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1'HE EVENING STAB.
With Sunday Morning Bottom. WASHINGTON. ^ SUNDAY July 14, 1912 THEODORE W. NOYES Editor The Evening ???r Xew?p?p?r Co??ur Builc*s? Offi e. 11th 8t. and Pennfylranla Awnue. New York OAce: Tribune Building. Chicago Office: Fiiit National Bank Building. European OSce: 3 Regent St.. London. EnsUnd. Th" f>en!n:r Star. w'th the Sunday ?4;!ion. t? tfrliTorw! by rarrler* ?t 43 rents [it month: dally only. ?.C(,(SJJ5? ?innth: Sunday only. -l> rente P<*r "Mwb. OfBOW mar Ye sent Iiy uiall. or telephone Mala ?*W Collection is made by carrier at the end of ?ich month. r.T mn'J. postage prepaid: Tallr. Sim.iwT included. one month. CO rente. D.il'r. Sun.lar -\repted. one month. 40 eenw. taturday Star. SI year Sunday Star. $2.40 year. Entered s* er.-ond cla*" mall matter at the poet office at Washington. D. O. mn order to avoid delay* on account of perianal absence letter* to THB STAB ahoald ret be addressed to any individual conneoted sritb the office: but simply to THE STAB, or to the Editorial or Bu?;ne?s Department, according tj tenor or purpose. Mr. Bell on Bryan. Theodore Bell of California, who pre sided over tiif Denver convention four v.-ars ago and aspired to preside over the Baltimore convention, said at Seagirt the i other day: "If we suspected for a inin- J nte that Wilson was in any way re sponsible for Bryan we could not come to him as we do I am going back to Tn> state and tell the people that Wilson does not mean Bryan or Bryanism. Mr. Bell is either a droll fellow, or else 11m? innocent and unsuspecting and short sighted for politics. < >f course Air. Wilson is not responsible fo Bryan. The shoe is on the other foot. Mr. Brvan is responsible for Mr. Wilson. He brought the Jersey man around to his \ iews of public questions, ami then made the convert the nominee at Baltimore. That is as plain as a pikestaff. Tf Mr. Bell docs not see it ho enjoys the distinction of heing the only politician of prominence in the countrj who has not made the discovery. As to whether Mr. Wilson means Bryan and Bryanism the future must determine. Mr. Bryan thinks he Joes. Otherwise he would not have given Mr. Clarke the double-cross at the psychological moment and raised the W'iison standard. There sterns to he authority, without consulting the /amily Bible, to say that Mr. Bryan was not horn yesterday. What steps Air. Bryan will take to m;ike certain of tlie matter cannot be stated. Probably he will take some. He has heard of the fate of James Smith, ir., and of how. after accepting Mr. Smith s aid. which was invaluable in the race for Governor of N<-w Jersey, Mr. Wilson turnel or. Smith and cast him into the discard. It was thought at the time of hit* election as governor that Wilson meant Smith and Sinithism. but that was a mistake. It might be well, therefore, for Mr. Bell to delay his report to the people of Cali fornia. Air Bryan is a man of en thusiasm, but Ids enthusiasm is under regulation. He will take as few chances as possible with Mr. W'iison. and it may lie in i:is power, with the Smith episode before him. to nail something down. Pre sumably he will attempt%to do that, and as a result it may turn out that if elected Mr. W ilson will mean Bryan and Brvan isvn Air Bell is one of the many Clark men ? very sore l>ecause of the defeat of their! favorite at Baltimore, which, very proper ly. t! e\ lay at Air. Bryan's door. But time is a great heakr: and after a few weeks Air Bell and the Dark folks at home may not feci as bitterly toward Mr. Bryan as they now do When they see and hear A!r. < "ark 011 the stump urging Mr. Wilson's election they w ill experience bet ter spirits. Health in Summer. The point chiefly to be borne in mind l>> a!! people at this season of the year, when the thermometer climbs to a high po;nt. is fiat most of the troubles aris ing from Ih?- temperature are caused b;. derangements of the ditestive system, in almost every instance of physical dis tress incidental to summer heat there ha - been i:< gle t of certain fundamental rule- of health. The stomach has been treated with contempt. Ignoring the fact that tfie high temperature must he consid ered :n tlie selection of foods, many people live indiscreetly, putting their alimen tary organization to a severe test, eat ing more meat thjji should be taken, dousing t;???? stomach with iced drinks and strand*- concoctions supposedly quenchers of thirst, but actually conducive to that condition Light diet and carefully chosen and Imbibed drinks are necessary. The stomach < annot stand as much hard work at this time of the year as It can in the winter, when the system demands foods that mak>' beat for the body. It is es pecially sensitive to sudden inundations of icj water, alcoholic beverages and strand mixtures that are broadly classed a~- ?'summer drinks." The whole secret of keeping well *:i hot weather is summed i-p on two words. Go Kasv. Dress lightly, cat lightly, drink lightly, think lightly, and in all actions remember the handicap that nature has put upon the system when tr.e sun is at the highest point in the heavens. Th?* c?U5? of equal suffrage is stiil wa'ting for the courageous Mrs. Bank huret to explain just how the ability to co without food qualifies a citizen for tf.e franchise. New designs on American coins, how ever desirable in an artistic way, are rot necessary to create a demand for them. Mr Bryan' Is expected to be of great service to lii? party in bringing in the Chautauqua. Bv Wireless From Seagirt. 'Tm happy to see you here. Mr. Nu gent." "T'm happy tf be here, governor." "It has been quite a spe.ll since I saw you." "Yes. rjuce a spell And tilings have changed since then." "Things will clwnge. Air. Nugent. And men with them. J'm acoused of otianging m>self. Tell me about that famous toast j ou proposed. Did you drink alone? ' "Us. ha' You heard about that?" 'Only through the newspapers^ and ope never knows when to trust the news paper?." "Yes, I drank alone, and maybe had drunk too often before proposing the toast. But you'll forget that, governor. The joke's on me." 'With all my heart. The next time you'll nnrt drinft alone. Your toast then t?iil be to the reunited democracy, and 1 11 drink v ith >ou. You tiidn't bring Mr. Smith along." "I se* it stated that lie didn't receive h.s invitation in time " ' The ti?