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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, October 27, 1912, Image 48

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WITCH LIKE Actions
Would Have Meant
Sure Death in the Old Days
?Witches Have Now Ceased
to Possess Actual Personalities
? Hallucinations That
Certain Persons Were Endowed
With the Power of
Conversing With Evil Spirits
?In the Little Colony of
Salem?Tottering Old Men
and Women Were Executed
?"Bad Luck" in Killing Certain
Animals?The Witches
of Various Sections of Europe
?Cats Are Alwa5'S Connected
With Halloween Celebrations.
flTII every Halloween
the scrawny,
hag like witch la
brought Into great
prominence for the
purpose of giving
an atmosphere of
evening's fun. At
frolics on that
aye is paid to these
b 1 a c X-r o b e <L
shadowy creatures w ho are respectfully
consulted upon the all-absorbing subject
of love and marriage. Hut when the fun
is over, the ugly creatures of fintasy
vanish for another year, to be forgotten
with their mystic prophecies.
Time was wl > ?i the masquerading of a
maiden in a somber gown and her act of
stirr.ng a caldron such as is provided
at our Halloween fetes would have meant
certain death to the luckless one. She
might have been carrj ing out pretenses
of sore-ry, ( i ; accomplishment of certain
ends hy mock magic, ut in that age
inm-inatiun ami superstition changed
stii h delusions into real a ts and their
agents into re.il creatures of magic.
it lias n--t been until modern times
that t .? wit- h c- aged tc possess an actual
personality in the everyday life of the
people. Sim was'supposed to Ke in league
with a!) S tanic forces and to walk
abroad casting her vengeance upon all
who would not divide their living with
hor. In many cases the approach of old
avo. especia'd;- it it was accompanied by
poverty or helplessness, changed a kindly
disposed, harml-ss old woman into a
witch in the eyes of her neighbors.
*
If she was deformed, toothless or unkempt.
So much stronger were the arguments
for converting her into a creature
of fantasy who might conjure the powers
of evil against those about her. When
such char-ts were made against these
unfortunate villagers the women were
frequently made more helpless because
the parishes which had previously supported
them tk?-n refused to give them
help. When needy and friendless these
poor, decrepit mortals hecan to believe
that they ready could summon the spirits
of evil to aid them in revenging themselves
upon the accusers, but, whether
they believed in this power or not the
"witches" d mand- d bribe f>~jr their good
".iil in order to obtain substance to keep
dy and soul together.
liven in our own country the haliucina^
H
| O you believe in
Mt \ \ >ou grown beyond
jh; < \ \ the age when you
ftps Jk. / It i t' ink the "gobble?
\ VW" J A i uns wi ' Set you
-jj | /' | cf you don't watch
1&*- I j OUT makes no
/ / / difference how old
, [ /y you may be or how
Iff] y lacaing ir. super
stition. you are
stiil interes'sod in
tense many litt'e beliefs aad signs and
mens which took up such a large part
n your childhood fancy. And are you
willing, if only for one day in the year?
Halloween?to conjure up childish memoi
i s and either to join in or encourage
:??- old-fashi: ned -d?a o* celebrating ttois
hallowed evening?
Thursday evening next. Octobor 31, fun
,ir.d frolic will ay.tin hold sway among a
very big percentage of all youngsters, especia
!y those of the English-speaking
ountrles, as well as among a good n' rn
her of their elders, for Halloween, or Ail
Ifal.oween. as it is sometimes known,
ivill be observed with ail tts character!-yes,
wild outbursts of youthful deviltry
and merrymaking.
*
*
Halloween, as observed at the pres>
nt time. Is regarded by most people as
n day primarily intended for the urchin,
it is true that grown-ups do nut engage
it.-- enthusiastically in the day's celebration
as the younger element, yet it was
not always so. Queen Victoria once ase
sted in a Halloween festival at Balmoral
Castle, where a tire was built and elHg'rs
of gobiln- a- d v itches were burned.
<3: i * wr wiiii-i n r?rn ni m*1 a?.v ;i>
celebrated by van us K'ngli.-h kings and
^ ottish chiefs with rcug.un- ceremonies
frnllar to our Hallow n or A.l Saints'
day of November
Halloween derives its rarr.e from its being
the vigil o? All Saints' day The
Druids, away back before the birth of
Christ, set apart October 111 a.- a night for
the extinguishment of ail tires and the
rekindling of new ones. All the supernatural
belnvs both of the visible and invisible
world were supposed to gather on
this night and hold high revel in the
sphere of humanity, and the tires were
r?g-arded as charms against these >pir,ts.
"Witches' night" and ' Devils' Sunday"
were the common terms used by the pagan
folks. As late as the seventeenth
century the farmers In Brittany carried
lighted torches about their ileitis to protect
themselves from the evil forces of
the coming year. So it is seen that Halloween,
which was at first purely a pagan
custom of the Druids has become a
period about which mystery has clung so
fixedly that it still remains a day of spe
c;ai ceieDrauon.
*
* *
Halloween Is most widely observed by
the Irish, Scotch and Welsh In Scotland
any child born on the eve of October 31
is supposed to be endowed with a mysterious
faculty of hoid.ng communion
while sleeptng with the In vis.hie world.
