Newspaper Page Text
THE EVENING STAR,
With Sunday Moraine Bdltlon. WASHINGTON. SUNDAY November 17, 1912 THEODOBE W. NOTES Editor Tfc? ErraliS Star Newspaper Company. Fl*fl?e?* Offl-e. IJth St. and PennHTlTan'a Arenue. !faw York <"?<fli-e: Trlhnuf BuiMinc. Chicago Ofllce: Firnt National Bank Bu'MIn*. European Office: 3 Regent St.. London. England. The F>*n!nr Star. with thie Snnday room In* edition If del!rer??d h* carrier? within the pt? at 4H cent* ner month: dallr onlr. 25 cent* P?r month: Scmdar on'r. 2rt cent* o?r month. Orl'n mar he went hr mail, or telephone. Main 244<V Collection is made by carrier -at the and of each month. Br mail po*taee prepaid: Pallr. Snrdar inclnded one month. rent*. Pal!r Snndav ?-xrepted. one month. 4f> cent* SaturdaT Star. $1 tear. Sunda* Star. $2.40 rear. Fntered a* ?econd-c'?** ri'l matt?r at tba poat o#ne at Wa?h'neton D C tm-n order to a*oid dela^a on account of peraona) absence letter* to THK STAB ahontd rot h? addressed to anv lndlvM-?a1 connected ?1th th? n*W: but siinplv to TH K STAB, or to the Fditorfal or Business Department, according to tenor or pnrpose. Mr. C7ark. The Speaker ha* arrived in Washington in rood health and ready for the winter's fray. His Part !n the presldent'al cam palm was conspicuous and valuable, and reflected credi' on h'ro both as man and partisan Puttlne a?ide his personal dis appointment. which must have been great he fore-ot. if he d'd not foreive. his enemies and canvassed for the Baltimore ticket with all the vigor of a trained stumper. Ffe spoke In many states, and evervwhere to larere and appreciative au diences. and helped roll up the plurali ties which have made Mr. Wilson's suc cess at the pol's notable in such contests. It is a record o' whi--h Mr. Clark's friends are. and of right should be, proud. Some talk?at no time persuas've?has been current about opposition to Mr. Clark for re-election to the speakership. Suddenly it has died out. It is clear now that the Speaker will have no opposition for a second term By every considera tion he is the one man for the place His success In it has been highly creditable to him and serviceable to his party, and the business to come before the next House ! will be even more important than t' at | which the present House has beer ?; .led j on to handle, tricky is his partv. iml*-d. t >, have a man of his ability and experience ! to preside over the deliberations of that. branch of Congress which in the matter of taxation?now so important?is charged with the initiative. What speculation has connected Mr. Clark's name with a cabinet appointment has been based upon the notion that the speakership shorn of the power over com mittee assignments has lost its place in our governmental scheme; thai It is no longer next to the presidency. That is a i mistake. The power lost was consider- 1 able, but that remaining: also is great. A man in the chair In the House altogether equal to its duties has much weight in i shaping the program. He Is often con sulted. and his advice is pondered. And it is still in the province of the Speaker to leave the chair when his interest in meas ures suggests, and take part in the debate as the representative of a constituency. And in another aspect of things the speakership should appeal to Mr Clark more strongly than a cabinet place. He fc not out of all presidential calculations. In 15*16 he will be but sixty-six years of age? still young enough to aspire to the presi dency. The manner of his defeat at Bal timore brought him much sympathy. His carriage in the circumstances Increased the number of his friends. If, therefore, the democratic party scores in office, Mr. Clark should get a third term as Speaker, and that will show him with the gavel in bis hand at the time the next democratic national convention assembles. The Melted Sword. During the Boer war in South Africa the English generals at the front had frequent occasion to send to London of ficial statements beginning, "I regret to report." The phrase became known the world over, for there was much of a regrettable nature for the British com manders to report. X&zim Pasha, com mander-in-chief of the Turkish forces, strikes a new note in the matter of of ficial announcements of disaster. He sends this word to Constantinople re garding the conditions at the front: "My sword has melted in my hands." One cannot feel otherwise than a sense of commiseration for Nacim Pasha. He has fought valiantly, as Turks can fight. and has been faithful to his trust. Before him has advanced an army of size equal to that of his own, and in spired by a sense of many wrongs to be righted, many grievances to be avenged. Behind him were disorganisa tion, dishonesty, inefficiency. The fire that melted the sword in Naxim Pasha's hands came not from military in adequacy, but general governmental in competence. The Turk has finished his course as a power. He may perhaps, through the ontrivances of continental politicians, prolong his stay in Europe somewhat, but not for long will he retain a foot '?old west of the Bosphorua. The sword that has been melted In the heat of bat tle will nevef again flash as a menace. Those energetic American heroes who are constantly setting the kingdom straight and marrying princesses did not :igure for even a paragraph in the news ?.f actual events in the Balkans. If Washington succeeds in preserving political peace where several eminent democrats are concerned it will deserve a reputation equal to that of The Hague. It is expected that the extra session ?will be managed with the expertness !!?- essary to prevent new problems from putting the old ones In the background. A state of affairs may yet arrive that will give Constantinople hope of at least organising a safe and satisfactory mu nicipal government. Irr. Wilson and Chairman McComta. '?naiman McCombs of the democratic national committee is mentioned for a ? abinet pla-e, but is uncommunicative when interrogated on the matter. Just now he Is concerned about his health, which was never robust, and gave way under the strain of his pre-conventlon activities for Mr. Wilson. He came Into the campaign itself late, and after the work had been cut out by others, but he bore a hand after Baltimore, as he had done before, and earned a good deal of reputation. He Is now scheduled for a rest, and will then answer Inquiries about the future. He is a lawyer, and some of his friends have coupled his name with the attor ney generalship But his experience at the bar would hardly warrant the ap pointment. At thirty-five he is without distinction in practice, and the successor of George W. Wicxersham, n* resenting in administration pledged up to the hilt about the trusts, which have