*xt shall b? pos.eii earlier. Smith wiu I had a little spat over Hie senator ship. He wanted the place for himself, and I insisted on Mafftine. So the joke in that case Is on me. I sent Jlmmle to the Senate. Tell me something about Smith." "He's a clever man. governor. Down right and all that, but a good sport." "He might try for the Senate again. < For Brlggs' seat." ] "I'll suggest it to him. ^ ou ha\e nottWj ins against him?" "Nothing. Martine had the indorsement of a primary, and I stood on that. If j Smith can carry the next primary he ll have nothing to fear from me." "When in the Senate eighteen years ago. Smith queered himself with ttie Cleve land people on the tariff. The subject s difficult, governor." "I'm just finding that out, Mr. Nugent. I've got to interpret the tariff plank of the Baltimore platform, and the job looms large on the horizon. Smith has my sympathy." "The Cleveland people never forgave him." "Well. I don't care about that. I'm not training with the <Tleveland crowd myself now. I don't mean to say that I m with Smith on the tariff, but a fel low-feeling on things in general makes me kind. Some of the. Clevelandites are as rough on me as they have ever been on Smith. You are going to help us in the campaign. Mr. Nugent?" ?'You- may rely upon me for my level best, governor. You are Scotch, and I m Irish, and the 'blind' is strong. I give you my best wishes for November." "Thanks. Don't forget that suggestion to Smith about the Senate. With Jingling Jimmie and Hustling Jim in the Senate together?the one talking for the farmers and the other for business men?New Jer sey would be heard from.' Railways and Progress. That ultimately some form of automatic stop will be adopted by the American railways to prevent collisions through the failure of engineers to observe block sig nals can hardly be doubted in view of the repeated demonstrations that ?uch a device is the only way to safeguard hu man life. Several forms of the auto matic stop have been invented and are awaiting adoption, but railroad compa nies give their inventors no encourage ment. contending that they are not re quired and relying upon the fact that the law does not compel their use. The present question Is whether the railroads will act of their own volition in this matter through an enlightened realiza tion of the necessity or will be forced by new legislation, just as they have been compelled in other matters to adopt im proved appliances. The entire history of railroad equip ment development has been a succession of compulsions. Indeed, this chapter is by no means agreeable reading to Ameri cans who are proud of the present state of things and believe that the transporta tion system in this country is a model for the world?which it i& far from being. In almost every instance notable im provements have awaited adoption for years after invention and practical per fection. x The air brake, the automatic coupler, the vestibuled platform, the block signal, all these had to be almost literally forced upon the railroad com panies by public 'sentiment. Within a very few years it required peremptory legislation to compel the equipment of freight cars with air brakes and suffi cient "hand holds" to lower the percent age of casualties. Special inspectors had to be sent throughout the country to watch the cars and report the number of delinquencies, and numerous fines were imposed. Yet common sense dictated that these devices be promptly employed for the protection of the railroads them se'ves as well as the employes. At every exhibition of railroad devices numerous appliances are shown which are designed to lessen danger, such as auto matic air and steam pipe couplers, flex ible trucks, etc. Repeated tests have shown the value of many of these in ventions. but their promoters have the greatest difficulty in securing their adop tion. being put to considerable expense in their demonstration. The argument that is met by them at every turn is that all such changes 5*>st too much' money, or that there is no real need of this or that device and that'the present system is good enough, notwithstanding the fart that every day lives are lost in railroad yards or on the main lines of travel, partly, it i? true, through human carelessness, but in almost all cases due In last analysis to the lack of these same safeguards that are awaiting application. It remains for the law to intervene in behalf of the public and the workers on l the railway lines to compel a more pro gressive spirit on the part of the railway | companies. ?? Following tlie report that the German emperor selects his wife's hats comes the statement that, he has bought an ostrich farm. The kai?er is evidently taken with the "direct from producer to consumer'' idea. The damage to the New Hampshire i? not such as to set naval experts to speculating on whether a Fall River boat can whip a battleship It is the business of an artist to ideal ize. A picture of a summer resort scene never shows a mosquito. The s-leam roller has been retired and an effort wll be made to produce the landslide July's climate is never expected to recognize any "safe and sane'* Testno? tions. The Enemy and His Books. The New York Tribune is enlivening the early days of the campaign by quoting from the writings of Wood row Wilson the author which do not gee with the opinions and interests of Wood row Wil- , son the politic ian and presidential can didate. And it must be confessed the quotations make what the illustrious founder of the Tribune used to call "mighty interesting reading." When the campaign gets under way we shall see Wilson the author repeatedly arrayed against Wilson the candidate; and the duel will be lively. The New York Sun takes issue with its coiemporarv, and doubts the value of such a course. It holds that Wilson the candidate must be tried by the opinions he is now expressing and will emphasize in his letter accepting the Baltimore nomination. Wilson the author Is not be fore the public?Is not the issue. His books are on the shelf, and so is their author, li is the candidate we have to | do with today, and what he proposes for the good of the country. But the point relates to the stability of Mr. Wilson's opinions. How long are the opinions Mr. Wilson is now express ing likely to last? How much presswre will they be able to stand tried in the tires of official responsibility? Those tires if encountered will be fierce. Office, it is well known, sobers a man After the hurrahing of a campaign is over; when there is time for reflection and need of it. the man who has suc ceeded rinds that in the tumult he has committed himself be>o:id his real feel Inga and his party's interests. Then he la tempted to retreat to safer ground; and many men so tempted have retreated. Mr. Wilson's conversion to Bryan ism was sudden, and occurred at a time and in circumstances inviting doubt in some Quarters as to its sincerity. His op r ponents declared that had he not been tempted with political honors the con version would never have taken place. Seeing the rising tide of Bryanism in the democratic party. Mr. Wilson decided to take it at the flood, and attempt on the crest to reach the White House. Out of this shifting of his foot grows the question as to whether In the White House Mr. "Uilson might not shift It again, and shift it back to the old posi tion. Suppose, in the duel, the author were to eonquer the officeholder Sup pose the officeholder should treat as bosh policies he so denominated when as a writer and student he was prepar ing his books in his workshop. That would create not only a sensation, but many difficulties for Mr. Wilson's party, and incidentally for the country. The Tribune is on a line of legitimate investigation and discussion, and but a little in advance of the republican man agers. The Borrowing Habit. Humanity is afflicted with some exceed ing!. bad habits, one of the worst of which is that of borrowing money in small sums. It is as demoralising as In temperance. Indeed, it is often an ac companiment of that