In north Wales the peasantrv cast stones
Into a great fire ard after co\erng them
up with ashes tetire to rest. The next
morning the ashes are swept aside and
the stones sought, and woe betide t-.ese
who do not find their stones. Their future
life, it is supposed, will be very uncertain.
Upon some of the Channel Islands the
fisherfolk choose Halloween to propitiate
a sea god whom they know as "Shony."
At n,ght they gather at the seacoast,
brew ale and consign it to the waves,
tions that certain persons were endowed
with the power of conversing with evil
spirits ran riot in the little colony of
Salem in 1002 At that time persons were
put to death or imprisoned not only ror being
witches, but for assorting their unbelief
m witchcraft. Today the people
of the little Massacl usetts town still point
out Witches hill, where several innocent
women were executed The madness of
the colony spared ne'ther the weakminded
Indian maiden Tituba. who was
seen practicing the ceremonials of her
own heathen religion, nor such exemplary
women as Sarah Cloyce and Rebecca
Nurse of their own number.
* *
Even tottering old men were convicted
for denying tlat there was any such
thing as witchcraft, until at one time a
hundred and fifty parens were cast into
prison to wait their fate. Many others
were tortured into confessing themselves
gulity of false accusations, while several
hundred other colonists were suspected
of being a part of witchcraft and of exerting
their efforts to protect it. Finally.
when this fanatiei.-m had spent itself,
many of those who had taken active
parts In the persecutions realized and
con essed the gr<at injustice they had
done their neighbors, but this was not
true of Cotton Mather, who was dissatisfied
that witch courts had been a < 1 shed.
He attempted to justify his actions of
cruelty before tl e world hv issuing a volume
of thanks for the benefits he had
bestowed upen his people for having sent
so many witdhes to their doom. As this
treatise was received approv ngly at that
time by the president of Harvard College.
ti e horrible delusion of witchcraft
must have obsessed even those who
should have been most enlightened.
As ridiculous as those persecutions were,
they sank fnto insignifl"*nve when compared
with the witch executions cf Great
Kritain and Europe. There one-half million
is a modest estimate of the number
of persons who were killed for having
know'edge of the black art. Especially
between 1450 and 1670 were the tortures
?>f innocent persons most numerous, for
thousands were then executed and treated
in the most horrifying manner. For
three hundred years there was a continual
trial of persons accused of being
in league with the powers of darkness,
and most of them were tried hv the codex
entitled "Mallus maleticarium." or the
witches' hammer, produced by Sprengel
and his fanatical associates.
*
* *
In Germany over 150,000 perished by
various persecutions. One European official.
after doing his part in sending 30,000
miserable wretches to the stake for
the forced confessions of deeds they were
known never to have committed, taught
his flock that lie had done an everlasting
service to the human race, for had
such persons lived they would have
brought utter ruin to the whole world.
An incident especially absurd in our i
age was the Swiss execution of 17S2, when
a maidservant was accused of giving pin
seeds to a little toy. thus causing the
child to choke on pins as they came out
of his mouth. As late as the end of the ]
eighteenth century witch executions were
practiced in Poland and Hungary, while
in Great Britain the last law relative to 1
witchcraft was an Irish statute repealed <
less than a hundred years ago. ]
As free as the civilized world is today
from this suspicious belief in witches. .
yet there is record that about fifteen years
aeo an old woman in Ireland was tortur- ,
ed to death as a witch by her own kinsmen.
Two years later a Mexican woman :
accused of bewitching her neighbor was i
killed by two angry men. A queer case
in our own ls.nd happened in North Car- ;
olina about ten years a so, when a housewife
who could not make the butter come
accused her neighbor of having used evil j
powers over the cream. To break this i
spell the churner's husband shot a silver
bullet through the portrait of the person
suspected of practicing witchcraft.
meanwhile repeating the words: 'Phony,
I give you this cun of ale, hoping you
will be so kind as to send us plenty of
sea ware to enrich our land the comins
year." Afterward they return to a
church and offer prayer to God, following
which revelry of aU kinds is iarticipatttfl
In. In sections of Ireland Halloween
is kept in all its entireties. Burns
has ludicrously embodied the customs of
the Irish in his poem "Halloween," in
which the general good fellowship, nut
roasting, apple ducking, dumb cake ceremony
and candle sing* ing are quaintly
described.
*
* *
The dumb cako ceremony is a common
custom in Ireland on Halloween night. A
piece of cake is kneaded with the left
thumb in absolute silence. If the lips are
even slightly moved the charm will be
broken. However, if nothing is said
?.:u **- c
i'i cjjnii.ijr win ai'pi'ux trio tiinire
husband of the faithful lass. Another
prevalent custom has to do with molten
lead, which is cast into cold spring water
The fanciful shapes resulting denote the
kind of husband a girl will get. For instance,
if the lead takes the appearance
of a dragoon the resemblance is at once
compared, and the eager girl is told *f
the result.
Now bring forth the lead and melt it down
quickly.
Then- is no knowing what is in store for you
jet;
Litre, Harry, run out for a key of th'1 gateway.
And, Betty, a bow! of fresh water get.
So hold rhe key ?v> r and through the wards pour.
I'ntil tte lead runs down like meal through a
sieve;
Remenit*!-, remember, on nutty November,
The charm is completed at giy Ilallovv c-ve.
