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WITCH LIKE Actions
Would Have Meant Sure Death in the Old Days ?Witches Have Now Ceased to Possess Actual Personalities ? Hallucinations That Certain Persons Were Endowed With the Power of Conversing With Evil Spirits ?In the Little Colony of Salem?Tottering Old Men and Women Were Executed ?"Bad Luck" in Killing Certain Animals?The Witches of Various Sections of Europe ?Cats Are Alwa5'S Connected With Halloween Celebrations. flTII every Halloween the scrawny, hag like witch la brought Into great prominence for the purpose of giving an atmosphere of evening's fun. At frolics on that aye is paid to these b 1 a c X-r o b e <L shadowy creatures w ho are respectfully consulted upon the all-absorbing subject of love and marriage. Hut when the fun is over, the ugly creatures of fintasy vanish for another year, to be forgotten with their mystic prophecies. Time was wl > ?i the masquerading of a maiden in a somber gown and her act of stirr.ng a caldron such as is provided at our Halloween fetes would have meant certain death to the luckless one. She might have been carrj ing out pretenses of sore-ry, ( i ; accomplishment of certain ends hy mock magic, ut in that age inm-inatiun ami superstition changed stii h delusions into real a ts and their agents into re.il creatures of magic. it lias n--t been until modern times that t .? wit- h c- aged tc possess an actual personality in the everyday life of the people. Sim was'supposed to Ke in league with a!) S tanic forces and to walk abroad casting her vengeance upon all who would not divide their living with hor. In many cases the approach of old avo. especia'd;- it it was accompanied by poverty or helplessness, changed a kindly disposed, harml-ss old woman into a witch in the eyes of her neighbors. * If she was deformed, toothless or unkempt. So much stronger were the arguments for converting her into a creature of fantasy who might conjure the powers of evil against those about her. When such char-ts were made against these unfortunate villagers the women were frequently made more helpless because the parishes which had previously supported them tk?-n refused to give them help. When needy and friendless these poor, decrepit mortals hecan to believe that they ready could summon the spirits of evil to aid them in revenging themselves upon the accusers, but, whether they believed in this power or not the "witches" d mand- d bribe f>~jr their good ".iil in order to obtain substance to keep dy and soul together. liven in our own country the haliucina^ H | O you believe in Mt \ \ >ou grown beyond jh; < \ \ the age when you ftps Jk. / It i t' ink the "gobble? \ VW" J A i uns wi ' Set you -jj | /' | cf you don't watch 1&*- I j OUT makes no / / / difference how old , [ /y you may be or how Iff] y lacaing ir. super stition. you are stiil interes'sod in tense many litt'e beliefs aad signs and mens which took up such a large part n your childhood fancy. And are you willing, if only for one day in the year? Halloween?to conjure up childish memoi i s and either to join in or encourage :??- old-fashi: ned -d?a o* celebrating ttois hallowed evening? Thursday evening next. Octobor 31, fun ,ir.d frolic will ay.tin hold sway among a very big percentage of all youngsters, especia !y those of the English-speaking ountrles, as well as among a good n' rn her of their elders, for Halloween, or Ail Ifal.oween. as it is sometimes known, ivill be observed with ail tts character!-yes, wild outbursts of youthful deviltry and merrymaking. * * Halloween, as observed at the pres> nt time. Is regarded by most people as n day primarily intended for the urchin, it is true that grown-ups do nut engage it.-- enthusiastically in the day's celebration as the younger element, yet it was not always so. Queen Victoria once ase sted in a Halloween festival at Balmoral Castle, where a tire was built and elHg'rs of gobiln- a- d v itches were burned. <3: i * wr wiiii-i n r?rn ni m*1 a?.v ;i> celebrated by van us K'ngli.-h kings and ^ ottish chiefs with rcug.un- ceremonies frnllar to our Hallow n or A.l Saints' day of November Halloween derives its rarr.e from its being the vigil o? All Saints' day The Druids, away back before the birth of Christ, set apart October 111 a.- a night for the extinguishment of ail tires and the rekindling of new ones. All the supernatural belnvs both of the visible and invisible world were supposed to gather on this night and hold high revel in the sphere of humanity, and the tires were r?g-arded as charms against these >pir,ts. "Witches' night" and ' Devils' Sunday" were the common terms used by the pagan folks. As late as the seventeenth century the farmers In Brittany carried lighted torches about their ileitis to protect themselves from the evil forces of the coming year. So it is seen that Halloween, which was at first purely a pagan custom of the Druids has become a period about which mystery has clung so fixedly that it still remains a day of spe c;ai ceieDrauon. * * * Halloween Is most widely observed by the Irish, Scotch and Welsh In Scotland any child born on the eve of October 31 is supposed to be endowed with a mysterious faculty of hoid.ng communion while sleeptng with the In vis.hie world. In north Wales the peasantrv