vice, perhaps the cause of it or perhaps the effect. A man who lacks business perception, who is de ficient m the matter of making adequate provision for his needs, who does not cal culate carefully, and who spends ?unwise ly on luxuries, smarts to raising funds by appealing to his friends. The lending of money is one of the vital factors in business, which is largely done on credit. But the lending of money individually, without security, without interest, just as a personal accommodation between friends, is one of the most unbusinesslike and demoralizing of practices. At first these loans are repaid conscientiously. Then the time goes by and the borrower is slow about refunding. After a while he grows accustomed to asking, loses his shame, gets callous to the thought of non-pay ment and thus drifts into the habit of petty borrowing. Now it Is perhaps a quarter, or a half dollar, or some other trifling sum that the lender would be perfectly willing to give in a good cause, to meet a real emergency, without hope of return. But there is always the sus picion that the money is not really need ed. save for some self-indulgence. The average man will hesitate about giving in this way when he feels that the money is going for drink, and that Is why or ganized charity has come to be so gen erally supported in these times. Tt is an admirable check against the improvi dence that expresses itself In shiftless, dishonest, petty borrowing. For a man who is out of funds and out of work and who has a family to support, there is al ways a liberal feeling on the part of everybody. But the man who is contin ually "panhandling." who is asking old friends or casual acquaintances or strangers for "loans,"' deserves no consid eration. He ia the victim of a habit that becomes firmly fixed. His moral fiber i has deteriorated. There may be a cure for him. if the cause of his laxness can be reached and corrected. But lending him money?which is a polite method or putting it?does him no good and is sim ply a waste of funds that were better ?pplied to straight charitable work. In spite of the arguments of statesmen the farmer will never be convinced that his prosperity does not depend more on the weather than on an election. The fact that two eminent democrats pledge themselves to support the same candidate does not imply that they are on handshaking terms with each other. Newport has had a hot wave, which may reconcile some of the world to a high temperature as a fashionable ex perience. America's showing at the Oiympic games is a reminder to the world that this country does not devote ail its ath letic energies to base ball. The only trouble in placing Mr. Hilles appears to arise from the fact that there are so many positions in need of just such a man. As Mr. Ixidge said. Roosevelt is a great vote-getter;-but he Is not much of a hand at a delegate round-up. Unbiased inquiry must decide whether Judgr Archbald had a judicial mind or an injudicious pocketbook. SHOOTING STARS. BY III I LANDER JOHNSON. Barred From Popularity. "We want a man for leader who knows all about the tariff, the currency and the meihuds of railways and corporations." "So, we don't," replied the practical campaigner. "A man who learned all that would never have time to go around shaking hands or relating humorous an ecdotes." A Prejudiced Opinion. "What is a ragtime song?" asked the unmusical person. "A ragtime song." replied the professor, "is one whose melody is syncopated and whose words are unexpurgated." Permanencies. The same harsh epithets we ll hear Hurled at the climate all the year, Employed when summer is forgot With the word "cold" instead of "hot." Neglected. "What's the zebra sulking about?" asked the head keeper of the menagerie. "He feeis sighted. lie's about the only quadruped that hasn't been mentioned as some sort of a political emblem." The Battle "At last we have gotten rid of that party boss"' said the patriotic citizen. "Yes," replied Senator Sorghum. "But you'll have to keep your eyes open just the same. You don't usually get rid of one boss until another boss comes along who Is big enough to put him out of business." Don'ts. Don't eat; don't drink; Don't talk, don't think; Don't work; don't play And don't get gay. And yet don't fret; Don't make a bet; Don't weep; don't cheer; Don't hope; don't fear. Don't sing; don't dance; Don't take a chance On grief or glee; Don't hear; don't see; If you observe With martyr nerve Each simple rule. You may keep cool. FIELD MEDICAL SUPPLY DEPOT. The approach to Washington is marred by no thioket of high stacks. No pall of smoke hovers over the city Business and hides the golden crest of the Congressional Library Center, from view. Nor does a gar ment of soot Cling to the Goddess of Liberty upon her pedestal on the Capi tol dome. None of these things, which usuallv occur in any manufacturing cen ter can be placed to the discredit of the National Capital, ' the city beautiful." And yet. withal. Washington is a manu facturing center, and that on a large scale. Its output does not consist of those products which have won prominence for so many cities, and in some instances even its manufactories do not demand the aid of an "army of workers." But ^ ash ington is quietly going 011 producing great quantities of varioue things, and in every instance practically the dominant force which controls and propels these indus tries Is the 1'nited States government. The fact, for instance, that Uncle Sam manufactures soldiers and sailors f?r hls army and navy is well known Such manufacturies as these are well known, chieflv because they are so noticeable. But beneath this surface of apparent In dustries lies a greater Industry the ?ndu trv of keeping the wheels ^Ithin the wheels revolving. Sometimes these inner wheels have to be scattered far and Ude over the entire country, while at otheis thev are to be found only in ^ ^hlng,": One of those Inner wheels which onl> exivts here is the field medical depot of the United States Army. Here hospitals are manufactured complete, with the exception of the place in which thev are to be put and the J* will have charge of them. Cots, bedding, medicine, surgical appliances, mess and kitchen ware for the sick are all P?