Cabbage stalks are often used as a
means of telling fortunes. A little verse
relating "Murtagh's Kvil" is usually
chanted before the cabbages are chosen.
If t-m n e
On<\ tw?, rtrw and up to
If all art- white all go to b< a veil;
If one In back an "Mnrtagb'a Evil,"
Ile'l'. anon be screeching wi* tbe devil.
"Murtagh's Evil" is likely a very black
crime. In view of the fact that It is placed
in the verse so connectedly with the
devil's name.
*
* *
Burns has inimitably described, In
"Halloween*" the various superstitious
practices of the Irish peasantry of his
time, and especially Interesting are the
ones known as "Baling," "Toomdish,"
"Sarksleeve" and "Hempseed." In the
S^li&'k^3^G^/ '-'L
-3mM,
Since time has separated us from the
horro-s of witch executions we enjoy
laughing at the folly of the people who
wove strange stories around those who
gained the distinction of being placed in
the witch class.
*
* *
Fy use of charms and incantations
known only to themselves, the mumbling
old women were credited with powers to
a'd in any scheme of malevolence. To
doubt the word of such a person claiming
supernatural powers In her ability
to converse with the evil spirits would
have been considered equivalent to subjecting
one's se t' to the spell of the hag.
All calamities, d'seases and unusual phenomena
of nature were laid to the door
nf the witches, and thus they were said
to cause long wet spells," lightnings,
Roods or droughts
Often farmers who could not afford
poor harvests or the loss of cattle would
give yearly bribes to the witches to in
sure their protection against misfortunes.
It often happened that these nightprowling
old women had butter and
cheese, although they owned not a cow.
Kaling procedure blind folded persons of
one sex po out into the fields and after
pulling up the first stalks they touch tell
the size, appearance and character <>f
their future mates by the size, straightn?:ss
and crookedness of their stalks.
The dirt or yird clinging to the stock
denotes the dowry or fortune, and the
taste of the pith the temper of the husliand
or wife-to-he. They are then put
one after another over the door and the
names of the persons in the succession
of their entrance through it are the same
as the names of the mate of the holder
of that particular stalk.
In the "Toomd'sh" or "Luggies," thre?
dishes, one filled with e'ean water another
with dirty water and the third
with no water, are placed on a table in
a row. A blindfolded, person then dips
his hand into the first d sh he touches,
and if he succeeeds in locating the clean
water his wife will have been unmarried,
if in* touches the dirty water his
wife will have been a widow, and if he
plunges h s hand into the empty dish he
...Ji: ? .. V 1. t
?jji i' iiidm u. i wutiur.
*
* *
In order on the clean bearthstane
The lusgiea three are ranted.
And every rime proa! care la ta'cn,
To oe thein duly chained;
Aidd l"ncle .losh, wha wedlock's joys.
.Sin' tea;.'-' \car did desire.
It."-.".use lie -^at the toom dish thrice.
He heaved thi-rn on the tire
111 wrath that night.
The "Sarksleeve" method consisted of
dipping tiie left shirt sleeve in a stream
ut ni- iittime. Then upon going to bed
in sight of a tire, the shirt sleeve being
hung up to dry. at midnigtyc the future
partner in life of the owner of the shirt
glides up and turns the sleeve from the
left side over to the right to dry. Needless
to say there have been many weird
are! interesting stories due in most part
to the "barley brue" with which the
swain had screwed up his courage. The
"Hempseed" superstition as described by
Burns lies in the sowing of a handful of
hempseed. at night, and then harrowing
with anything conveniently drawn, and
afterward repeating a prayer. The apparition
being summoned duly appears
upon one's looking over one's shoulder.
*
* *
Although Halloween by the Teutonic
and Celtic peoples was observed in funmaking
and fsolic, to the Latin peoples
it is a religious vigil. All Saints' day
on November 1 Is universally a Catholic
festival. It had its origin In the year
till) A. D.t when the old Roman temple,
Pantheon, that had hitherto been dedicated
to the ragan gods, was consecrated
This strengthened the ignorant to he- r
lieve in the powers of the pretenders, h
but if the same peasants had connected a
the fact of the witches having butter t
and cheese with the fact that on certain
morn'ngs their own cows gave no milk s
the witches' thefts would have been dis- 1:
covered and the secrets of their power s
unmasked. So varied were the powers t
attributed to these half-crazed old women i
that there was scarcely anything that *
they were not supposed to be able to ac- c
complish. They could bring fish to their a
own posts, give success to fishermen, t
raise storms, sink ships, drown whom a
they would and even sell winds to mart- \
ners. t
t
* * !
As they themselves were reputed to
travaJ by magic, the ignorant people be- y
lieved that the witches could cross the c
sea in such crafts as egg shells, bowls
and feathers. In producing disease, way- ^
laying and plundering travelers their j
charms were said to work with great t
success. Nothing was impossible in t
witch lore, for superstition even went \
so far as to claim that withered old t
witcnes coital turn themselves into c
to the worship of the Virgin Mary and
the martyrs. The reason for fixing tinday
on November 1 was to supplant
pagan observance of Halloween. Eventually
pagan and Christian customs
blended and consequently the rights of
the Druids became intermingled with various
of the Christian observances, and
thereupon instead of "Witches' night."
