About $30 damage resulted. No. 9 engine company went to the resi dence of Mrs. A dele Hlllyer, 20CJ1 Hlllyer place, about lO o'clock yesterday morning and extinguished a blaze In the chimney. No damage was done. Burning rags about a gas meter in the vestibule at the house of J. M. Itenherton. 922 N street northwest, yes terday morning, caused the melting of ;i lead connection, and the escape of uas followed. The gas ignited and did about $10 damage. At the house of Mrs. Ella Thomas. >03 New Hampshire avenue northwest, yesterday morning, the bursting of the eater back in the stove caused about $50 damage. A portiere caught tire from a lighted lamp in the house of Mrs. Rena Hine, Soi* Rhode Island avenue northwest, about noon yesterday. The blaze did about 110 damage. > An overheated stove caused a blaze 1 i?t night in house 1310 C street north \vi st. Firemen of No. 3 truck extin guished the blaze after about $1? dam age had been done. Contributions for Charity. . * I The Star today received the following j contributions for Tho Associated Char- j Mies: Cash. $3: Anne K. Howell, $1; V. P. II. 12: 1'. and S.. $2; Margaret R. Shafer. c. M.. ?>: M. 11. 1\. $1. NEW YORK WARMING UP. frigid Wave Is Broken by Snow storm From the West. NEW YORK. January 15.?A fairly ? avv snowstorm early today broke i lie frigid cold wave which came from Tie west and has now passed out to sea. The storm wa* the eoldest ex perienced in years. Many lives were ' lost and train schedules both in the ? ?ast and the west were interrupted There were many wrecks at sea and incoming liners arrived incrusted with lee. Milder weather is promised by the weather bureau. The steamship t. Louis came in to day from Southampton, after a pas sage in which she encountered heavy s-as which poured over her bows with crushing weight and broke the rails about the foredeck and bridge. The spray froze where It fell Forty Persons Marooned by Ice. HASTINGS, N. Y.. January 15.?Some forty persons. Including two women and four children, were still marooned m day on two tugs, Bismark and Prin < ess. and four barges which became fast in the ice floe near here. The Ice " is not strong enough to walk upon, and in places there are holes. i't'LI'TH. Minn., January 15.?During: ?lie night the temperature here dropped o 25 degrees below zero. The cold is ? ompanied by a hitter northwest wind. Kentucky Roads Blockaded. WHITESBURG. Ky., January 15.? Snow blockades have closed all the Ken tucky mountain roads to traffic. Sup plies in the stores of small towns are running low. and suffering may follow, as the snow when it melts will cause freshets in the streams, whose beds compose the wagon roads much of the way. Many streams are frozen to the bottom. MEMPHIS, Tenn.. January 15.?The surface of the Mississippi river at Mem "phis is covered with floating blocks of Ice. and not a single boat will depart from this harbor today, according to announcement by owners last night. Ice Gorge in the Ohio. LOUISVILLE, Ky., January 15.?Ice floes measuring acres in extent are 'caught in the current above gthe falls of the Ohio here, and a solid sheet ex pends out from the shore a third of the -way-across the river. * * ' The river fell a half foot yesterday, i and rivermen believe the formation of, a gorge to be Inevitable, ^ j t NORFOLK IS FROST BOUND. rStreets Covered With Sleet: Man Frozen to Death. NORFOLK. Va.. January 15.?With her streets covered in sleet until they could i>e used as frozen streams for sleighing and skating. Norfolk today sufTered as she had not In many years before. North-, ? ast winds brought moisture from the \tlantie oeean. causing rain and snow that froze as fast as it fell during the night. Conditions under foot were se ?v.rer today than ever known before. , M. Rofkovitz. aged sixty years, wlfose "borne was in Baltimore, was found frozen to death In an open hallVay here today. His body is being held for his family in Baltimore. FORCIBLE MRM QUESTION FBI STATES President Dissents From Sug gestion That Time Is Ripe to Push Proposition. President Taft, in a letter to Rev. H. Pereira-Mendcz. of New York, president ?f the I'nion of Orthodox Jewish Congre gations of tho 1'nlted States and Canada, briefly expresses his views as to proposed compulsory arbitration in industrial dis putes. The New York minister wrote the President suggesting that the time is ripe to push th#- proposition of compulsory arbitration, but the ITesbient does not fully agree with him. as shown in the fol lowing from his letter: Compulsory arbitration in industrial ontroversies is one which would have to !>?? dealt with primarily by the states rather than the federal government. The principal Held in which the federal gov ? rnment ?ould act would be that of con troversies between railroads and their ??mployes, and a step has already been t;iken ther?> by providing a mechanism t'.f voluntary arbitration. It is doubtful whether any proposition lor compulsory arbitration of these disputes would at tiiis time meet with sutheient favor to bring such procedure within the realm ? <f present possibilities." Wi%h Title of "Customs Court." II. M Somerville. president of the board ? i" general appraisers of New York, and ex-Representative s. 11. Cooper of Texas, a nu mb* r of the same body, called on 'the President today with Representative Clayton of Alabama, chairman of the llsuse Judiciary committee. The loard of appraisers wishes its title changed to the customs court," and Mr. Somerville asked the President If such a change would l?e satisfactory to him. The President assured his visitors that it would, and said that the change was proper in view of the duties of ? ?e board being wholly of a judicial i ature. lie would approve a bill changing the name, he said. The Cus toms Court of Appeals sits in this city, while the board of appraisers has its headquarters in N??w York, where it receives and considers all appeals from the decisions of customs officers and ii:e Treasury I>vpartment as to customs matters. President Going Away Friday. President Taft will be out of town two ? a\s the last of this week. He is cieduled to leave here early Friday morning for New Haven, where he is to attend a meeting of the Yale Corpora tion. Friday night the President will sr>eak before the New Havyn Chamber of Commerce. Saturday afternoon, after luncheon with l*resident Hadley of Yale, lie will go to New York, where he has several important appointments, and where be will again confer with New York republican leaders. Saturday night he will address the New York State Bar Association and later make a short visit to the Genesee Society and