* such shape here that they can be shipped out at a moment's notjpe. * * * These hospitals are for use in time of actual warfare or for tie d service in times of peace, such as Ready for during maneuvers. In . contradistinction- to the Campaigns, -oeid" supply depot there are three other depots, in New York, San Francisco and St. l?ouls. from which points the post supplies are dis tributed. From those points are sent the necessary medicines and appliances with which to keep the regular post hos pital running. At the field medical sup ply depot they manufacture the hos pitals which can be run up over niglit for the care of the sick and wounded in wartime. At the present time the working force at the fleld medical supply depot num bers only about ten men, while if a war were to take place from ten to twenty times that many men would be rushed on the work and both day and night shifts employed. In charge of the deoot is Maj. Carl R. Darnall. United States Medical Corps. When the term manufacturing is used in connection with the fleld medical sup ply de*>ot it does not mean that all the medicine and various appliances are ac tually made there. The mediclr.es, sur gical appliances, chests and all the other paraphernalia comprising a fleld hospital are sent here from the various firms from which the United States government buys. At this depot all this material Is assembled into the standard hospital equipment. The very highest scientific ability Is brought to bear upon the mat ter of packing ar.d preparing. v * * A visit to the headquarters of the fie'd medical supply depot at 21 M street northeast will do more, Scientific perhaps, to impress a _ j. visitor with the mlnute PaCKing. ness of detail with which the work of the government is carried on than would, perhaps, a visit to some more prominent government bureau. Here is to be found the quintessence of ability in packing, from both the standpoint of safety and space. Each one of the points which make this work today an art is the result of careful investigation and study on the part of some one or more of Uncle Sam's medical force. The wooden chests In which much of the material is packed, for example, are fastened by locks which are sunk into the box itself, and nothing extends beyond the surface. Thus, when the chests are piled upon a v.'agon or train, absolutely no space is wasted by protuberances, and the chance of breakage through catching these locks is materially lessened \ Such a point as that would aeem, per- | haps, of no importance. But It is the con stant painstaking care which is given these apparently minor details which has resulted in the excellence of the present (system of assembling hospital equipment. Several different classes of chests are packed at the depot, aside from the as semblingr of complete hospital eciuipmtjit. For instance, some of the .cases prepared Include the detached service chest, the medical chest, the surgical chest, small and large mess chests and the fleld desk. There are many othera for specific pur- ^ Tn making ready any one of the chest;- , sent out by this depot several important j questions are to be considered. First o ; all is the matter of space. The oetached , service chest, for example is designed for use when a regiment s detailed for j special service which will necessitate its going tome distance from one of tl,e hospitals. The contents must be such as will meet all ordinary emergencies, 1from relieving the wounded to alleviating dis eases incidental to the campaign. then the box must be 01 a size to be car ried on a pack mule, and so arranged that the surgeon can have ready access to its entire contents. > * * * While various methods are used in packing the different chests, there is one in particular which shows Compressed better perhaps than any other the science which Dressings. has been brought to bear. This is the box containing what is called surgical dressings reserve. This consists of a long canvas arrangement made up of a series of pockets, each of which hears a stenciled title of the contents. The contents range from safety pins to bandages and bottles. The bandages used are similar to those commonly known, except in one particular. Ordinarily bandages are rolled and then wrapped, making a tubelike package when com plete. Those packed in th^s case, bow - ever are taken after they have been wrapped and put under a machine *'bich compresses them into a flat package hardlv more than half an inch thick, thus =aving a comparatively large amount I of space In packing medicines tins are ,,d "her,v.r pc.lbl. !? ?=?. ?.?? ever where tin would deteriorate or af fect the medicine bottles are used and then placed in tube containers, which prevent breakage. In carrying out its duties the fie.d med : ical supply depot prepares cases all the way from those for the Individual sol i dier to hospitals whose capacity is three hundred or more. Starting "with the first aid packet, which contains two bandages, two compresses and two safe ty pins, and ending with the evacuation ' hospital outfits, which, if necessary, con tain even the tenting equipment. Is the ! rang* which this depot is called upon to cover. The evacuation hospital equipment con sists of the necessary material to care for more than three hundred sick in time of war, and is so arranged that it can be divided into three parts. The ar rangement of medical aid in war time is more than ordinarily Interesting. A short distance from the scene of actual warfare will be found the field hospital, with the ambulance corps working betwe?n the two points. Then perhaps thirty miles distant will be what is known as the base hospital, usually able to accommodate 500 patients Here those able to be s??nt home are forwarded, while those serious : ly ill are afforded all the attention of a I city hospital. It is between the field hos j pifral ar.d the base hospital that the evac uation hospital is used. The field and base hospitals must of necessity both be placed on the line of communication. Consequently at various Intervals, de pending upon the length, are placed evac uation hospitals. The one idea in time of war so far as the sick ar.d wounded are concerned' is to remove them from the scene of conflict with all possible rapid 1 ity. And so when the wounded are brought from the field they are first j taken to the field hospital. Then, accord ing to their condition, they are started along the road of communication to the base hospital, and thence perhaps to their homes. Those able to stand the whole journey are taken Immediately to the base hospital, while those in a more seri ous condition are dropped at the evacua I tion hospitals a'-ong the way. * * * There is one interesting puint In con nection with the work of the Medical Corps In time of war. Tagging Kach member of the i Medical Corps is supplied y . with diagnosis tags. These are linen tags with small pieces of wire attached. Following an engagement of troops the Medical Corps men go on the field and examine those wounded who are unable to leave the battlefield unassisted. After each examination the man tags the victim, dead or alive. The tag gives the man's name and condition and the treat ment he has received. In this way double examinations are avoided, one examina tion being sufficient to show all who may come in contact with the wounded sol dier just what the trouble is. These tags also save considerable time, as they are also used in connection with the sick and wounded when they are sent to the rear, and a glance at the tag will show physicians at evacuation or base hos ( pital the status of the case without the need of an additional examination. Be sides the regular hospital equipment?that is. the medicine chests, etc.?a considerable number of other appliances and cases are prepared at this depot. One. for instance, is the field desk. This is a chest which, ?When opened, forms a desk and contains all the necessary report blanks, books, etc., which would be necessary in keep ing up the records of a regiment, both medical and general. The mess chests ^hso come under this heading. Two kinds ot mess chests are prepared, one suffi cient for twenty-five