"Devil's Sunday," "Nuterack night" or
"Walpurgls night," the designation All
Halloween or Halloween from -VI1 Saints'
day was generally used.
In Oermany the Walpurgis night was
in the most part closely allied to Halloween,
for upon this night, the eve of a
May l, fires were built on the summit t
of the lirooken in the Harz mountains u
with the same object in view as that of n
the Celtic peasantry?to drive away the d
evil spirits. Xutcrack night, as Hal- o
loween is sometimes called, originated
from the festival held In honor of Pomona,
goddess of orchards. Roman boys
in Horace's ti ne participated in sports
in which nuts figured, and there was s
also religious use made of them, so that k
the probable origin of the conspicuous
part played by nuts in the Halloween *
customs of the present day dates hack
to Rome In the early centuries. v
* t
* * c
Apples also play a prominent part In
ail Halloween celebrations, and the c
reason is found in the observance long, t
long ago of the day called "Ha Mas Ubhalt,"
November 1, which was dedicated ?
to the angel presiding over fruits and r
seeds. The pronunciation, which was
Lamasool, became corrupted into Ham it's J
wool, which term was applied to a Hal- ^
loween beverage in Ireland made of
roasted apples, liquor and milk. This j
drink seems to have been the tirst apple \
toddy?at least it \tas not much different
from the apple toddy of today. The ?
most prominent part played by apples c
in Halloween gatherings today is in Ire- i
land, where every child on Halloween c
day sends an apple to the Allen market 1
at St. Ives, but all over the world, s
wherever Halloween is celebrated, lads
and maidens bob for apples, roast the 1
delicious fruit and eat it before a looking 1
glass in order to conjure up the inquir- &
t-r's future mate. Burns thus writes of 0
a small girl: v
Wee Jennie to her granny says:
"Will you go wT me, granny? t
I'll eat the apple at the glass.
1 got frae Cm-lc Johnny."
* *
Halloween, as it will be observed this *
coming Thursday, will be a night of in- '
calculable joy to many a youngster. No p
longer are superstitions characteristic of
Halloween as of yore; no longer are. 1<
w.tches, goblins, apparitions and bon- a
fires a part of the day. The small boy t
and girl, not the older people, are the b
chief actors in a present-day Halloween e
celebration. The women of today do not o
make soul-cakes for poor travelers. In h
fact, the Halloween of today is a totally
different Halloween from that of Q
the Irish and Scottish peasantry of the B
days gone by.
Yet it has lost none of its mirth and
jollity, even though it does not hold as a s
festival the importance it once did. lie- p
gardless as to whether goblins or ap- y
paritions really do appear off Halloween a
eve, there is no night in the year which
popular imagination has stamped with v
such a peculiar character. It is a "night
set apart for the universal walking s
abroad of spirits," so says "The Book of II
Days," but we moderns associate it
rather with youthful Jollity and missing o
gates. There will be ghosts, make-believe t
or sham ones, weird lights?magic lanterns?and
various impersonations, but as Ji
for the real weird Halloween personages a
us conceived by the Irish and Scotoh, not g
J
Ifr Bw^r"i WW--* T*r$&?WQm$
? IT. *r. . ? . -r.-*,. . A"_ '
^f/7%
Tj ' ?????? ??M
avens, cats-, rats, black sheep, whales,
tares and even into winds and waters,
ppearing and disappearing at queer
imes and in strange places.
Killing any of these animals was conlidered
serious business, for who knew
>ut by so doing he might encounter the
pirit of a phantom creature who would
ent her anger with an everlasting curse
ipon his life. These palsied sorcerers
vere said to always have with them such
harms as colored threads, magic caps
ind staffs. Their reputation advertised
hem as able to carry plunder in needles
md pitchforks. In the north of Scotland,
vhere superstition reached its height,
here was on< witch who was supposed to
lave been able to obtain all the milk from
ler neighbors' flocks by milking her own
ittle pet sheep.
Hairy Donald, a masculine witch of the
;ame country, claimed tlie power to kill
>r cure cattie by means of magic. The
>arlsh minister, unlike his people, held
;uch an absurd profession in derision, but
he village folk who doubted not that
Donald could make good his claims shut
he witch in a room while the minister
vas asked to name a certain cow over
vhich the conjurer might show his conrol.
When the unfortunate beast
haneed to fall dead before Donald had
ven a thought will be given other than
n the games of the younger folk.
*
St *
Msrht of eeriest wonder seen
Is the eve of Halloween?
Then things befall too <lt-ar to doubt.
For all the fairy world is out?
\ik1 in the dusk or moonlight clear.
Miracles once more appear.
Kobold, elfin, pixy, sprite.
Flock to celebrate tins night;
Franks they play with nuts and yarn.
And from the garden, field and barn.
Masked they come, keen tricks they try.
With fortune-telling riotry.
Now youth and maiden by the fire.
Watch the flames rise anil expire;
Chestnuts put upon the coals,
To see what augury controls
Their love--or, where the apples float
In a tub the omens note.
We, too, who may not wander more.
On youth's iridescent shore,
J*till beside the fireside sit.
Amidst love's coquetry and wit.
And dream of our lost joyous teens.