cast stones Into a great fire ard after co\erng them up with ashes tetire to rest. The next morning the ashes are swept aside and the stones sought, and woe betide t-.ese who do not find their stones. Their future life, it is supposed, will be very uncertain. Upon some of the Channel Islands the fisherfolk choose Halloween to propitiate a sea god whom they know as "Shony." At n,ght they gather at the seacoast, brew ale and consign it to the waves, tions that certain persons were endowed with the power of conversing with evil spirits ran riot in the little colony of Salem in 1002 At that time persons were put to death or imprisoned not only ror being witches, but for assorting their unbelief m witchcraft. Today the people of the little Massacl usetts town still point out Witches hill, where several innocent women were executed The madness of the colony spared ne'ther the weakminded Indian maiden Tituba. who was seen practicing the ceremonials of her own heathen religion, nor such exemplary women as Sarah Cloyce and Rebecca Nurse of their own number. * * Even tottering old men were convicted for denying tlat there was any such thing as witchcraft, until at one time a hundred and fifty parens were cast into prison to wait their fate. Many others were tortured into confessing themselves gulity of false accusations, while several hundred other colonists were suspected of being a part of witchcraft and of exerting their efforts to protect it. Finally. when this fanatiei.-m had spent itself, many of those who had taken active parts In the persecutions realized and con essed the gr<at injustice they had done their neighbors, but this was not true of Cotton Mather, who was dissatisfied that witch courts had been a < 1 shed. He attempted to justify his actions of cruelty before tl e world hv issuing a volume of thanks for the benefits he had bestowed upen his people for having sent so many witdhes to their doom. As this treatise was received approv ngly at that time by the president of Harvard College. ti e horrible delusion of witchcraft must have obsessed even those who should have been most enlightened. As ridiculous as those persecutions were, they sank fnto insignifl"*nve when compared with the witch executions cf Great Kritain and Europe. There one-half million is a modest estimate of the number of persons who were killed for having know'edge of the black art. Especially between 1450 and 1670 were the tortures ?>f innocent persons most numerous, for thousands were then executed and treated in the most horrifying manner. For three hundred years there was a continual trial of persons accused of being in league with the powers of darkness, and most of them were tried hv the codex entitled "Mallus maleticarium." or the witches' hammer, produced by Sprengel and his fanatical associates. * * * In Germany over 150,000 perished by various persecutions. One European official. after doing his part in sending 30,000 miserable wretches to the stake for the forced confessions of deeds they were known never to have committed, taught his flock that lie had done an everlasting service to the human race, for had such persons lived they would have brought utter ruin to the whole world. An incident especially absurd in our i age was the Swiss execution of 17S2, when a maidservant was accused of giving pin seeds to a little toy. thus causing the child to choke on pins as they came out of his mouth. As late as the end of the ] eighteenth century witch executions were practiced in Poland and Hungary, while in Great Britain the last law relative to 1 witchcraft was an Irish statute repealed < less than a hundred years ago. ] As free as the civilized world is today from this suspicious belief in witches. . yet there is record that about fifteen years aeo an old woman in Ireland was tortur- , ed to death as a witch by her own kinsmen. Two years later a Mexican woman : accused of bewitching her neighbor was i killed by two angry men. A queer case in our own ls.nd happened in North Car- ; olina about ten years a so, when a housewife who could not make the butter come accused her neighbor of having used evil j powers over the cream. To break this i spell the churner's husband shot a silver bullet through the portrait of the person suspected of practicing witchcraft. meanwhile repeating the words: 'Phony, I give you this cun of ale, hoping you will be so kind as to send us plenty of sea ware to enrich our land the comins year." Afterward they return to a church and offer prayer to God, following which revelry of aU kinds is iarticipatttfl In. In sections of Ireland Halloween is kept in all its entireties. Burns has ludicrously embodied the customs of the Irish in his poem "Halloween," in which the general good fellowship, nut roasting, apple ducking, dumb cake ceremony and candle sing* ing are quaintly described. * * * The dumb cako ceremony is a common custom in Ireland on Halloween night. A piece of cake is kneaded with the left thumb in absolute silence. If the lips are even slightly moved the charm will be broken. However, if nothing is said ?.:u **- c i'i cjjnii.ijr win ai'pi'ux trio tiinire husband of the faithful lass. Another prevalent custom has to do with molten lead, which is cast into cold spring water The fanciful shapes resulting denote the kind of husband a girl will get. For instance, if the lead takes the appearance of a dragoon the resemblance is at once compared, and the eager girl is told *f the result. Now bring forth the lead and melt it down quickly. Then- is no knowing what is in store for you jet; Litre, Harry, run out for a key of th'1 gateway. And, Betty, a bow! of fresh water get. So hold rhe key ?v> r and through the wards pour. I'ntil tte lead runs down like meal through a sieve; Remenit*!