to the Twenty-Feur Carat Society, an organisa tion of Jewelers. MEAT . > - ; : ? *. American * Association Begins Sixth Annual Convention. DELEGATES ARE LATE Trains From the West Held Up by the Severe Weather. ADDRESS BY MB. ALLERDICE President of Organization Declares Its Purpose to Be Improved Production. JOSEPn ALLERDICE, Prtildrat. Several hundred of the men who pur vey the carcasses from which the butcher hews the aristocratic porterhouse, the high priced rib roast, the morning chops or humbler cuts, are meeting in Wash ington today, tomorrow and Wednesday, the occasion being the sixth annual con vention of the American Meat Packers' Association. All the sessions are to be held In the New Wlllard, and between seven hundred and one thousand dele gates are expected. Scheduled to open at 10 o'clock this morning, the convention did not begin until 2 this afternoon, the delay being occasioned by the severe weather, which held up a number of trains, special and regular, conveying delegations to Wash ington. The special from Chicago, due early this morning, did not reach the city until nearly noon, and other trains were equally late. For this reason, the morning session was postponed, and the afternoon and morning programs were combined. Welcomed by Commissioner. ? Following the address of welcome by Cuno H. Rudolph, chairman of the Dis trict of Columbia board of Commis sioners, Joseph Allerdlce of Indian apolis, president of the association, spoke to the delegates. IJr. Aliurdice referred to the objects of' the organ ization, which are: To lawfully fur ther and protect the interests of the meat packers of the United States; to encourage improvement In production, and to disseminate information. He spoke of the work that has been done by the association In distributing and interpreting the inspection- laws, say ing that the members and officers of the organization have worked hand in hand with the government's, inspectors In interpreting and applying these laws. Taking up the actual business of the packers, he spoke of the de velopment of the packing Industry, made possible by the invention of re frigerating machinery, etc., and de clared that under existing conditions GEORGE L MCCARTHY, Secretary. as to ranges, pasturage and the like the packing industry is not only a bip commercial proposition, but an actual and vital necessity if a steady and ad equate food supply is to be maintained at all seasons of the year. Nothing to Fear From Laws. "We are just caterers," said President Allerdlce, "and should be on very con fidential terms with the public. We hear much about government supervision and regulation of corporations. We cannot see that the puckers have anything to fear from such laws, if enacted on proper lines. In fact, we believe that such laws would enable us to take the public into our confidence and relieve the packing industry of the misapprehension enter tained by the public regarding the ex cessive margin of profit In the business. With the prejudice of the public and press eliminated ii is fair to assume that the packers would receive better treat ment from the public in the future than they have received ir. the past." Theodore O. Vllter, chairman of the executive committee of the American As sociation of Refrigeration, followed Presi dent Allerdice. and spoke of the third in ternational congress of refrigeration, to be held in Chicago In 1013. saying that forty countries are expected to send rep resentative. At the last congress, held in Vienna last year, thirty-three countries were represented. Other addresses this afternoon were- by Secretary Wilson of the Department of Agriculture and Dr. A. D. Melvin. chief of the bureau of animal industry. Dr. H. M. Bracken, executive officer of the Min nesota state board of health, read a paper on "State Inspection of Meats," and John Barrett, director of the bureau of Ameri can republics, delivered an address on the meat packing industry of South America. Reports Held Over. The reports of the several committees, the treasurer and other official matters which were to have been presented at the opening session were held over until to morrow morning. Delegates will be entertained tonight with a vaudeville performance, to be Cven In the grand ballroom of the New illard. Tomorrow night the annual ban quet, an "all-American dinner," wlll.be held In the'main dining room of the ho tel.' It Is expected that more than 500 delegates^and guests will sit at the ban quet tables " * Telegrams; %-ere received today from, r~ ? - several packers who. for one reason or another, cannot attend the convention. Among 'these telegrams are the follow ing: "CHICAGO, January 15.?I am very sorty that I am . unable <o'**e .wtth you today. I extend to xOu n? corhpltments and best wishes. ' ? J. O^DEN ARMOUR" "CHICAGO, January 15.?Regret very much that I am unable to be with you this week, but I am detained here mak ing explanations on why the packers' profits are so large. "T. J. CONNORS." Both telegrams are from packers undei* indictment in Chicago. BAN OlDllRS Commissioners Would Amend Child Labor Law. BOYS SELLING ON STREETS Bill Favored Substituting 8:30 for 10 P.M. as Time Limit for Work. Washington boys will be prohibited from selling merchandise and engaging in other occupations on the streets after 8:30 o'clock at night* instead of 10 o'clock, as now permitted, if Con-^ gress acts favorably on a bill forward ed A the House District committee by the Commissioners today. ^ The bill, which contains several; amendments to the present child labor law, was introduced, at the Instance of j the Commissioners, two years ago. In their opinion, say the District heads, it is preferable to the bill amending the child labor law which was introduced j in the House by Representative Rob erts December 6 last, and which \^as j referred to them for a report. The presence of children on the j streets at unseasonable hours, engag ing in various employments and "loiter ing In idleness In front of barrooms and other objectionable places," states j the report, is the occasion for the rec ommendation that children be not al lowed the use of the streets for busi ness purposes later than 8:30 p.m. The recommendation, it is said, Is con curred in by officials of the police de partment. Age of Night Messenger Boys. The Commissioners report adversely on the provision contained in the Roberts bill fixing the minimum age of persons employed In the messenger service be tween 9 o'clock p.m. and 6 o'clock a-m. at twenty-one years. The present law establishes the minimum age at sixteen years. For the reason that officials of the