Over uncounted Halloweens.
This poem is a suggestive description of
rural celebration of Halloween. The
ub of apples, the chestnuts on the coals,
ircund which the village youth gatner,
nake a typical present-day scene. How
ifferent it is from the pagan observance
f Jong ago.
Waste.
^ENATOR LA FOLLETTE, apropos of
^ tire campaign contributions investigaion,
said to a Washington correspondent:
"It used to be that the party bribed the
'oter. Now, it seems, the voter bribes
he party?and not with a five-dollar bill
ir so, but with quarter millions!
"I suppose that vicissitudes like that
if the Nola Chucky cat no longer happen
o electioneers.
"An electioneer, you know, visiteed a
Sola Chucky man to get his vote. The
nan himself was out, but his wife said;
" 'I can't promise you nothing about
onatlian, sir. He's independent. He'll
rote as seems oest to himself.'
"Tite electioneer, after being as agreeible
as possible, rose to go. But first he
tatted a wretched, mangy kitten on the
voman's lap.
" 'I'm very fond of cats,' tie said. 'I
shouldn't mind giving you $5 for that
>ne.'
"The woman jumped at his offer. She
ocked the $o in a drawer, she put the
at in a basket, and, as she ushered the
nan out with his purchase on his arm,
he spid;
" T'il do the best I can for you about
hat vote. sir. As I told you before, Jonahan
won't be influenced by anybody. Tne
fentleman that's electioneering for your
ipponent spent a full hour here with me
uselessly yesterday, and, by the way, he
mught thB brother of that kitten of yours
or $10.' "
In Kansas.
V7TLLIAM ALLEN WHITE, at an old"
fashioned Halloween party in Emfiria
told a Kansas storv
"Nature is superlatively helpful here in
Kansas.'' said Mr. Wh-te, as lie watched
half-dozen pretty Kansas girls who
ried, their hands fastened behind their
acks, to snatch with their teeth the
normous Kansas apples floating in a tub
f water. "Nature is so superlatively
elpful here that one could almost beieve
the story of old Hi Robinson.
"A neighbor, passing Hi's fertile farm
ne autumn day. found the old fellow
molting a corntuu pu'e on a ituce.
" 'Nothln' to do, Hi?" he asked.
" "No, nothin' much,' the old man anwered.
*1 had a right smart grove of
ine trees to cut down, but blamed if last
week's cyclone didn't level 'em for me
nd split 'em as well.'
" 'Wonderful country, Kansas,' said the
Isitor.
" 'You bet!' Hi agreed. 'You know them
tumps I was goin" to blast? Well, the
ightnin' saved me the trouble.'
" 'Do tell! Say, that's a flne potato crop
ver there. Hi' And the visitor nodded
oward a field of white-blossoming vines.
" 'Yes, ain't It?' said the old man. 'I'm
est waitin' for an earthquake to come
long and shake the 'taters outen the
round, same as usual.' "
mmsmam
* ?'.>v ' .
scarcely finished reciting his mysterious c
doegeiel the common folk belief in the 1
witch's power was confirmed. \
In Scotch folk lore there is a story that
a butcher once bought a cow from a
stranger. AVhen endeavoring to fell the
i"reaiure wiui ins ax me uiuns maue uu
impression on the animal. When an old
man who happened that way inquired
into the cause of such an unusual circumstance
lie discovered a red string tied
around the cow's tail. When this was
removed the butcher killed the cow with
one blow, for the witch charm had been
removed.
* *
To counteract evil spells invoked by
the imaginary enchantresses the superstitious
peasants invented an elaborate
system of charms of prevention or countercharms.
Thus juniper, pulled in a
certain manner and in a special way, was
burned before cows and put on the tails
to prevent the witches from taking away
their milk. On Lamas day. or on the
Thursday after, every housewife dropped
a ball of hair ito her milk pail, so as to
insure the milk on her farm furnishing
Suq
nAjfc
1 B II ^ a" ni&hts in the
* year Halloween is
the one w h e n
f / suPernaturai inliuI
fJ a ?nceii are said to
I B s4 prevail. It is the
?lKto time for spirits to
F^: y ifa walk abroad and
4 jt Ihe time to seek
m n one's fortune. ForYnJWmUA^
if merly this s?eason
Jty of fantastic shapes
V ?. ? ' and deeds was called
"nut-crack night," on account of the
usual refreshments of the evening and
from the custom of using nuts in seeking
fortunes. If you are an inquisitive
maiden who wishes to know which of
your loves* is most ardent in his afifec- i
tions you may ease your mind of all '
doubt by placing three chestnuts upon
the bars of a grate or upon an iron bar
heated on a gas stove. Name each nut
after an admirer. If one of the chestnuts
cracks or jumps it is a sign that
the one after whom it is named -is indifferent.
If one nut blazes the person it
represents has a high regard fur you. buf
if a third chestnut burns, then you will
surely be married to the man whose name
you gave to the nut.