-, remember, on nutty November, The charm is completed at giy Ilallovv c-ve. Cabbage stalks are often used as a means of telling fortunes. A little verse relating "Murtagh's Kvil" is usually chanted before the cabbages are chosen. If t-m n e On<\ tw?, rtrw and up to If all art- white all go to b< a veil; If one In back an "Mnrtagb'a Evil," Ile'l'. anon be screeching wi* tbe devil. "Murtagh's Evil" is likely a very black crime. In view of the fact that It is placed in the verse so connectedly with the devil's name. * * * Burns has inimitably described, In "Halloween*" the various superstitious practices of the Irish peasantry of his time, and especially Interesting are the ones known as "Baling," "Toomdish," "Sarksleeve" and "Hempseed." In the S^li&'k^3^G^/ '-'L -3mM, Since time has separated us from the horro-s of witch executions we enjoy laughing at the folly of the people who wove strange stories around those who gained the distinction of being placed in the witch class. * * * Fy use of charms and incantations known only to themselves, the mumbling old women were credited with powers to a'd in any scheme of malevolence. To doubt the word of such a person claiming supernatural powers In her ability to converse with the evil spirits would have been considered equivalent to subjecting one's se t' to the spell of the hag. All calamities, d'seases and unusual phenomena of nature were laid to the door nf the witches, and thus they were said to cause long wet spells," lightnings, Roods or droughts Often farmers who could not afford poor harvests or the loss of cattle would give yearly bribes to the witches to in sure their protection against misfortunes. It often happened that these nightprowling old women had butter and cheese, although they owned not a cow. Kaling procedure blind folded persons of one sex po out into the fields and after pulling up the first stalks they touch tell the size, appearance and character <>f their future mates by the size, straightn?:ss and crookedness of their stalks. The dirt or yird clinging to the stock denotes the dowry or fortune, and the taste of the pith the temper of the husliand or wife-to-he. They are then put one after another over the door and the names of the persons in the succession of their entrance through it are the same as the names of the mate of the holder of that particular stalk. In the "Toomd'sh" or "Luggies," thre? dishes, one filled with e'ean water another with dirty water and the third with no water, are placed on a table in a row. A blindfolded, person then dips his hand into the first d sh he touches, and if he succeeeds in locating the clean water his wife will have been unmarried, if in* touches the dirty water his wife will have been a widow, and if he plunges h s hand into the empty dish he ...Ji: ? .. V 1. t ?jji i' iiidm u. i wutiur. * * * In order on the clean bearthstane The lusgiea three are ranted. And every rime proa! care la ta'cn, To oe thein duly chained; Aidd l"ncle .losh, wha wedlock's joys. .Sin' tea;.'-' \car did desire. It."-.".use lie -^at the toom dish thrice. He heaved thi-rn on the tire 111 wrath that night. The "Sarksleeve" method consisted of dipping tiie left shirt sleeve in a stream ut ni- iittime. Then upon going to bed in sight of a tire, the shirt sleeve being hung up to dry. at midnigtyc the future partner in life of the owner of the shirt glides up and turns the sleeve from the left side over to the right to dry. Needless to say there have been many weird are! interesting stories due in most part to the "barley brue" with which the swain had screwed up his courage. The "Hempseed" superstition as described by Burns lies in the sowing of a handful of hempseed. at night, and then harrowing with anything conveniently drawn, and afterward repeating a prayer. The apparition being summoned duly appears upon one's looking over one's shoulder. * * * Although Halloween by the Teutonic and Celtic peoples was observed in funmaking and fsolic, to the Latin peoples it is a religious vigil. All Saints' day on November 1 Is universally a Catholic festival. It had its origin In the year till) A. D.t when the old Roman temple, Pantheon, that had hitherto been dedicated to the ragan gods, was consecrated This strengthened the ignorant to he- r lieve in the powers of the pretenders, h but if the same peasants had connected a the fact of the witches having butter t and cheese with the fact that on certain morn'ngs their own cows gave no milk s the witches' thefts would have been dis- 1: covered and the secrets of their power s unmasked. So varied were the powers t attributed to these half-crazed old women i that there was scarcely anything that * they were not supposed to be able to ac- c complish. They could bring fish to their a own posts, give success