com- I panles to whom such service is rendered i are, in the opinion of the Commissioners, persons who are judicious in the selec tion of employes, and the fact that call boxes have been removed from objec tionable resorts, the Commissioners say that they are not prepared to favor the propo3 :d modification' in the present law. Children in Stage Performances. Attention is directed in the report to the failure of the Roberts bill to include section sixteen of the present law, which provides that nothing in the child labor law shall apply to the employment of any child in a theatrical exhibition, pro vided the written consent of one of the j Commissioners is first obtained. "There are reasons both in favor of. and against such legislation," assert the Commissioners. "The direction given by this section is susceptible to abuse by the opportunity it affords fpr the employment of children in cheap theaters for exhibition of their skill and talents for popular amusement, which is liable to interfere with their school work by the effect of the late hours such employment involves: and to expose them to undesirable sur roundings. On the other hand, em ployment of this kind is frequently I obtained by mothers and guardians of j such children who thus derive a ma teriul portion of the means needful for j their support. There are also occa sional instances in which the employ ment of children in the. larger theaters Is essential to the proper staging of plays, where the exposure of the chil dren to hardship or other injurious in- | fluences is minimized. The Commis sioners have no reports tending to show that any of the permits thus far j issued under that section have en- j tailed hurtful consequences. It is,' therefore, for Congress to determine | the advisability of rescinding the legis lation contained in this section, which would be the case if the bill should be | enacted with that section excluded." Republicans Fail in Effort to Get Madden Bill Before the House. A fight to secure action on the Mad den bill for a physical valuation of all railroad property in the United States was made In the House today. Repub lican Leader Mann asked immediate consideration, and all representatives were hurriedly sent for. The Madden bill has been before the Interstate commerce committee since its introduction April 4 last. Mr. Mann to day called up Mr. Maddcn's motion to discharge the committee from further consideration of the bill. Democratic Leader Underwood immediately insfltuted a call of the House. Provisions of the Bill. The Madden bill would authorise the in terstate commerce commission to begin at once a valuation of all the property of railroads to establish a basis for scientific making of rates, employing all necessary engineers and experts for the work. The assembling of the democratic forces quickly ended the efforts of the republicans to get the valuation bilf be fore the House. Democratic Leader Un derwood demanded a vote by tellers on seconding the Mann motion, and the re publicans lost the fight for consideration of the measure by 71 to 101. RTTINS COVER $5,000,000,000. Immense Sum in Mercantile Vaults Under Fire Debris. NEW YORK, January 15. ? There is probably 16,000,000,000 In . the vaults of the Mercantile Safe Deposit Com pany,' now covered up In the ruins of the burned Equitable building, according to an estimate made by W. B. Brenner, assistant treasurer of the Equitable Life Assurance Company, which controls the Mercantile concern. Five billion dollars is nearly twice as much money as Is in circulation in the United States. It would pay the national debt and leave a balance greater than the 1 combined fortunes of John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie and J.. P. Morgan. If the five billions were divided among the population of the United 8tates each per son would get more than 150. There are thousands of boxes in the vaults, and the contents include stocks, bonds, securities, cash and Jewelry, repre senting practically the entire assets 9t about 40.000 individuals, estates and eoc porations. r Proposed Probe of. Three So Called Trusts. ALLEGED SHIP COMBINE Action to Be Taken by House Com mittee on Rules. HUMPHREY PRESENTS - ? FACTS Tells of Discrimination by Foreign Lines Against Ameri . '*? v can Trade. i The.House committee* on rules today began probing into the question of sweeping investigations into the so iall0() money, shipping and harvester trusts. The investigations were asked in a resolution regarding the "money trust"' l?y Representative Lindbergh of Minnesota, "shipping combine" by Rep resentative Humphrey of Washington and the International Harvester Com pany by Representatives Foster of Illi nois and l?ebeck of Nebraska. The fommittee probably will suggest the appointment of a special conimit tee to conduct a Joint investigation of the trio of industrial concerns. Attorney General Wickeraham was not on hand when .tjic committee met, but Representative Humphrey of Washington was the bearer of a letter from Mr. Wickersham to Chairman Henry of the rules committee explaining that he was Just back from Panama and had a date of long standing to speak In New York. The letter Informed Mr. Henry that in the opinion of the Attorney General there was nothing in the Humphrey resolution which might interfere in any way with the government's suit against the pooling agreement between the North Atlantic steamship lines, and that the investiga tion proposed'would be of public benefit. Agreement of Pacific Lines. Mr. Humphrey presented to the commit tee a paper which he laid was a Copy of the contract in f<5rco between the lines of the Pacific. He had obtained it, he said, as a result of "some men Quarreling among themselves." He added that it was "the ordinary, deferred rebate con tract" and that it embraced the Hill steamship Interest connected with the Great Northern railroad and the steam ship interests of the Southern Pacific. "Is that agreement made with the Hill railroad?" asked Representative Foster of Illinois. "No," replied Mr. Humphrey, "the rail roads do not enter into it." "You say they have nothing to do with it?" continued Mr. Foster. "No, I didn't say that," responded Mr. Humphrey. "I suspect they have a great deal to do with it." Mr. Humphrey directed the attention of the committee to the fact that all the passenger rates between this country and Europe are fixed In German money. "As a result," he said, "an American citizen traveling across the Atlantic ocean pays 4 per cent more than the foreigner pays to sail on the same ship, owing to the discount being against him. Four per cent sounds