In olden times a damsel who was im- ,
patient to know her fate would wet a t
shirtsleeve and hang It up by the tire- i
p ace and lie in bed watching it until 1
midnight. At that hour an apparition of
her future husband would come in and ^
turn the sleeve. Although time has passe j
ed for fireplaces in our sleeping rooms, s
radiators or heaters might be substituted s
by those who wish to try this experi- B
ment. *
*
* *
The hostess who gives a Halloween J
party usaial'y finds that the most difti- B
cult part of the evening is in getting her
guests to throw off all stiffness and en- s
ter into the spirit of the fun in the early y
part of the evening. If she is wise she
will arrange for some form of entertainment
to include every one present right *
from the start, and nothing answers this 1
purpose better than the "witch's decree."
Of course, for this game there must be
a witch dressed in a long black cape and
a high, pointed hat made of two pieces of
wrapping paper, one for the high cornucopia-like
crown and the other for the 8
wide round brim, both blackened with ^
shoe polish. When the guests are all C
seated the lame old creature, carrying an r
iron pot, in imitation of a caldron, hub- t
bles in with her stick, muttering; ' t
This Halloween's a witch's night. 1
Bui I'll be gone by morning's light. P
Come see what the future holds in store t
I know your fate, and a trreat deal wore' v
Fortune does not come unbidden. " #!
Tt.i s.,11 nki.ro ratio fjta lioc
?>Ul 1 11 lei. ......... ..c? e
Then the witch walks around among h
the guests carrying her caldron in which ?
there are as many cards, face down, as d
there are persons present. Each guest a
choses a card, not knowing what direc- o
tione are written on it. When these "di- a
rections," which tell where the real for- e
tunes lie hidden, are al drawn, each g
person in turn reads his a oud, and then s
following the hint given on the card, finds b
his fortune and reads it to the entertain- n
ment of all others present. The follow- v
ing directions may be used or they sug- s
v/xm
icli cream during the rest of the year. An \
.coommodating old Scotch vilager. who 1
repared a number of small bags of herbs t
0 be dropped into cream jugs for the t
ante purpose, supplied many of his
leighbors with ouch charms. In both i
]ng and and Scotland the mountain ash i
urnifhed jiotent resistance to the in- i
tuences of the witches, and so cow \
1 alt ere and churn handles were fre- ]
uently made of that" wood. o
The custom of nailing a horseshoe over 1
ie door for luck is ?>f p-imitivr origin. t
ri witch days the Jiorseshoe which was !
ccidentally found Was nailed over the f
urn rl i - n nro 1 ret!rin rn ht">r?P :>nd !.
" " - " " ?? r?* -?' - - - ? ? -- idcr
asalnkt the j>ower> of the evil on. s ?
f a sailor found the shoo it was fixed i
) the mast of ii.s ship to insure safety i
> craft and crew. - Kven the nailn puis- i
e-ssed a charm, for when driven in the
>west hooks of milk dishes thoy were >>
ure to keep the substance in the milk ;
ir the whole farm. 1
By using tar on r >w cheds and behind ;
ows' ears cattle were protected from t
ise;ise. It was thought that conf ssior.s j
ould be wrung from the rickety old \
ags of evil if the country fo k but put 1
ins In a pan of milk which they let <
oil dry. for that tortured the witches. :
ut as the people feared the venue.in r
f_ these creatures they refrained from V
rying this remedy, often tlic wit' lies <
hemselves sold charms which they knew
?ere useless, for starvation was ever
paching them new tricks of deception. 1
* 1
:U * i
Many old Finnish and Irish women
tade a business of selling winds to sail- ,
rs. It is said that once a fisherman was !
tranded a long way from home. While
waiting favorable winds, he courted a 1
fitch's daughter, who tn'.d him that her ?
nother could furnish him with breeze to r
ill his sails, ami so he arrange i to give '
he old woman a pound of tobacco for
iding him on his journey. To accomplish
his marvelous feats the old humbug gave
im a string knotted in three places.
When ready for his journey the sailor '
tntied the first, t ailed "Come gently," so 1
ip glided from the shore. When the secind
knot, called "Come better," was
oosed a stiffer breeze wafted the traveler
n the direction in which he wished to
ournev. But this was not doing well '
nough for the sailor, who knew that
hero was still one more knot which he ,
night take out. Alas for him. his euriosty
led liirn into untying it. and at that :
noment such a strong blast was si'innoned
that the ship was blown away <
ind the sailor drowned. The treacherous ,
>ld woman who had brought destruction
tpon him might have destroyed his ship '
jy placing a round dish in a milk pan.
t is said that during her incantations the
lish would have sunk and at the same 1
:ime the craft would have gone under
vater. '
*
* a
Halloween, without the suggestion of
:-ats, would be unusual. In witchcraft j
.here was a close association with these
feline creatures. Friendless old women
tnown as witches usually kern prowl ng '
:ats as their soie companions. The i
treacherous and glaring eyes and the
piteful characteristics of these ha'.f-fed
inimals matched the dispositions of their 1
mistresses so exactly that witch and cat
grew to mean the complement .of each
ither.