to fishermen, t raise storms, sink ships, drown whom a they would and even sell winds to mart- \ ners. t t * * ! As they themselves were reputed to travaJ by magic, the ignorant people be- y lieved that the witches could cross the c sea in such crafts as egg shells, bowls and feathers. In producing disease, way- ^ laying and plundering travelers their j charms were said to work with great t success. Nothing was impossible in t witch lore, for superstition even went \ so far as to claim that withered old t witcnes coital turn themselves into c to the worship of the Virgin Mary and the martyrs. The reason for fixing tinday on November 1 was to supplant pagan observance of Halloween. Eventually pagan and Christian customs blended and consequently the rights of the Druids became intermingled with various of the Christian observances, and thereupon instead of "Witches' night." "Devil's Sunday," "Nuterack night" or "Walpurgls night," the designation All Halloween or Halloween from -VI1 Saints' day was generally used. In Oermany the Walpurgis night was in the most part closely allied to Halloween, for upon this night, the eve of a May l, fires were built on the summit t of the lirooken in the Harz mountains u with the same object in view as that of n the Celtic peasantry?to drive away the d evil spirits. Xutcrack night, as Hal- o loween is sometimes called, originated from the festival held In honor of Pomona, goddess of orchards. Roman boys in Horace's ti ne participated in sports in which nuts figured, and there was s also religious use made of them, so that k the probable origin of the conspicuous part played by nuts in the Halloween * customs of the present day dates hack to Rome In the early centuries. v * t * * c Apples also play a prominent part In ail Halloween celebrations, and the c reason is found in the observance long, t long ago of the day called "Ha Mas Ubhalt," November 1, which was dedicated ? to the angel presiding over fruits and r seeds. The pronunciation, which was Lamasool, became corrupted into Ham it's J wool, which term was applied to a Hal- ^ loween beverage in Ireland made of roasted apples, liquor and milk. This j drink seems to have been the tirst apple \ toddy?at least it \tas not much different from the apple toddy of today. The ? most prominent part played by apples c in Halloween gatherings today is in Ire- i land, where every child on Halloween c day sends an apple to the Allen market 1 at St. Ives, but all over the world, s wherever Halloween is celebrated, lads and maidens bob for apples, roast the 1 delicious fruit and eat it before a looking 1 glass in order to conjure up the inquir- & t-r's future mate. Burns thus writes of 0 a small girl: v Wee Jennie to her granny says: "Will you go wT me, granny? t I'll eat the apple at the glass. 1 got frae Cm-lc Johnny." * * Halloween, as it will be observed this * coming Thursday, will be a night of in- ' calculable joy to many a youngster. No p longer are superstitions characteristic of Halloween as of yore; no longer are. 1< w.tches, goblins, apparitions and bon- a fires a part of the day. The small boy t and girl, not the older people, are the b chief actors in a present-day Halloween e celebration. The women of today do not o make soul-cakes for poor travelers. In h fact, the Halloween of today is a totally different Halloween from that of Q the Irish and Scottish peasantry of the B days gone by. Yet it has lost none of its mirth and jollity, even though it does not hold as a s festival the importance it once did. lie- p gardless as to whether goblins or ap- y paritions really do appear off Halloween a eve, there is no night in the year which popular imagination has stamped with v such a peculiar character. It is a "night set apart for the universal walking s abroad of spirits," so says "The Book of II Days," but we moderns associate it rather with youthful Jollity and missing o gates. There will be ghosts, make-believe t or sham ones, weird lights?magic lanterns?and various impersonations, but as Ji for the real weird Halloween personages a us conceived by the Irish and Scotoh, not g J Ifr Bw^r"i WW--* T*r$&?WQm$ ? IT. *r. . ? . -r.-*,. . A"_ ' ^f/7% Tj ' ?????? ??M avens, cats-, rats, black sheep, whales, tares and even into winds and waters, ppearing and disappearing at queer imes and in strange places. Killing any of these animals was conlidered serious business, for who knew >ut by so doing he might encounter the pirit of a phantom creature who would ent her anger with an everlasting curse ipon his life. These palsied sorcerers vere said to always have with them such harms as colored threads, magic caps ind staffs. Their reputation advertised hem as able to carry plunder in needles md pitchforks. In the north of Scotland, vhere superstition reached its height, here was on< witch who was supposed to lave been able to obtain all the milk from ler neighbors' flocks by milking her own ittle pet sheep. Hairy Donald, a masculine witch of the ;ame country, claimed tlie power to kill >r cure cattie by means of magic. The >arlsh minister, unlike his people, held ;uch an absurd profession in derision, but he village folk who doubted not that Donald could make good his claims shut he witch in a room while the minister vas asked to name