patients, the other for from one to two hundred under necessity. Of each kind there is one for the mess tent proper and another for the kitchen. They contain all the necessary appliances for preparing diet for the sick under all probable conditions. At the same time that the actual work of preparing these chests and hospitals is going forward investigations along va rious lines are also being conducted The best method in which chests to be car ried on a pack mule can be arranged, the best pack saddle, and one which a soldier not accustomed to such work can best use. are all questions which have to be brought down to the finest science. Another point is the use of trains for con veying the wounded. Sometimes sleeping cars can not be obtained, at which times freight cars must be pressed into serv ice. Investigation has resulted in finding a. method by which the regular medical corps stretchers can be suspended from stanchions, and a car thus made to ac commodate three times the men it would under ordinary conditions. * * * Aside from the regular army using these chests botli in times of peace and during war, they are also pre National pared for the various Guard state tnllitia corps, as. under the regulations, the militia must be equipped lik#? the regular armv. One special po'tit that Is gained by such a regulation is that were the militia called into active service in time of war their medical corps would be able to use the regulation army chests. If the regular army used one standard of chest, and the various state militia corps several other styles, it would be1 almost impossible to maintain any de-1 gree of ability and expediency in the j use of the chests in time of war. Bui under the present system not only the regular army medical corps, but those of j the militia, know the system of arrang ing the cheats, and through this knowl- i edge are able to find the desired article | vtithout having to' hunt through a chest with which they are unfamiliar. ^ The field medical supply depot was es-! tablished In the fall of IfiUS. following the Spanish-American war. It was the ; direct result, of that war, which showed , the need of establishing a depot where j hospital supplies and medical chests could j he prepa.M and kept ready for instanta neous shipment to the front. When first) established the depot was situated in the basement of the Army Medical Museum, in which place it remained until iyo4. At that time the headquarters were moved to UOth street between M and X, where j larger quarters were possible. In a couple | of years, however, conditions reached | such a point of congestion that the head quarters were movid to Pennsylvania avenue between :kl and 4th streets. It was In 1911 that the depot was moved to Its present quarters. Here a huge barn like building, primarily built for other purposes, has been divided into two parts, one used by the depot, the other by the government printing office as a store house. As long as peace reigns the prob- i ability is that the present headquarters j will be sufficient. Taking the medical outfits alone. with-| out the necessary tents and parapher-1 nalia which are supplied elsewhere, a field ? hospital outfit suitable for from 100 to' 200 patients costs $3,000. The evacuation hospital, suitable for 30o odd patients, costs $12,500. A regimental outfit, includ ing the medical and surgical chests, is worth $900. while the ambulance com pany equipment costs $1,000. A detached sendee chest is worth $0o, and the med ical chest is worth $87 and the surgical . $110. Uncle Sam's hospital supply shop j does a big business. OUR VICTORIOUS ATHLETES AT STOCKHOLM. From the Chattanooga Tims*. American athletes in the Olympic games at Stockholm don't appear to be able to break themselves of the winning: habit. They are doing credit to a country that is not as young as it used to be. but which is still far from Its maturity. From the Norfolk I.edjer-Dispatch. The American athletes seem about as proficient as the political athletes. From the Syracuse Herald. The crush of Americans in the forefront of some of those running events at the Olympic games must be wry uncomfort able in this warm weather we are having. From the Rochester Posi-Kxpress. It must be a grand and glorious sight, for the peoples of foreign nations assem bled at the Olympic games to see the Americans run. From the Boston Post. The record which the American athletes are making in the Olympic contests is In spiring of confidence in their ability to bring back the crown of wild olive?the youngest of the contending races winning the most ancient symbol of superiority in physical prowess. From the Columbia State. English sprinters have never shown the form they revealed in the 1TTG Olympiad. From the Topeka State Journal. Every one in these United States, whether athletically inclined or not, must look with great pride on the dne perform ances that have been made so far by America's representatives at Stockholm. But, then, Americans have a faculty of excelling in all fields of human endeavor. F"rom the Syracuse Post-Standard. American athletes are introducing the Stars and Stripes where American ships do not carry it. From the Denver Times. To judge from the way the Yankee ath letes have started in, the Stars and Stripes will be all worn out by the time they get through hauling the old flag up to the masthead. FIFTY HEARS AGO IN THE STAR McCleilan's campaign in the peninsula of Virginia necessitated large reinforce ments. and about this time The Call fifty years ago President for Men 1"incoIn called for 3u0.00f> more troopa. In The Star of July 8. 1S62. is a discussion of the situa tion created by this call in terms ofj rather marked pessimism, with reference) to the disposition of certain elements In Congress to force the immediate abolition of slavery. The Star said: "As much as the 300,000 additional troops recently called for by the Presi dent are needed, it has become question able whether they will be obtained with sufficient promptness. The doubt really prows out of the course pursued by the two mischievous classes among us: by the advocates of the substitution of an abolition despotism for the government of the United States on the one hand, and by those who seem to regard It as being of more Importance to put down the administration than to put down the re bellion. on the other. The former class Is hardly represented at all In the army, though powerful in Congress and fero ciously noisy in the press. There never was a hope that It would volunteer in respectable numbers, as spouting and wrangling is its chronic vocation rather than fighting. * ? ? It requires no argu ment to prove that if the impression be comes general, that if the purposes of the c!ass we here refer to are likely to be adopted by the government in the further prosecution of the war not a tithe of the oOO.OuO volunteers needed will be forth coming; while not a tithe of those now in arms for the restoration of the Union will consent to wield them for ends as palpably revolutionary as those acalnst ? which they are now In battle array, j "The Intrigues of the other class threat j en almost as much danger to the Union cause. It, too, labors earnestly to sow dissensions between the government and our penera'.s in the field. It stops at noth ing likely to make the countrv distrustful of the purposes and policy of the gov ernment. Thus it does its best to check responses to the President's calK ,for 300.000 additional men. ? ? ? All hon estly loyal men should at once make up their minds to treat as public enemies scarcely less dangerous than the rebels In arms those who war on the Constitu tion to compass the aims of abolitionism and those who war on the government under the pretense of deprecating the conduct of this or that member of the cabinet, to the end of so embarrassing the war measures for the restoration of the I, nion as that what they falselv term peace1 may be restored by virtual acqui escence in the triumph of the rebellion/' * * President Lincoln was anxious to ascer tain for himself the condition of affairs on the peninsula, and Lincoln at went in person to ln TVftw* spect Gen. McClellan's tne iront. position The Star of July 11. 