small, but the arnuial total of such discounts Is very large." Injury to American Trade. An American consul In Brazil was men tioned by Mr. Humphrey as authority for the statement that' the foreign com panies charge 20 per cent more for carry ing freight from the United States to South America than for the same serv ice from Europe to- South America. "Why," he said, "the rate from the United States to South America, via Eu rope, Is about the same as the rate from the United States to South America di rect. Also, these steamship lines will carry a passenger from Brazil to Europe and from Europe over here for ?1J0, while the rate from Brazil directly to the United States is $150." "Why Is that?" inquired Representa tive Wilson of Illinois. "To throw business to Europe," Mr. Humphrey replied, "to keep South Ameri can merchants out of New York, Phila delphia and other great markets In this country until thes* have made their con tracts "and bought their goods." "What power has this government to regulate these discriminations?" inquired Representative Hardwick of Georgia. Mr. Humphrey, replying, exprcsaed the belief that the government might have some power under the Sherman law which might be strengthened by supple mental legislation. Mr. Hardwick referred to the fact that the British government had appointed a commission to Inquire into the shipping trust. "That commission in its report," ex plained Mr. Humphrey, "expressed the opinion that the trust operated for the best interests of British commerce and recommended that it be permitted to con tinue." "Can we regulate this matter without getting Into trade wars all over the United States?" asked Mr. Hardwick. "Wouldn't It invite retaliation?" "Not at all," replied Mr. Humphrey, "I don't think we would have, any trouble of that sort, although, of course, the for eign steamship companies would fight our effort to regulate to the very last min- j ute." Prohibitive Bate Charged. Mr. Humphrey gave another Instance of alleged discrimination against the trade of the United States with South America. He said that Brazil, in an effort to build up commerce between that country and this, had established a twenty per-cent preferential on cement and some other commodities, which just about equalized the twenty per-cent discrimination in rates imposed by the foreign steamship companies. As a result of this preferential, a firm in this country sola some cement In Brazil and obtained a large contract for this year. The contract could not be filled, however, as no steamship out of New York for Brazil would carry the cement for Jess tfran $l-"0 a ton more than the old rate, which made the total prohibitive. "And thev left the rate from Europe to Brazil the -same?" inquired Repre sentative Stanley of Kentucky? "Yes," Mr. Humphrey replied. And I ean give you other instances of the same sort." Necessity for Investigation. Tho Washington member then referred to the opening of the Panama canal In the not far distant future, and to the necessity for Investigating the shipping trust prior to that time. "After the canal Js opened," said Mr. Humphrey, "the foreign lines will per mit no real competition if we let them continue ss they have in the past. They would tlx the rates through the canal Just as they now fix the rates for all over the world* Mr. Stanley Inquired if Mr. Humphrey knew of any rebates that had been given on shipments part by water and part by "That is a hard question to answer," replied the Washington member, Inas much as the land proportion of the through rate is not published." Bail and Shipping Interests. "Are the Hill lines and the Hill ships owned by the same people?" Mr. Stanley asked. "The steamship Minnesota, I believe," Mr. Humphrey answered, "Is owned by the Great Northern. That is the only ship they have now,. since the. other was wrecked." .... "Do you know if there are Interlock ing directors of the Hill railway and steamship interests?" Mr. Stanley per sisted. "Oh, there Is no controversy about that" Mr. Humphrey replied. "They are-admittedly owned by the same in terests." "If you can demonstrate that they are under the same ownership." Mr. Stan ley-continued, "and U|at ? rebates have been given on part water and part rait rates. I think you will find the case within the jurisdiction of the interstate commerce act." Mr. Humphrey said he knew it to be a fact that steel, could be sad had been shipped more cheaply from Pitts burgh to Manila than from Seattle to Manila, and that freight could be sent 'from Germany to Salt Lake City cheaper than from Cincinnati to the same destination. "These people." said Mr. Stanley, "in their efforts to dodge the interstate commerce act on the one side ma* have dodged into the jurisdiction of Congress on the other." He asked Mr. Humphrey if the latter had directed the attention of the interstate com merce commission to the question of whether land and water shipments on the Hill rail and water routes to the orient were made on a through rate basis or constituted two independent transactions. Mr. Humphrey said that he had not. Boycotting of Newspapers. Mr. Humphrey's testimony was much along the lines he lAs presented to Con gress in^ past'? sessions' as to steamship line conference^ and pooling agreements. He said there Was an angreement among the steamship lines to support no news papers that favored an American mer chant marine .or. were.hostile to the con ferences. One of the great necessities for this in vestigation, Mr. Humphrey ' urged, was to find out whether dlscriininatory rates are in violation of treaty obligations of the foreign countries with the I'nited States. He believed -some of the foreign lines were'partly owned by foreign gov ernments. The 'Emperor of Germany, he said, was interested as a stockholder in some of the foreign -lines. * (Continued from First Page.) places not reached by the telegraph systems, and the proposed consolida tion would therefore afford a favorable opportunity for the wide extension of telegraph facilities. In many small towns.where the tele graph companies have offices the tele graph and mail businesscould be readily handled' by the same employes- The separate maintenance of the two services under present conditions results. In a needless expense. As a matter of fact, the first telegraph in the United States was operated from 1844 to 1847 by the government under authority from Con gress. and It 1s most desirable that the government control be resumed. "A method has been already prescribed fpr the taking over of the tflegraph lines by section 5267 of the Revised Statutes, which provides that the