a certain cow over vhich the conjurer might show his conrol. When the unfortunate beast haneed to fall dead before Donald had ven a thought will be given other than n the games of the younger folk. * St * Msrht of eeriest wonder seen Is the eve of Halloween? Then things befall too <lt-ar to doubt. For all the fairy world is out? \ik1 in the dusk or moonlight clear. Miracles once more appear. Kobold, elfin, pixy, sprite. Flock to celebrate tins night; Franks they play with nuts and yarn. And from the garden, field and barn. Masked they come, keen tricks they try. With fortune-telling riotry. Now youth and maiden by the fire. Watch the flames rise anil expire; Chestnuts put upon the coals, To see what augury controls Their love--or, where the apples float In a tub the omens note. We, too, who may not wander more. On youth's iridescent shore, J*till beside the fireside sit. Amidst love's coquetry and wit. And dream of our lost joyous teens. Over uncounted Halloweens. This poem is a suggestive description of rural celebration of Halloween. The ub of apples, the chestnuts on the coals, ircund which the village youth gatner, nake a typical present-day scene. How ifferent it is from the pagan observance f Jong ago. Waste. ^ENATOR LA FOLLETTE, apropos of ^ tire campaign contributions investigaion, said to a Washington correspondent: "It used to be that the party bribed the 'oter. Now, it seems, the voter bribes he party?and not with a five-dollar bill ir so, but with quarter millions! "I suppose that vicissitudes like that if the Nola Chucky cat no longer happen o electioneers. "An electioneer, you know, visiteed a Sola Chucky man to get his vote. The nan himself was out, but his wife said; " 'I can't promise you nothing about onatlian, sir. He's independent. He'll rote as seems oest to himself.' "Tite electioneer, after being as agreeible as possible, rose to go. But first he tatted a wretched, mangy kitten on the voman's lap. " 'I'm very fond of cats,' tie said. 'I shouldn't mind giving you $5 for that >ne.' "The woman jumped at his offer. She ocked the $o in a drawer, she put the at in a basket, and, as she ushered the nan out with his purchase on his arm, he spid; " T'il do the best I can for you about hat vote. sir. As I told you before, Jonahan won't be influenced by anybody. Tne fentleman that's electioneering for your ipponent spent a full hour here with me uselessly yesterday, and, by the way, he mught thB brother of that kitten of yours or $10.' " In Kansas. V7TLLIAM ALLEN WHITE, at an old" fashioned Halloween party in Emfiria told a Kansas storv "Nature is superlatively helpful here in Kansas.'' said Mr. Wh-te, as lie watched half-dozen pretty Kansas girls who ried, their hands fastened behind their acks, to snatch with their teeth the normous Kansas apples floating in a tub f water. "Nature is so superlatively elpful here that one could almost beieve the story of old Hi Robinson. "A neighbor, passing Hi's fertile farm ne autumn day. found the old fellow molting a corntuu pu'e on a ituce. " 'Nothln' to do, Hi?" he asked. " "No, nothin' much,' the old man anwered. *1 had a right smart grove of ine trees to cut down, but blamed if last week's cyclone didn't level 'em for me nd split 'em as well.' " 'Wonderful country, Kansas,' said the Isitor. " 'You bet!' Hi agreed. 'You know them tumps I was goin" to blast? Well, the ightnin' saved me the trouble.' " 'Do tell! Say, that's a flne potato crop ver there. Hi' And the visitor nodded oward a field of white-blossoming vines. " 'Yes, ain't It?' said the old man. 'I'm est waitin' for an earthquake to come long and shake the 'taters outen the round, same as usual.' " mmsmam * ?'.>v ' . scarcely finished reciting his mysterious c doegeiel the common folk belief in the 1 witch's power was confirmed. \ In Scotch folk lore there is a story that a butcher once bought a cow from a stranger. AVhen endeavoring to fell the i"reaiure wiui ins ax me uiuns maue uu impression on the animal. When an old man who happened that way inquired into the cause of such an unusual circumstance lie discovered a red string tied around the cow's tail. When this was removed the butcher killed the cow with one blow, for the witch charm had been removed. * * To counteract evil spells invoked by the imaginary enchantresses the superstitious peasants invented an elaborate system of charms of prevention or countercharms. Thus juniper, pulled in a certain manner and in a special way, was burned before cows and put on the tails to prevent the witches from taking away their milk. On Lamas day. or on the Thursday after, every housewife dropped a ball of hair ito her milk pail, so as to insure the milk on her farm furnishing Suq nAjfc 1 B II ^ a" ni&hts in the * year Halloween is the one w h e n f / suPernaturai inliuI fJ a ?nceii are said to I B s4 prevail. It is the ?lKto time for spirits to F^: y ifa walk abroad and 4 jt Ihe time to seek m n one's fortune. ForYnJWmUA^ if merly this s?eason Jty of fantastic shapes V ?. ? ' and deeds was called "nut-crack night," on account of the usual refreshments of the evening and from the custom of using nuts in seeking fortunes. If you are an inquisitive maiden who wishes to know which of your loves* is most ardent in his afifec- i tions you may ease your mind