1K62, said: "We have refrained from mentioning the fact of the President's recent visit to the Army of the Potomac until this afternoon (It having been made public through yesterday's New York papers) only because deeming it prudent to do so. The country will thank him for the promptness with which he repaired to the peninsula, on this occasion, to deter mine for himself the condition of the Army of the Potomac, its necessities, prospects, etc. His presence in Its midst has had the happiest conceivable efTect upon It, for men and officers, high and low. all its components, have im plicit confidence in his patriotism and sa- j gacity. They know he looks upon them all ap the special objects of his guardian ship and seeks but to give triumph to their arms and to ameliorate the hard ships and dangers of their patriotic ef forts in their country's behalf. "Richmond must be promptly taken or our expenditures of life and treasure in the prosecution of the war up to this time are likely to prove to have been for naught. The oligarchy know this fact t well and have practically abandoned al! else to prevent its falling into our hands. They know *hat if we cannot take It for eign intervention and foreign positive aid may be regarded as likely to be achieved. They have no hope of being able to con tend much longer against the government unless with the aid of such foreign assist ance. "The question whether the war Is prac tically ended by the 1st of October next or lasts until we have to fight Europe in arms at the back of the oligarchy sim ply depends upon the promptness with which the Army of the Potomac shall be reinforced." * * * The track of the Washington and Georgetown street car line was finished about this time fifty years First ago, and the first cars I f?ar? were operated on it Fri vai3' day. July 11, 1S02. The Star of July 12. 1S62, said: "Yesterday afternoon two cars were re ceived at the depot for the Washington and Georgetown railway?one being a teg ular passenger and the other a large, open summer or excursion car. They were built in Philadelphia by Messrs. Murphy & Allison, and are very creditable pieces of workmanship. The regular car measures about seven by fifteen feet, and will seat comfortably about twenty persons. The seats on the sides are covered with fine silk velvet, and the windows, which are of stained and plain glass combined, are furnished with cherry sash and poplar blinds, besides handsome damask cur- ! tains. The top of the car is rounded, permitting persons to stand upright with out InconVenience and rods to which loops are attached are run from end to end. The lamp, which is surrounded by red glass, is hung up in the center in such a manner jfs to show outside as well as in. The excursion car has seats run ning crosswise, and will seat twenty-four persons. The car is handsomely painted, , both inside and out, the prevailing color ! being white, while the outside is cream color and white, with a fine painting in the center, and the words 'Washington and Georgetown R. R." at the bottom. The wheels are of different colors, con trasting well with the body of the car and giving it a picturesque appearance. IMessrs. Murphy & Allison are making most of the cars, but others are being built by other makers, in order to have a full supply to put on as soon as the entire road is opened. The company are push ing the work forward with vigor, and will have the line from the Capitol to George town stocked before the sixty days al lowed by law have expired. We learn that as soon as the track can be cleaned cars will commence running between the Cap itol and Willard's. The cars were put on the track last night, and at 11 o'clock run up as far as Willard's, having on board a number of gentlemen, cheering' loudly as they passed, and being greeted with cheers from the few persons on the street at that hour. The road between the Capitol and 14th street will be form ally opened at 4 o'clock this afternoon by the officers of the roai, who have is sued imitations to a number of mem bers of Congress and others, who will ride over the road." ROCKEFELLER AND MORGAN. Whi-n nothing: in the world seems riyhf. When everything, in fart, looks rotten, When all tbe moments that were bright In other days have fc?*?n forgotten, When mirth la draped in deepest black Ami hope i# biding In the cellar. It's alwaj-s safe to take a whack At Morgan or at Rockefeller. If living lias Iieeome so blab That roii no longer find life pleasing; If you've a cinder in your eye Or cannot keep from constant sneezing; If hives afflict you or a boil Appear* upon .vonr nasal organ. Berate old wretched Standard Oil Or take another whack at Morgan. They may not alwaya he to blame For those misfortunes that assail ut; But let us hold them up to shame When luck and chance and fortune fail u?; l'o", while they do not care a cuss. However fiercely we attack >ai. It Is a great relief to ua. Therefor*, go It, brothers?whak "em! ?Chicago Record Herald, ? THE PRESENT RUSSIAN SITUATION - ? The visits of the King and Queen of Bulgaria to Vienna and Berlin and In turn the visit of the King of Royal Montenegro to Vienna have . had serious reflection in diplo VlSltS. matjc circles, which find in them the confirmation of a Serbo-Bul garian alliance. Besides there Is some excited speculation over the recent visits of the emperors of Germany and Russia and likewise the projected visit of the King of England to St. Petersburg. It cannot be expected that Russia will view with equanimity a Serbo-Bulgarian alliance based upon an entente with Ger many and Austria-Hungary. Neverthe less after the unexpected that happened in the Bosnia-Herzegovina surprise diplo mats are on the qui vive for other star tling developments. This 8erbo-Bulgarian alliance is cer tainly an unexpected move, and must naturally disturb the peace of mind of Russia more than another. Russia has expended in the past a great deal of at tention to the possibilities of the creation of a Serb nation in the Balkans, but latterly, and for manifest reasons. Rus sia's policy has beeif "hands ofT." with a decided disposition to peace and pe.ice counsels. It is not likely that Germany has