government may, for postal, military or other purposes, purchase telegraph lines operating in the United States at an appraised value. Mr. Hitchcock hopes that Congress will speed ily enact legislation in harmony with this law providing for the taking over by the government of the existing telegraph systems at terms that shall be fair to their present owners. Every reason for the transmission of intelligence by mail under government control can be urged with equal force for a similar transmis sion of telegraphic communications. Proper Extension of Service. , "Because of the more extensive organi zation maintained by the postal 'service and the freedom from taxation and other charges to which a private corporation is subject the government undoubtedly will be able to afford greater telegraphic facilities at lower rates to the people than the companies now conducting the busi ness. Next to the introduction of a parcel post, for which there is already a strong popular demand, the establishment of a government telegraph system, in the opinion of the Postmaster General, offers the best opportunity for the profitable ex tension of our postal business. He sees no reason why the United Statfes should lag behind other nations in enlarging Its post office system to- Include not only postal savings, but also parcel post and government telegraph facilities." The federal statute to which Mr. Hitchcock referred reads as follows: "The I'nited States may, for postal, military or other purposes, purchase all the telegraph lines, property and effects of any or all companies, acting under the provision of the act of July 24. 1806, entitled 'An act to aid 1n the construction of telegraph lines and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military and other purposes," or under this title, at an appraised value, to be ascertained by five competent, disin terested persons, two of whom shall be selected by the Postmaster General of the United States, two by the company Interested and one by the four so pre viously selected." Hitchcock's Project Starts Discussion on Capitol Hill There was no disposition at the Capitol today to avoid any serious consideration of Postmaster General Hitchcock's pro posed plan of acquiring the telegraph lines. In the House, Representative Moon of Tennessee, chairman of the post office committee, announced that the matter would be given earnest attention. "The question of government owner ship of public utilities is a great one that needs long and careful consideration," said Mr. Moon. "If Postmaster General Hitchcock's plans are embodied in a bill to be introduced In Congress, and the bill ? comes to this committee, it certainly will be given thorough investigation. Such a proposal never has been before Congress that I know of. As to the merits of the proposal I could have nothing to say until I had heard a Mil incorporating the details of the proposed scheme." Cullom Favors Project. Senator Cullom of Illinois, head of the foreign relations committee, aligned him self with the plan. "On the theory that the telegraph is a part of the mails." said he, "it seems to me that ft would not be out of place for the government to own the telegraph lines." Senator William Alden Smith of Michi gan declared that while opposed to gov ernment absorption of public utilities for years he believed that the telegraph could be more appropriately acquired than any other branch of commercial activity. He said: "I have steadfastly opposed the gov ernment ownership of the public utilities for many years, for the reason that 1 have felt that these enterprises would be more serviceable If initiated and carried through by f>rlvate capital. The prestige enjoyed by American citizens is due to their unhampered Individual initiative, and this I would preserve; but as a nat ural appurtenance to the postal system I have felt that the telegraph could be more appropriately operated by the gov ernment thart any other branch of In dividual business. Benefit to the Public. "The telegraph could be conducted from the post offices, and the people accommo dated without unreasonable cost, while the government could communicate promptly with Its officials without the necessity of filtering its messages through the hands of the representatives of pri vate owners." Speaker Clark declared that a govern i ment telegraph was too big a subject to I discuss until all 'the details of the Post master General's plan became known. Democratic Leader Underwood and Re publican Leader Mann of the House treated the project gingerly. "The relation of the Poet Office Depart ment to the express companies must be disposed of before its relation to the tele graph systems can be passed upon," said Mr. Mann. "Both subjects cannot be handled at once. I am confident the par cels post question will have to be settled ? ?!?? atfsntlnn tha eels post qunuuu ?ui n before Congress can give attention to the government acquisition of the .telegraph lines." Many House members, both democratic and republican, expressed entire sym pathy with the plan. One obstacle they advanced was the difficulty of so adjust ing the relations between the railroads and the telegraph lines that the latter oould be operated through the Post Office Department! .* ?t Wants * Fair Price. "I am in entire sympathy with the plan to acquire the telegraph lines of the coun try to be operated as an adjunct of the postal system," said Representative Bur leson of Texas, the ranking democratic member of the House appropriations committee, "but it must, not be at a fic titious value. The Postmaster General suggests the value of the lines to be close to $250.000.000; but the government should take nothing but the findings of a federal ?commission as the basis for payment. I would favor giving the bena !!!?? the doubt to the telegraph com panies in fixing a reasonable price; but the government should in no oase be mulcted to the extent of paying for the water in the great organisations." ik . ^'"Jg republican members declared that unless telegraph tolls are materialiy u i J *** a *en?rai sentiment Ski? ^TJnJ*VOr ot the ??v<*"iment taking hold of (h* systems. Wants Parcels Poet First. Senator Jonathan Bourne, jr.. chairman or the Senate committee on post offices and post roads, before which any legisla tion to cam* out Mr. Hitchcock's pro posal would go, had this to say this aft ernoon : ra?L^m? n-abie lo understand the decla ration alleged to have been made by L?Sl??^r ??neral "itohcock in favor of government ownership of tel^^raoh lines. When the advocates of an enSSK parcc,s P?8t serv Jected u> thl ? View" 80me Ume' he <*> uJv. . enactment of a law rstab lihing sucji service and asked for an a.n ^DendUfnn ?f ,1/W'000 w,1?ch he could fxpend in experiments on a few rural CIt!