of all ' doubt by placing three chestnuts upon the bars of a grate or upon an iron bar heated on a gas stove. Name each nut after an admirer. If one of the chestnuts cracks or jumps it is a sign that the one after whom it is named -is indifferent. If one nut blazes the person it represents has a high regard fur you. buf if a third chestnut burns, then you will surely be married to the man whose name you gave to the nut. In olden times a damsel who was im- , patient to know her fate would wet a t shirtsleeve and hang It up by the tire- i p ace and lie in bed watching it until 1 midnight. At that hour an apparition of her future husband would come in and ^ turn the sleeve. Although time has passe j ed for fireplaces in our sleeping rooms, s radiators or heaters might be substituted s by those who wish to try this experi- B ment. * * * * The hostess who gives a Halloween J party usaial'y finds that the most difti- B cult part of the evening is in getting her guests to throw off all stiffness and en- s ter into the spirit of the fun in the early y part of the evening. If she is wise she will arrange for some form of entertainment to include every one present right * from the start, and nothing answers this 1 purpose better than the "witch's decree." Of course, for this game there must be a witch dressed in a long black cape and a high, pointed hat made of two pieces of wrapping paper, one for the high cornucopia-like crown and the other for the 8 wide round brim, both blackened with ^ shoe polish. When the guests are all C seated the lame old creature, carrying an r iron pot, in imitation of a caldron, hub- t bles in with her stick, muttering; ' t This Halloween's a witch's night. 1 Bui I'll be gone by morning's light. P Come see what the future holds in store t I know your fate, and a trreat deal wore' v Fortune does not come unbidden. " #! Tt.i s.,11 nki.ro ratio fjta lioc ?>Ul 1 11 lei. ......... ..c? e Then the witch walks around among h the guests carrying her caldron in which ? there are as many cards, face down, as d there are persons present. Each guest a choses a card, not knowing what direc- o tione are written on it. When these "di- a rections," which tell where the real for- e tunes lie hidden, are al drawn, each g person in turn reads his a oud, and then s following the hint given on the card, finds b his fortune and reads it to the entertain- n ment of all others present. The follow- v ing directions may be used or they sug- s v/xm icli cream during the rest of the year. An \ .coommodating old Scotch vilager. who 1 repared a number of small bags of herbs t 0 be dropped into cream jugs for the t ante purpose, supplied many of his leighbors with ouch charms. In both i ]ng and and Scotland the mountain ash i urnifhed jiotent resistance to the in- i tuences of the witches, and so cow \ 1 alt ere and churn handles were fre- ] uently made of that" wood. o The custom of nailing a horseshoe over 1 ie door for luck is ?>f p-imitivr origin. t ri witch days the Jiorseshoe which was ! ccidentally found Was nailed over the f urn rl i - n nro 1 ret!rin rn ht">r?P :>nd !. " " - " " ?? r?* -?' - - - ? ? -- idcr asalnkt the j>ower> of the evil on. s ? f a sailor found the shoo it was fixed i ) the mast of ii.s ship to insure safety i > craft and crew. - Kven the nailn puis- i e-ssed a charm, for when driven in the >west hooks of milk dishes thoy were >> ure to keep the substance in the milk ; ir the whole farm. 1 By using tar on r >w cheds and behind ; ows' ears cattle were protected from t ise;ise. It was thought that conf ssior.s j ould be wrung from the rickety old \ ags of evil if the country fo k but put 1 ins In a pan of milk which they let < oil dry. for that tortured the witches. : ut as the people feared the venue.in r f_ these creatures they refrained from V rying this remedy, often tlic wit' lies < hemselves sold charms which they knew ?ere useless, for starvation was ever paching them new tricks of deception. 1 * 1 :U * i Many old Finnish and Irish women tade a business of selling winds to sail- , rs. It is said that once a fisherman was ! tranded a long way from home. While waiting favorable winds, he courted a 1 fitch's daughter, who tn'.d him that her ? nother could furnish him with breeze to r ill his sails, ami so he arrange i to give ' he old woman a pound of tobacco for iding him on his journey. To accomplish his marvelous feats the old humbug gave im a string knotted in three places. When ready for his journey the sailor ' tntied the first, t ailed "Come gently," so 1 ip glided from the shore. When the secind knot, called "Come better," was oosed a stiffer breeze wafted the traveler n the direction in which he wished to ournev. But this was not doing well ' nough for the sailor, who knew that hero was still one more knot which he , night take out. Alas for him. his euriosty led liirn into untying it. and at that : noment such a strong blast was si'innoned that the ship was blown away < ind the sailor drowned. The treacherous , >ld woman who had brought destruction tpon him might have destroyed his ship ' jy placing a round dish in a milk pan. t is said that during her incantations the lish would have sunk and at the same 1 :ime the craft would have gone under vater. ' * * a Halloween, without