any interest in the Turko-Bulicarian alliance ?if there should be such an alliance in progress?Germany having, in the first place, a real and tangible Interest in de fending Turkish autonomy, and, there fore. the maintenance of the status quo In the Balkans. An offensive move on the part of Servia. Bulgaria and Montenegro would seriously Imperil German relations at Constantinople if the -Turks suspect ed for a moment that Germany was aid ing and abetting it. In order to appear logical, Germany recently, at the risk of exciting: the anger of Italy, invited the latter in a friendly communication to "refrain from selling the port of Mytl lene." It is necessary, therefore, to count Germany out of any attempt to change the situation in the Balkans ad j verselv to Turkey. I ? * * ! The Austrian?, however, have no such Interests as their ally at Stamboul. Aus tria has bitten so deeply Austrian Into the Balkanlc apple _ . which Bismarck offered Interest. her insidiously perhaps, in 1878 that it is not Impossible that Austria may seek to devour the apple, core and all. Count d'Aehrenthal point ed the way and Count Berchtold may de sire to follow up his predecessor's suc cessful experience. Of course, there stands in the way of these ministerial ambitions the luminous figure of the Emperor Francis Joseph, whose mind is entirely clear and who is not given to daring enterprises, but who, nevertheless, did encourage the Bosnia-Herzegovina afTair. On the other hand, the Balkanlc states Servia. Bulgaria and Montenegro are burning for action, and. despite the fact ^hat Russia is the "little father" of the Serb, the Serb Is becoming Impatient of the "old man's" councils which defer th<* culmination of his hopes. Assuming that Austria could float suc cessfully this second enterprise and ac complish the complete overthrow of the Turk, the situation might be even worse for the Balkan states, whose neighbors might prove even more dangerous than the Turk. It Is by no means certain that the Balkans would fall to the control of any small power. Hence, Balonlki and Stamboul would prove less dangerous than some one great power which would absorb them. It is stated that Servia's attention was attracted to the projected "Serbo-Bul sarian alliance" by a note from Sofia. The Tripolltan war. It Is said, was the inspiration?the Trlpoiitan war being a unique occasion to solve the Macedonian problem. . . The Gazette de Voss claims to have re ceived from Sofia the following dispatch: "On the return of King Ferdinand cer tain Macedonian chiefs will seek to ob tain from the king a solution of the Macedonian question. It is reported at Sofia that the unique object of the royal visits to Berlin and Vienna is to arrange a partition of Macedonia between Aus tria and Russia. Bulgaria to be given In satisfaction a piece of the vilayet of Andrlanople." * * * On the other hand, it is rumored 'that because of the enigmatic policy of Rus sia in the near east the Serbs and Bulgarian government _ . communicated with the Bulgarians. Servian gove rnment, and. advising it of its apprehension, pro posed an entente as to the means to ob tain a guarantee of their mutual inde pendence in case Russia should conclude an arrangement either with Austria or with Italy prejudicial to Bulgaria or to Servia. The cabinet of Belgrade wel comed the overtures of the Bulgarian government and a secret entente was promptly formed (?>. But it aPP^rs that an armed Intervention has not been considered, except In case a third part> should invade Turkey in Europe, or In case that power should be dislocated. The Gazette de Cologne, commenting upon the visit of the royal Bulgarian couple in connection with the rumors of i a Serbo-Bulgarian alliance, writes: "We do not know if Russia approves the combination announced in the Temps; it appears doubtful. Given the tact and political Intelligence of the King of Bul garia. it is not possible that he has come to request Austria and Germany to ap prove his aggressive plans." The Post, commenting upon the toasts of King Ferdinand, writes: "The toasts of Fridi-y are not different in tone from ordinary official speeches. Nevertheless it should be remarked that at Potsdam, as at Vienna, the King of Bulgaria re plied evasively to the expressions of his imperial interlocutor, hoping for the pa cific progress of Bulgaria." The Dernieres Nouvelles of Kiel writes: ? The King of Bulgaria comes perhaps to sound the views of Berlin as to the transformation of his kingdom into a great Bulgaria. He wishes evidently to put himself into contact with the triple al liance. Is he In accord on this point with London or St. Petersburg, and does he bear with him the views of these limited by prospective negotiations at London, Paris. St. Petersburg and Rome? It is not possible to affirm it at this moment. 'It cannot be said, either, that the Bulgarian czar thinks the mo ment propitious to act. Nor is it possible to indicate how his aspirations will be received at Vienna and at Berlin. On the subject of the visit of the King of Montenegro to Vienna the Informa tion remarks that the toasts were in French. The tone of the press was not very cordial and King Nicolas I was ban tered on his "inelegant and rustic aspect and his black beard, artificially colored ' do much for the visits of King Verdi nand and King Nicolas, which have set the press of Europe on edge, and es pecially that of Germany, Austria and Russia. , In the above connection and perhaps 01 THE BUFFALO HEAD NICKEL From th<' San Antonio Kipress. The design on the nic kel is to be changed from the Goddess of Liberty to a buffalo? probably to represent the idea that it is getting hard to catch. From the Rochester Herald. Now MacVeagh is going to meddle witn the design of the nickel. No wonder foreigners are confused by the many \a rietles of money we have In circulation, and are Imposed upon by counterfeiters. From the Sew Orleans Tiinei^-Demo.Tat. The new design for the five-ccnt piece will deDict a buffalo on one side or the con This should supply T. R. with a new grievance. Why a buffalo, when a bull moose might as easily hav e been worked Into the design? From the Boston Glob*. Secre*.arv MacVeagh proposes a new five-cent coin with a bufTalo on one aide and an Indian's head on the other. If the progressives win perhaps the next Secretarv of the Treasury will propose a new nickel with a bull moose on one side and the colonel's bead on the other. | more importance still is the problem of ! the naval defense of the Baltic, whim is , being discusaed In the dumn and the pre*?; ? the new German armament# and the im ! minent creation by Germany of a third i squadron upeciallv destined for service la | the Baltic The Now Vremya under i lines the double Important of that qu? I tlon because of the hypothesis of h | theoretical co-operatton of a Carman fleet w 1th a debarking corps of Swodes. In th? discussion of strategic quaetlons the third duma was con\inc?d of the necessity of creating in the Baltic such a defensivs fleet as would offset any maritime enter prise of Russia's western neighbors. When Admiral G rigorovltch liecain* i minister of marine the third duma aban ! doned lis hostile attitude ?nd voted in ; lull the nere^sary <Tedlts. As a result. : four of the first-class dreadnoughts fo i the Baltic w ere constructed and launched. ; the Ganjoil. the Poltava, the Petropa* - I lovsk and the Sevastopol. There is objection on the part of sorn* 'in Russia against the creation of a hie 'sea navy. M ,Michael StaUhovitch of Ui? council of the empire. for example, ms n talns that as old Runla got on well with out such a nan-, new Russia may do likewise. That argument implies the j abandonment of the spirit of the f*mo 'testament of Peter the Great and the I return to a policy purely interior ana l Muscovite. For the partisans of the latter Russia is definitely outnumbered b\ Ormam, and no matter what sacrifices were made. Russia could not regain th* equilibrium broken at Tsushima. Thus ? it Is not a real fle^t that is required, hut ? "counter fleet." an instrument pu<-elv defensive, composed of destroyers, sub marines. hydro-aeroplanes: unities of this character on the < oast of Finland and the Interior lakes, which would of fer precious ports of refuge, and render the gulf untenable by the enemies' fleet* of all that part west of Cronstad*: that is. of all that part affecting the immedt. ate defense of St. Petersburg ? * * It is the project of Admiral Gtlgo>?. vltch to construct. a?id- from sucii a fleet, four superdreadnoughta RllSSiail Of 27.000 tons, armed wttii w twelve cannon of Aft.1 mill y* metres, and having ? speed of twenty-four knots; sixteen armed cruisers and thirty-six destroyers of the high-sea class. Such, In part, is the work of restoration undertaken by Admiral Grigorovltch. Admiral Lie\en, chief of staff of th?? admiralty, has recently made tiie foi lowing interesting declaration ?-n th# naval reorganization: "Not only have the plans lieen mad* out.' said the admiral-prince, but t.?? preliminary work of construction un dertaken. The first question Is. what works may execute cheapest and quick est the orders we have to place* Th?? ministry of marine has decided that w~ will not have recourse to forelan estab lishments. but to Russian only. Prim# I-leven furthermore declares that Rus sia. in order to fulfill her historical ta?k must acquire free entry Into te Mediterranean, and for this purpose ?' ? must possess a first-class fleet not only for the Baltic, but the Black ?ca. The domination of the latter sea. a "cording to the prince, depend* neither upcu Turkey nor the Mediterranean pos?r?, but upon one of the powers In tl.a I North sea and the Baltic if Russ'a would have a predominant voice in in ternational questions, she must be sup ported not only by a strong artnv. but also a Baltic fleet. In the conflict be tween England and Germany over tha supremacy in the Baltic a Russian fleet should serve as a balance to go to the side that Russia may choose." As for the opinion that Rus-ia could never overtake other nations with ths power she had lost at Tsushima and that It was useless to expend money to thai end. Prince IJeven would not accept such a theory. A country which constructed ships every year would finish by having an incalculable number. It is known that a ship was only serviceable during fifteen years. Assuming that Germany should suspend her constructions during fifteen years she would find herself at the end of that term without a fleet. On tiia contrary, if Russia continued to augment each year the number of her ships in the same proportion as Germany she would [ possess at the end of the same numbe'' of years the same naval force. It wa? not necessary to cxpead as manv million* as the neighbor. Tn fifteen years Ger, many's fleet will have grown old and he come only a secondary force. For her conflict with England Germany had adopted that point of view, and for that reason she followed the plan of construct ing new models. It was necessary, too. ta count with the progress of technic. ? * * Fifteen years aqjo there was no ide? of dreadnoughts: In fifteen > ears the dread noughts of today will hav? Lieven S become old fashioned. And Tliannr IJeven concluded by XII iy. remarking that the naval program which Russia would submit to the duma would give to Russia's naval force the possibility of opposing Germany in the Baltic, and Turkey and Roumania united in the Black sea. The question of the Russian fleet In the Pacific was ad journed until after th" construction of the Baltic fleet tirst and that of the Black sea next had been terminated. The octobrlst Journals arc jubilant over the result of a lo^g debate tn the duma relative to judicial reform. It means a great*deal to the peasant who is thu* morally uplifted and emancipated from an undesirable state of affairs w-hich had been imposed upon the peasantry by the tribunal, designated as the "Zemskie Natclialnlki." There has l?ee:i delay in the project of reform, the text of which was voted and sent to the upper house. It was feared that in a spirit of oppo sition or obstruction the council of the empire would permit the present legis lature to expire without tinal actlui. Such tactics T\ould have been fata! to tie project of reform. Besides, uncertainty appears to exist still in Russian parli* mentary circles over the "continuity" of parliamentary acts In other words, it does not appear to be absolutely accept-d that the votes and aits of the duma should bind the succeeding duma. In the matter of the present bill if not parsed by the third duma it would come up in the fourth duma as an order of the daj. when a new assembly would give it a very different solution. The council of the empire, however, ex amined the project and returned It ap proved. In creating the Institution of Justices of the peace to be elected by th? people the council limited the competence of the justices to matters of comn.on law. while maintaining the "Zemakie Natchalnlki" for all affairs belonging to the domain of the "peasants' common law." That amendment to the primlti* e project will diminish the importance of the reform, but it was the best that could be obtained for the moment as the final accord between the two houses of the duma. it Is a distinct gain for th* party of progress and liberal principles, which were Inaugurated for the flrst ti i a under the reign of Alexander II. Be sides, the concession will serve as a guide for still further reforms in the duma CH. CHAILLK-LONG. THOUGHTS ON THE HEAT. From th<* Chicago News. Hardly anybody was ever overcome hy heat while performing an act of philan thropy. Krom the Milwaukee Sentinel. The pedestrian may be weary and worn with the heat, but the motor ear pursue* him with all Its old time ferocity. VY* yearn for the sight of a motor car over come by a sunstroke. From th* Albany Krenfug Journal. In the tube of the thermometer, too* there is always room at the top. Prom the Buffalo Eiprew. Maybe this hot wave is the latent heat that was given off during the cold gpell last winter. Prom the HarrUhurjf Telegraph. When we think of that promised ad vance In coal, we don't care how long the hot wave lasts. From the Grand Rapid* New?. But this is the weather you'll be brag* glng about in January. From the Milwaukee Journal. And while you swelter don't forget ta humbly thank the man why invented ice. *