*s '"?S enjarge a serMce we already have, wlth expeHmenUn/ h"ndrcd th?u?and dollars experimenting we are certainlv in no ^erJice? Undertake an entirely new ?'Personally I doubt if the Postmaster trfbut^i authortaed the statement at tributed to him. Last Auirust it n-n? stated in a Washington paper that he Sta from for sayln* hc had collected lrct nMhi c?untf1es on the sub flUMfi,! hLP ? 6 s J?>?t. I repeatedly re l. !f ^ J? submit that data for the of t*1? Senate committee on post of 8 an^ Post roads, but received no re severa' weeks, and then Mr. SmiS^ repud^ted the Interview and admitted that he had not collected the "Possibly the time may come when we lmlntn^M? make the telegraph an ad junct of the postal service, but Just at present we want a parcels post, and I hone tiie interjection of other subjects, such as one-cent letter postage and government telegraph service, will not be permitted to divert attention from this." "Idiosyncrasy," Says Adamson. I don t think democratic representa tives are called on to vote every time Postmaster General Hitchcock springs an idiosyncrasy," added Representative Ad amson. "He is not the great democratic leader." Senator Stone of (Missouri, who has been much opposed to government ownership or railroads, said: "I can see more good reasons why the government should own the telegraph than why it should own the railroads." ' Senator Borah of Idaho: "I am in favor of the general proposition." Senator Fletcher of Florida: "Ordinari y I ?a7e not h?6" ,n favor of such things and I don t know that I would favor this, but I would not commit myself until I have had an opportunity to study it." Representative Sherley' of Kentucky: The government could much better, at the present time, figure upon a proper method of handling parcels post than to attempt to deal with the telegraph ques tion. I have not investigated the lattei question." Time Not Ripe for Discussion. Representative Kitchln of North Carolina, a member of the ways and means committee,. and brother of the governor of that state, opposed a dis cussion of the question of public own ership of telegraph lines at this time. My own idea is that it might be a proper addition to the postaTsystem of the country," -said Mr. Kitchin. "but this is not the time to discuss the great subject of acquiring the tele graph systems. There are enough im portant things before the American peoplo to engross their attention." COMES AS A SUBPBISE. Telegraph Officials Had No Intima tion of Hitchcock's Plan. NEW YORK, January 13.?The an nouncement from Washington that Post master General Hitchcock is about to recommend government ownership of tele graph and telephone lines, was received with surprise by officials Of the big tele graph and telephone companies here. "It is a bolt out of a clear sky," declared Theodore N. Vail, president of the Amer ican Telephone and Telegraph Company and of the Western Union. "Whether the government could run telegraphs economically or not is very doubtful," continued Mr. Vail. "The ex perience of Great Britain is not favora ble." Mr. Vail said tliat there had been no conferences on the subject and that not even a suggestion had been made to the companies he represents that such a proposition was being considered by the Postmaster General. Edward J. Nally, vice president and general manager of the Postal Telegraph Cable Company, did not believe that Con gress would favor Mr. Hitchcock's idea. "In my opinion," he added, "the coun try is not prepared for such a step. If the government Is to take over our public utilities shouldn't the bigger things be taken first? Surely the railroads are big ger than the telegraph." LORIMER MAY FINIS! HIS TESTIMONY TODAY Reiterates That No One Was Paid or Promised Anything to Vote for Him. Senator Lo rimer continued before the Senate investigating committee today his story of the motives which caused fifty three democrats to break a deadlock and vote for him for senator. When the committee took a recess Fri day Senator Lorimer had got about half way down the list of the 106 legislators who cast ballots for htm. Today be repeated his declaration that every man who voted for him did so for personal friendship, to break the dead lock or to beat "former Senator Albert J. Hopkins, and that no one had been paid any money or promised anything of value to vote for him. Judge Hanecy, Senator Lorimer's coun sel, may finish- with his direct examina tion late today or tomorrow, and the senator will then under a cross-exam ination. Lorimer's Treatment of Friends. Senator Lorimer and Senator Kern engaged In a colloqjuy which developed the first signs of Irritation Mr. Lorimer has shown on. the witness chair. Mr. Kern asked if the voters in Illinois had been for'Lorimer. - "It would be egotlstlaal for me to say," replied Lorimer. "The voters were responsible ln the end, weren't they?" ' "Oh! the voters?the voters! That's the way men talk when they get up ln the clouds?always the voters. Of course, they are responsible, but the voters are human beings." "I don't know that they always are." "That may be the way It strikes you, but my friends?the men who have be friended me?have a good deal of In fluence as far as I am concerned. Such men often get me to favor men who have been personally antagonistic to me, but I don't think I am owned body and soul by the men who influence me. I am just a human being, too.* it Tht>' tntttfent ended tjjere. ' 1 ? - . RIDE FOR ONE FARE ? ? Citizens of Maryland Suburbs Win Traction Fight. RULES AGAINST RAILWAYS Held to Be Amenable by Interstate Commerce Commission. t ACTION RESULT OF PROTEST Residents of Somerset, Drummond and Friendship Heights Benefit by Decision. Citizens of Somerset, Drummond and Friendship Heights, Md., have won their point against the Washington Railway and Electric Comp.iny, the Georgetown and Tenleytown Railway Company and the Washington and Rockvllle Railway Company, and beginning February 20, 1912, the companies will be required to return to the rate of fare which formerly was charged for the transportation of passengers to find from points in the Dis trict of Columbia?namely, a single cash fare of 5 cents or six fares for 23 cents. A decision to this effect was handed down today by tho interstate com merce commission, tho commission holding not only that the railway companies had failed to justify the increased fare, about which complaint was made and which went into effect June 1, 1910, but that the railway