the suggestion of :-ats, would be unusual. In witchcraft j .here was a close association with these feline creatures. Friendless old women tnown as witches usually kern prowl ng ' :ats as their soie companions. The i treacherous and glaring eyes and the piteful characteristics of these ha'.f-fed inimals matched the dispositions of their 1 mistresses so exactly that witch and cat grew to mean the complement .of each ither. It was said that no witch would harm j a. cat, and so a mariner usually carried one of these animals in his boat to prevent it from sinking. Folk lore ! claims that if a sailor wanted a coram wind he buried a cat alive, placing ' the head in the direction from which 1 ne wisnea me ?ma 10 uiuw. ncn iiumi?rn superstitions of this creature may >e traced to the days of witchcraft, I for Jhe beliefs that it was unlucky to ? taKe a cat from an old to a new house, 1 r p ?est others which in ingenious hostess may originate: r Pinned upon a curtain of lace J Tells who will win in a n.atrimonial race. ^ T'pon the rail that's made for plate.. t Your fortune rests, 'twas sealed by the fab s. j The black unibre'la out in the hall J Tells the secret alter ihe inaugural ball. r Where music issues forth its charm f iuu 11 iiuu.ifie muse prt'un ia no larm. t I'nder the sugar Mwl beneath the sweet. * Tell the kiud of fate you soon drill meet. Tick-took, tick-tock. # Look behind tie- cuckoo clock ' When the real fortune s are found in J :he places suggested by the "directions" r nev may resemble any of the coupets c jiven below and they may he written a with white ink on black cardboard cut in j :he shape of a witch s cap: f you'd only quit wearing such enormous hats < ou might keep a beau and avoid many epat>. 1 f you wish to be a happy bride, utile to your right on your next car ride. he paints her cheeks, she blonds h-r Lair. tut her disiKisition's sweet, so whjt tin you circ? ^ ou would not have James, you would not have ' Willie. 11 0 It's old tnaid for you, w illy-nilly. \ 1 life of ease and luxury, and girls' pictures on the wall. v !ut not a wife for you, boy?your friends have taken theiu ail. ^ he has a little doggie that gTuwis at you each night; " ^ fhen you elope to Baltimore 'twill serve that \ dog Just right. | By a little care the hostess may easily y; ivert having a lad draw the fortune ,, vhich a lassie shou.d have. II Another game of fortune which should t ?e tried by every unmarried man on Hal- 1 oween is fortune's glass Prov.de three V glasses, one empty, one filled w.th clear vater and another containing water ? olored with vin? gar. One by one as each si terson's turn conies blindfold him and urn him around three times before letting he player seek his fortune by endeavorng to place his linger in one of the three uassi-s. it a youtn is successiu 111 put- n ing his linger in the glass of c < ar t; rater he will marry a madden. If his inger dips into the colored water he may xpect that his matrimonial choice will ie a widow. But if he chooses the empty D ;lass he will remain a baohtlor all the lii ays of his life. The cand e of fortune si ffords another sure way of determining hi ne's fate. A number ol" players stand in hi . circle around a lighted cand.e suspend- st d by a line wire. Each person in the jo ame takes a turn in. lighting the taper, ce winging it and ca ling another person to hi low out the flame while the candle is in th notion. Each person who lights the fo ,'lck also gives the candle the n?mc of th onie friend of the person upon whom lie be MS hat a cat washing Its fa.. fof.NI'.t rain, an.l sitting with its hack to ire prophesies a storm, arc relics of :he age of superstition. Of the many .at fables it; witch h? ? rone i> trior.' attmsit e thati the "liur. ah for Iyondon" story It happ. r>. I ;I.at tw.nty cat^ ? tme 1n an.i - it. I hentselves about the liearthst. i > >f a lichliLP.iler. First one an.l then t ? tijer put on a cap, sayinc "Hut rati .on<h.n " an.l with that van's' ?'<! W'h- i hey ha?l ali ^onc the old sheph.r.l iniself put on the cap. repeat n : ;anie words When he had fill's!;. ! e. too, still, d throneh the air. i stopptnu until h f .U"<! hinis. If seat.- I n a w inc cellar in ls.n.1 >n Th. re ndulKe.t so freely that the ne\t nior:nc he was taken to jail. The da\ alter t!n> 1 e p: pouri-ed l death se- t of J.aim ij! c Upon um Hid the noose been adjusted w'n. i re asked that he ho allowed to \\e?>l rap to his doom, and so the 1 ids* in know litfily ord? red t h eap ..f magie laced upon the shepherd's head This fit? favor enough, for as soon as t ? liuhlander wore the < ij> at; tin h < v laimed "Hurrah f??r Kiutall" a-d . ippeared to his mountain lionte, p. ? wn tir? si>le. t" laugh at ?h<> dismay !... mew l ad fallen upon his would cutioners It would set tn tint the old adage. 'Never trouble trouble until oi.l ? troubles you." would have siitlieed t tiave kept the ivtiorant pea- in1- r a wjuiring too closely Into the live., ' lie supposed witches. a'.H errio t v ,n stronger than reason. Tin 11??