It was said that no witch would harm j
a. cat, and so a mariner usually carried
one of these animals in his boat to
prevent it from sinking. Folk lore !
claims that if a sailor wanted a coram
wind he buried a cat alive, placing '
the head in the direction from which 1
ne wisnea me ?ma 10 uiuw. ncn iiumi?rn
superstitions of this creature may
>e traced to the days of witchcraft, I
for Jhe beliefs that it was unlucky to ?
taKe a cat from an old to a new house, 1
r
p
?est others which in ingenious hostess
may originate: r
Pinned upon a curtain of lace J
Tells who will win in a n.atrimonial race. ^
T'pon the rail that's made for plate.. t
Your fortune rests, 'twas sealed by the fab s. j
The black unibre'la out in the hall J
Tells the secret alter ihe inaugural ball. r
Where music issues forth its charm f
iuu 11 iiuu.ifie muse prt'un ia no larm. t
I'nder the sugar Mwl beneath the sweet. *
Tell the kiud of fate you soon drill meet.
Tick-took, tick-tock. #
Look behind tie- cuckoo clock '
When the real fortune s are found in J
:he places suggested by the "directions" r
nev may resemble any of the coupets c
jiven below and they may he written a
with white ink on black cardboard cut in j
:he shape of a witch s cap:
f you'd only quit wearing such enormous hats <
ou might keep a beau and avoid many epat>. 1
f you wish to be a happy bride,
utile to your right on your next car ride.
he paints her cheeks, she blonds h-r Lair.
tut her disiKisition's sweet, so whjt tin you circ? ^
ou would not have James, you would not have '
Willie. 11
0 It's old tnaid for you, w illy-nilly. \
1 life of ease and luxury, and girls' pictures on
the wall. v
!ut not a wife for you, boy?your friends have
taken theiu ail. ^
he has a little doggie that gTuwis at you each
night; " ^
fhen you elope to Baltimore 'twill serve that \
dog Just right. |
By a little care the hostess may easily y;
ivert having a lad draw the fortune ,,
vhich a lassie shou.d have.
II
Another game of fortune which should t
?e tried by every unmarried man on Hal- 1
oween is fortune's glass Prov.de three V
glasses, one empty, one filled w.th clear
vater and another containing water ?
olored with vin? gar. One by one as each si
terson's turn conies blindfold him and
urn him around three times before letting
he player seek his fortune by endeavorng
to place his linger in one of the three
uassi-s. it a youtn is successiu 111 put- n
ing his linger in the glass of c < ar t;
rater he will marry a madden. If his
inger dips into the colored water he may
xpect that his matrimonial choice will
ie a widow. But if he chooses the empty D
;lass he will remain a baohtlor all the lii
ays of his life. The cand e of fortune si
ffords another sure way of determining hi
ne's fate. A number ol" players stand in hi
. circle around a lighted cand.e suspend- st
d by a line wire. Each person in the jo
ame takes a turn in. lighting the taper, ce
winging it and ca ling another person to hi
low out the flame while the candle is in th
notion. Each person who lights the fo
,'lck also gives the candle the n?mc of th
onie friend of the person upon whom lie be
MS
hat a cat washing Its fa.. fof.NI'.t
rain, an.l sitting with its hack to
ire prophesies a storm, arc relics of
:he age of superstition.
Of the many .at fables it; witch h? ?
rone i> trior.' attmsit e thati the "liur.
ah for Iyondon" story It happ. r>. I
;I.at tw.nty cat^ ? tme 1n an.i - it. I
hentselves about the liearthst. i > >f a
lichliLP.iler. First one an.l then t ?
tijer put on a cap, sayinc "Hut rati
.on<h.n " an.l with that van's' ?'<! W'h- i
hey ha?l ali ^onc the old sheph.r.l
iniself put on the cap. repeat n :
;anie words When he had fill's!;. !
e. too, still, d throneh the air. i
stopptnu until h f .U"<! hinis. If seat.- I
n a w inc cellar in ls.n.1 >n Th. re
ndulKe.t so freely that the ne\t nior:nc
he was taken to jail.
The da\ alter t!n> 1 e p: pouri-ed
l death se- t of J.aim ij! c Upon um
Hid the noose been adjusted w'n. i
re asked that he ho allowed to \\e?>l
rap to his doom, and so the 1 ids*
in know litfily ord? red t h eap ..f magie
laced upon the shepherd's head This
fit? favor enough, for as soon as t ?
liuhlander wore the < ij> at; tin h < v laimed
"Hurrah f??r Kiutall" a-d .
ippeared to his mountain lionte, p. ?
wn tir? si>le. t" laugh at ?h<> dismay !...
mew l ad fallen upon his would
cutioners
It would set tn tint the old adage.
'Never trouble trouble until oi.l ?
troubles you." would have siitlieed t
tiave kept the ivtiorant pea- in1- r a
wjuiring too closely Into the live., '
lie supposed witches. a'.H errio t v ,n
stronger than reason. Tin 11??-r -tltl"US
people even sout'ht to !ir <i t ?
tomes of the witches. for this purpose
they w..uld rise early on ti a
morn of the first Monday of ea -h .
er year and ito upon some hill to observe
the cabin chltnneys. On tn.t
nomine the smoke from the wit Pes*
louses was sai'l t? go again-t the w::d
*
* *
In almost every village throug hout l\ tope
there was some old man or woman
supposed to be wiser than his neighbor*
jy knowine tile secrets of healing and
vstnwing 1 in k. or warding off danger, or
af aiding his fellow-creatures, This sorcerer
resented association with black
pi- t< he.--, for he even claimed th? power of
-onnteractinK their evil. I'sually these
encvoleiit creatures. v. ho gidn^l r
livelihood v. imposing upon the r t> u
oors, were versed in rhymes, in?'.?ntat!oi
tnd ceremonials
They had knowledge of plants. tn*>
ou'd recite stor es with high nioi.ils at !
ouM make most umazing .ihservatior.s o
the weather. In some loeaii'ies titn. '
but recently removed such humbug who
were sought to cttre sick cattle hy me tns
pf ministering :i few bo'tles of water ove
which a few meaningless verses were
said. For rlicnmatism the white w t. . urged
that 'lie sufferer rec te certain
verses on Titursdays and Sundays, w
the recitation .?r" various religious r! vnn s
was supposed to relieve one of the toothache
at anv time.