companies, contrary to 'their conten tion, actually were and are "common carriers by railroad" and that when engaged in'the interstate transporta tion of passengers or property are amenable to the provisions of the act. The commission declared this question has been passed upon several times, and that its rulings had been sustained by the Commerce Court. Result of Formal Protest. The case of which this ruling marks the termination had its inception in a formal protest which was placed be fore the interstate commerce commis sion by citlsens of Somerset, Drum mond and Friendship Heights, and which came to a hearing before the commission November 11, J911. At this hearing Attorneys Charles D. Drayton and Charles 8. Moore appeared for tho complainants, while Attorney Oeorge P. Hoover represented the Washington Railway and Electric Company and the Georgetown and 1'en leytown Railway Company, and Attorney William H. Talbott appeared for the Washington and Rockvllle Railway Com pany. Evidence was taken on both sides, several citlsens of the three Maryland villages giving testimony that the single cash fare of 5 cents, or six fares for 20 cents, had been the rate charged by the railway company for many years, and many of them had either purchased or leased property in Somerset, Drummond or Friendship Heights on the understand ing that a single fare was all that would be charged by the railway companies for through transportation between their homes and points in the District of Co lumbia, and- vice versa. They asserted further, that the values of property in which they had made in vestment had suffered material deprecia tion because of what they termed the unjust, unreasonable and arbitrary in crease in the rate of fare on the street railway lines. No Contract in Evidence. No contract, either written or oral, be tween the citizens of the three villages and the railway companies was intro duced in evidence at the hearing, but in the cross-examination by the attorneys for the complainants of H. W. Fuller, general manager of all three companies, the following pertinent questions and answers were placed In the record. "Q. Under that arrangement. Mr. Ful ler, the understanding between the street railway companies and the public, as far as there could be any understanding, was that the companies held themselves out as willing to carry, and in fact as carrying, passengers from points in the District to Somerset on one fare? That was the understanding, was it? "A. That was a reasonable assump tion; yes. "Q. In other words, that was the hold ing out of the companies, so far as the public was concerned? ? A.?That Is what, we did for practi cally ten years, to my positive knowl edge." * Charges Are Analysed. The decision of the interstate commerce commission recites these facts and also enters into a detailed analysis of the charges preferred by the complainants as well as the defenses offered by the com panies, among the latter being the declara tion "that the Washington Railway and Electric Company is not engaged in inter state commerce or In anywise concerned with the transportation of passengers over the line of the Washington and Rockvllle Company: and that the George town and Tenleytown Company is not engaged in Interstate commerce, or In anywise concerned in fixing the fare for the transportation of passengers over the Washington and Rockvllle line." Dlspos.ng of this point the commission defined the close relations existing be tween the three companies, stating that the Washington Railway and Electric Company owns the entire capital stock of the Washington and Rockvllle Com pany and about three-fourths of the stock of the Georgetown and Tenleytown Company. It also was stated that the Washington Railway and Electric Com pany's line extends from the far east ern portion of the city of Washington, through the business and official cen ters of the city, to and beyond the in tersections with the line of the George town and Tenleytown company, at tfiW and O streets and 32d and P streets northwest; that the cars of the George town and Tenleytown company and the Washington and Rockvllle Com pany are operated over each other s tracts, and that the Washington Railway and Electric Company and the other two companies for years had been and are now exchanging transfers at the Junction points on 32d street, which entitle passengers to through rides either to or from the District line. Through Transportation Shown. The point is made In the report that the Washington and Rockvllle and the Georgetown and Tenleytown Company have been and are engaged In the transportation of passengers, without change of cars at the District line, be tween points In the state of Maryland and points In the District, the same cars, motormen and conductors being used throughout the entire Journey. There Is no railway station at the District line, nor Is there any Interruption of tracks at that point. "While the several companies are operated as separate and distinct corpora tions." the report declares, "they have the same general officers and are con trolled by boards of directors composed almost entirely of the same persons. These facts have a tendency to show a common purpose or understanding on part of the several companies In harmony with the fact of the through transportation shown of record." Later in the report the companies are described as ^Jointly operating a through electric service." Disposing of the second ground of defense, that by the act of the Mary land legislature In ISIS the Washing ton and Rockvllle company is com Klled to charge the additional fare tween Somerset and the District line, the commission says: Four Zones An Cited. "Prior to that act the Washington sad RockvfUi line was cUvidW into four zones, for each of which, or part theroof. a pa* scngor fare of 5 cents van charged Tha act supra required the company to divid.* the line Into not exceeding three sonr-, the first to extend from the District lino to a stated point about three and n hair miles beyond, and the other* to be n ? nearly equal as the conditions would pci ? mlt. and It was provided that the rat" of fare fn>in each ?me. or p.irt ??f a son*', should not exceed 5 cent*. There Is no I provision to the effect that the Washing ton and Rockvllle Railway Company shall charge a fare of rents between 8omcr*r' and the District Hue. 80 far as thai act is concerned the company may charg?> less than & cents and may accord fret> service or special commutation rates. "Testimony was introduced hv defend ants to show that prior to June 1. 1H1?