-r -tltl"US people even sout'ht to !ir <i t ? tomes of the witches. for this purpose they w..uld rise early on ti a morn of the first Monday of ea -h . er year and ito upon some hill to observe the cabin chltnneys. On tn.t nomine the smoke from the wit Pes* louses was sai'l t? go again-t the w::d * * * In almost every village throug hout l\ tope there was some old man or woman supposed to be wiser than his neighbor* jy knowine tile secrets of healing and vstnwing 1 in k. or warding off danger, or af aiding his fellow-creatures, This sorcerer resented association with black pi- t< he.--, for he even claimed th? power of -onnteractinK their evil. I'sually these encvoleiit creatures. v. ho gidn^l r livelihood v. imposing upon the r t> u oors, were versed in rhymes, in?'.?ntat!oi tnd ceremonials They had knowledge of plants. tn*> ou'd recite stor es with high nioi.ils at ! ouM make most umazing .ihservatior.s o the weather. In some loeaii'ies titn. ' but recently removed such humbug who were sought to cttre sick cattle hy me tns pf ministering :i few bo'tles of water ove which a few meaningless verses were said. For rlicnmatism the white w t. . urged that 'lie sufferer rec te certain verses on Titursdays and Sundays, w the recitation .?r" various religious r! vnn s was supposed to relieve one of the toothache at anv time. In our age it is almost impossible to realize that many noblemen of Sentlai >1 and Europe finished their education le v si'ing these wise old characters in the hope of learning their secrets. Ever tae Literature of that time was affected l>\this peculiar superstition of the people One old book written about a hundred years ago is unique in our age In that the w hole volume is devoted to t? aching hundreds of strange secrets, from low to know a person's thoughts in h s si. p to the method or rendering one's self Inrisible. and this book was probably take i seriously bv thousands. Thanks to enligh'enment. our modern * *'- C ? Z? 1 svitcnes irKe ini> iurin? "i i-ieno m*. -. phonographs, airships and wirelt ss sf tions. for these inventions aee.impl < i wonders more staggering to the comprehension than any of tbe miraculous attributed to the supernatural abilities c [lie departed, enchantresses on# lAMES ^ rails to extinguish the light, but 'o s not teveal the name until after thvfoti 1 p'ayer has made his or b? r trial at ' blowing. A successful extinguisher will marry the person aft? i whom the r !! was named. To a id interest .<n I i> sterv each fort :n. h int. r must !> ; . it it, fo lowing befor* attempting t.. Mow <> .i the candle: P.urn high, hunt snug <an>lV Out y u must g'?. it I gi\.- .1 gu-J r.n. When a girl's turn comes she mi! stitutes "If I wish a gold rir.g ' for "If I give a gold ring." * * ? The old apple bob cannot be improved ipon for real fun, but splashy tubs of cater are no longer welcome a: ev.-ur." gatherings where guests app< ar :ti b-.-t >ib and tucker. As a substitute th? g "n >f apple throw may be entered into ui'h ust as much enthusiasm ..n 1 a little ! s rear and tear on tin participat.' g oi he evening's frolic. if vou at', to b lie hostess, use apples fnj- heads of doll tables dressed in crepe p .per. \. the-, lolls are to be hung up in a row at <i.f' rent heights across the upper part of he doorway they need It. nothing but. leads and dresses, no anr.s or holies lo ng necessai > Provide t tch player wit it m arrow made of a nn t' ske-.ver wit" . leedle stuck in the end. Then, w hen ail of tic j layers are ass< mbh <1 .11 one room. ! ach take his turn in aiming at tin tci k tf the .tolls' heads in trying to e.ipt ;r>> ?ne for his own. The girls, of course, a..' 1 it the boy dolls and the nmn at the vo ri^ ady dolls. A- .-very apple doll h - as ? if paper in a tiny envelope pin- <*. to it. ach must read his fortune a- he t- it. 'hose fortunes may serve as guidts u 11aking others, but mudi fan may 1! id to the game by having t o- fat - s .;t h< guests invited: m hum and har., yon linger ami wait, illt aUM\er that letter; it tea'- jmir fat". 1 will t.i a man with bright red hair: ou'll have a big uediliug now that's en ;he square. i'h"ti the days were hot ur.d ?u'ir.v an"1 v'1 your base ball fan. hi said you would, you know ym did. deny t if you can. loving husband you will ti? ver get s- long as >uii remain a inarching suffrage::e. rwas ;i? the seaside when tirM you ?, ; ut y-u've never .vut h- r a ring," I'd lik- t" !> t. [< '11 never come back. <<h. Wlixt a pity: [< has a girl in another city. !e IK R.'ifirt and, <>h. m- fat. i a touring car alii a ltigb sik hat. his is the girl you'll ncvr get. u.css you give up your cigaret tc. cu'll go across the ocean wide, ut you'll never become a happy bride. ii your sew ing machine, your dr?-s>inak' r <* coming to town: he'll need a lot of satin and lace when --ho makes your wedding gown. * * * When this game is over and each Petvon as enjoyed her own fortune as well ariose of her friends, all take partners tr the dining room, carrying their ai pie jrtunes and singing "Oh. You Beautiful oil." At supper the pie of fate is served rst. This small, deep pie is cut ir.to ices and Dassed around while the ntie-ta ive their <*ye.s closed. Kacfi person helps itnseif to one piece. When ail have been rved tiie guests open their eyes to eti>y eating the pastry, but their chief con rn is in locating the ring or thimble iked between the crust* She who finds le ring in her pie will be married here any of the other guests present, but ie thinihle foretells that its finder will the last to niurrv.