In our age it is almost impossible to
realize that many noblemen of Sentlai >1
and Europe finished their education le
v si'ing these wise old characters in the
hope of learning their secrets. Ever tae
Literature of that time was affected l>\this
peculiar superstition of the people
One old book written about a hundred
years ago is unique in our age In that the
w hole volume is devoted to t? aching hundreds
of strange secrets, from low to
know a person's thoughts in h s si. p to
the method or rendering one's self Inrisible.
and this book was probably take i
seriously bv thousands.
Thanks to enligh'enment. our modern
* *'- C ? Z? 1
svitcnes irKe ini> iurin? "i i-ieno m*. -.
phonographs, airships and wirelt ss sf
tions. for these inventions aee.impl < i
wonders more staggering to the comprehension
than any of tbe miraculous
attributed to the supernatural abilities c
[lie departed, enchantresses
on#
lAMES
^
rails to extinguish the light, but 'o s
not teveal the name until after thvfoti 1
p'ayer has made his or b? r trial at '
blowing. A successful extinguisher will
marry the person aft? i whom the r !!
was named. To a id interest .<n I i> sterv
each fort :n. h int. r must !> ; . it it,
fo lowing befor* attempting t.. Mow <> .i
the candle:
P.urn high, hunt snug <an>lV
Out y u must g'?. it I gi\.- .1 gu-J r.n.
When a girl's turn comes she mi! stitutes
"If I wish a gold rir.g ' for "If I
give a gold ring."
*
* ?
The old apple bob cannot be improved
ipon for real fun, but splashy tubs of
cater are no longer welcome a: ev.-ur."
gatherings where guests app< ar :ti b-.-t
>ib and tucker. As a substitute th? g "n
>f apple throw may be entered into ui'h
ust as much enthusiasm ..n 1 a little ! s rear
and tear on tin participat.' g oi
he evening's frolic. if vou at', to b
lie hostess, use apples fnj- heads of doll
tables dressed in crepe p .per. \. the-,
lolls are to be hung up in a row at <i.f' rent
heights across the upper part of
he doorway they need It. nothing but.
leads and dresses, no anr.s or holies lo ng
necessai > Provide t tch player wit it
m arrow made of a nn t' ske-.ver wit" .
leedle stuck in the end. Then, w hen ail of
tic j layers are ass< mbh <1 .11 one room. !
ach take his turn in aiming at tin tci k
tf the .tolls' heads in trying to e.ipt ;r>>
?ne for his own. The girls, of course, a..' 1
it the boy dolls and the nmn at the vo ri^
ady dolls. A- .-very apple doll h - as ?
if paper in a tiny envelope pin- <*. to it.
ach must read his fortune a- he t- it.
'hose fortunes may serve as guidts u
11aking others, but mudi fan may 1! id
to the game by having t o- fat - s .;t
h< guests invited:
m hum and har., yon linger ami wait,
illt aUM\er that letter; it tea'- jmir fat".
1 will t.i a man with bright red hair:
ou'll have a big uediliug now that's en ;he
square.
i'h"ti the days were hot ur.d ?u'ir.v an"1 v'1
your base ball fan.
hi said you would, you know ym did. deny t
if you can.
loving husband you will ti? ver get
s- long as >uii remain a inarching suffrage::e.
rwas ;i? the seaside when tirM you ?, ;
ut y-u've never .vut h- r a ring," I'd lik- t" !> t.
[< '11 never come back. <<h. Wlixt a pity:
[< has a girl in another city.
!e IK R.'ifirt and, <>h. m- fat.
i a touring car alii a ltigb sik hat.
his is the girl you'll ncvr get.
u.css you give up your cigaret tc.
cu'll go across the ocean wide,
ut you'll never become a happy bride.
ii your sew ing machine, your dr?-s>inak' r <*
coming to town:
he'll need a lot of satin and lace when --ho
makes your wedding gown.
*
* *
When this game is over and each Petvon
as enjoyed her own fortune as well ariose
of her friends, all take partners
tr the dining room, carrying their ai pie
jrtunes and singing "Oh. You Beautiful
oil." At supper the pie of fate is served
rst. This small, deep pie is cut ir.to
ices and Dassed around while the ntie-ta
ive their <*ye.s closed. Kacfi person helps
itnseif to one piece. When ail have been
rved tiie guests open their eyes to eti>y
eating the pastry, but their chief con rn
is in locating the ring or thimble
iked between the crust* She who finds
le ring in her pie will be married here
any of the other guests present, but
ie thinihle foretells that its finder will
the last to niurrv.

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