\ transportation of passengers between Somerset and the District line was per formed as a gratuitous service. From other evidence of record, however. It ap pears that both prior and subsequent t>? that date, the uniform '-untom has !**??? i to collect fares from passengers bnardiinc the cars at Somerset, immediately upon leaving that point, and before the car?* reached the District line. It has al*<? been the custom to charge and collec: fares for passenger travel between Som erset and Friendship Heights, In either direction. "These facts are not consistent with the theory that the service was free, espe cially in view of the Insistence by d- - fendants that all fares collected 011 th? Washington and Rockvllle line belong t? that company. "Another Maryland statute enacted by the same legislature that passed the one Just considered Is also relied on by de fendants. That Is a general statute creating a public service commission with jurisdiction over common carriers within the state, which prohibits the granting of free transportation by such carriers. "It Is argued that the terms of thlM general statute are controlling, and there fore that the Washington A Rockvllle company could not lawfully give the fre? transportation allowed under the act firs referred to. which is special and local in Ita application. Rut It Is not neeesaarv to grant free transportation as to an;; Sjrt of the sen-ice In order to apply th<? re formerly charged between Somerset and points In the District. Nor would such a course be lawful under the act t? regulate commerce. Grounds of Defense Unsound. "Our conclusion is that the grounds of denfese urged by defendants are unsound and can not be sustained. "The defendants have made no ef fort to discharge the burden placed upon them by the statute to prove that the Increased fare Is Just and rea sohable. We accordingly And that de fendants. having failed to Justify the Increased fare for passenger travel be tween Somerset. Md., and points in the District of Columbia, herein complain ed of. that the same is unjust and un reasonable to the extent that it ex ceeds the fare continuously applied between these points for more than ten >*ears prior to June 1. 1910. which fare will be preacribed for the future An order will be entered according!) The order, which was entered at a gen eral session of the commission, January 0. 1912, with Commissioners Clements, Prouty, I>ane. Clark. Harlan. McChord and Meyer present and assenting, reads as follows: Cltlsens of Somerset, Drummond and Friendship Heights. Md.. against Washington Railway and Electric Company; Georgetown and Tennally town Railway Company; Washington and Rockvllle Railway Company, and George Weems Williams, receiver thereof, thereof. This case being at Issue upon com plaint and answers on file, and hav ing been duly heard and submitted by the parties, and full investigation of the mstters and things involved hav ing been had, and the commission hav ing. on the date hereof, made and (lied a report containing Its findings of fact and conclusions thereon, which said report is hereby referred to and made a part hereof: It is ordered that the above-named defendants be, and they are hereby, notified and required, on or before the 20th day of February. 1012. to ceaso and desist, and for a period of tw?? years thereafter to abstain, from charging, demanding, collecting or re ceiving their present fares for tho transportation of passengers between Somerset. In the state of Maryland, and points in the District of Columbia. Question of Appeal Unsettled. It is further ordered that said defend ants be, and they are hereby, nortfiel and required, on or before th COth du\ of February. 1012, to establish, and for a period of two years thereafter to maintain, and apply to the transport;!-' tlon of passengers between Somerset, in the state of Marylsnd, and points In the District of Columbia served by any of their lines, a fare not In excess of 5 cents cash, or six fares for 20 cents. Attorney George P. Hoover, counsel tor the Washington Railway and Electric Company and the Georgetown and Ten nallytown Railway Company, this after noon said he could not determine, until he had a conference with the officers of the companies, whether an appeal would be taken from the ruling of the commls I slon. He Intimated It as probable, how I ever, that there would .e an appeal. sehIw FAVORABLE TO PENSIONS' Opposition, However, to Going Beyond the Estimated Treasury Surplus. [ General discussion In the Senate com mittee on pensions this morning indicated that there Is a general sentiment amonc Its members In favor of a general pen sion bill, raising the amount of the pen sions of the veterans of the civil war as liberal as the revenues of the govern ment will aJlow. ? It came out in the course of the ?^s cusslon, it is understood, that the Treas ury Department has estimated that, out side of the expenditures on the Panama canal, there will be an excess of about $33,000,000 in income over expenditures during the coming year. As Limit for Pensions. This was suggested as the limitation for a general pension bill, and Inasmuch many members of the committee are op posed to the issuing of bond* with which 1 to pay pens.one. it is thought the major ity of the committee will not favor a bill which would involve an amount over the ??<,000,000 estimated surplus. The Sherwood bill, wnich has passed tbo House, would cost more. To get more information on pension m legislation the committee decided 'to hold a hearing next Monday morning, at which will be heard Gen. Sherwood, the author of the Sherwood bill; the legislative committee of the G. A. R.. headed by Gen. Ell Torrence; the com missioner of pensions and other of ficials from the pension office. Seek to Compose Differences. The difference of opinion regarding the amount involved in the Sherwood bill between Gen. Sherwood and tho pension office was considered; and one of th* principal reasona for the hear ing was to got at the basis for the difference and to adjust It. If possible. ? Senator McCumber. chairman of the committee, submitted today a docu ment giving the estimated costs of many propositions which are pending before the committee and of other tentative propoaltlons. It is designed to furnish the committee with accurate data as to what drain on Uncle Sam's Treasury would be involved In any proposition upon which a majority of the committee could unite. Getting It Straight from the Sostsa Transcript. "What did you say to your wife last night wtoen you got home at 11:80?" -Nothing." "Do you mean to say?" "I mesa to say that by the time I coal-l Ct a word in it was no longer last night, t this morning."