the pick of the bar in their service, should be a law ? * yer of large .experience and widely rec ognized ability. Richard Olney was a new "find" when he came to the oJlce, so far as the country at large was concerned, but was sixty years old and the ablest corporation lawyer in New England. But even Mr. Olney failed with the trust question. However, there are the Post Office De partment, the Interior Department and the Department of Commerce and Labor, in any one of which Mr. McCombs would probably be well placed. But Mr. McCombs may not care for office. He may be better suited as a member of the kitchen cabinet?every President has one?and occupy himself without official responsibility in offering suggestions to his friend. Mr. Wilson is saW to be very fond of him, and they ap pear together in a recent photograph, with the right arm of Mr. Wilson thrown around his campaign manager, the hand resting on th? far shoulder. The picture tells the story of their attachment for each other. , It likewise recalls the story of the at tachment that existed between Stephen A. Douglas and Beverley 'fucker of Vir ginia. Mr. Tucker was one. of the most untiring advocates of Judge Douglas tor the presidency, and one evening as a party of Douglas supporters was break ing up Judge Douglas threw his arm around Mr. Tucker and saic: "Bev, if I ever am elected President, what shall I have the pleasure of doing for you?" Mr. TucKer, all admiration, beamed upon his friend, and replied: "Notning in the way of office. Just put your aim around me in some public place, as you are doing now, and call me Bev." Mr. MoCombs may be satisiied with the photograpn taken, and leave office to otners. The Udsmeas xugu aciiooi i'upil. Merit is ooviousiy to oe msceinect in the plan that has just been iaii oeiore tne sciiool authorities by the principal of the business High School, who pro poses that when pupiis in tnat institution are engaged in any line of business occu pation outside of school hours, as, for exampie, in helping their parents in shops and offices, they be given c. edit in their schoo. marks and study assignments for whatever of merit they display in these occupations. It is a fact that many pupis of this school start their business careers beiore they graduate, chiefly as what may be called home helpers. Inasmuch as the chief purpose of the Business High School is to fit boys and gins for commercial pursuits it wou.d seem to be altogether reasonable to encourage them in diiect application of their knowledge and special training. Principal Davis' suggestion is, for example, that if a pupi. is successfully applying bookkeeping, stenography, typewriting or general busi ness training in the evening or on holi days he be allowed to d.op a study in , which he has become sufficiently profi- : cient for his practical purposes and for reasonable requirements of mental de- ? velopment. This, of course, is in the di- ; ection of specialization. The Business | High School it is itself an institution of ' specialized training, just as is in a large ' measure the Technical High School. In j the case of such an Institution outside i work along the lines of studies might profitably be encouraged, just as home study of academic subjects is encour aged and even required in general scho lastic institutions. But here arises an important question. How far should the pupil be permitted, or even encouraged, to use time and strength in outside en deavor while engaged in school pursuits? This question is first to be considered, affecting, as it does, the physical and mental welfare of the boy or girl. If the Business High School is to be strict ly a place of special training for a par ticular line, it perhaps might be success fully developed along lines of what is known as "extension education." with a diminishing amount of school attendance and class work as the course pr ogresses toward completion, the pupil thus enter ing gradually into business affairs and relations as he nears the time of grad uation. Undoubtedly in many cases this would be of material financial assistance to parents who now are put to some straits to give their children a commercial education. The plan should be carefully studied. Presidential Minorities. Comment on the fact that On. Wilson appears to have, been named for the pres idency by a minority of those who went to the polls on election day is necessarily more or less modified by the fact that the exact figures are not available for pur poses of comparison and analysis. In their absence it is idle to institute com parisons between the "minority Presi dents" of the pa>?t and the latest re cipient of a majority of the electoral ! votes. Yet such a comparison has been undertaken by one who seeks to show that Gov. Wilson polled a popular vote of 48 per cent, approximately as great as that given to any of the Presi dents who have failed to secure an abso lute majority at the polls. From 1820 onward there have been, not including this year's election, ten "minority Presi dents." polling the following percentages of the popular vote: John Quincy Adams, .10 per cent; James K. Polk, 50 per cent; Zachary Ta>lor. 4*> per cent; James Buchanan, 45 per cent; Abraham Lincoln. 40 per cent; Rutherford B. Hayes, 48 per cent; James A. Garfield, 48 per cent; Grover Cleveland (1884), 40 per cent; Ben jamin Harrison, 47 per cent; Grover Cleveland (18iri), 40 per cent. The latest obtainable figures are that the outside estimate of the total vote cast on the 0th was 15,300,000. Gov. Wilson's vote was approximately 6,200,000, or 40>? per cent. Thus the estimate of 48 per cent for him. which would place him up with the leaders in this class is evidently much too high. It is quite probable that when the figures are all In hand the Wilson vote will he found to be little if any above 40 per cent. A lingering summer season of course inspires confidence that the amount of coal piled up at the mines will be suf ficient to guard against any shortage in the fuel supply. The Cook-Peary discussion is now remembered as a mild conversational zephyr that preceded the campaign whirlwind of 1912. The Kansas suffragists who made bon fires of bonnets will of course have the bills for new ones 6ent to the usual office addresses. Like a prudent man. Gov. Wilson takes !a vacation whiie he is sure that circum ! stances will render one possible. Campaigns of Education. The publl" is advised that another "cam paign of education" has been lnaugurat j ed. Courts and court procedures are to be ! reformed, and voters must give attention. | Time was too short in the recent cam paign for a full explanation of the plans and purposes of those who would free the bench from the strangle hold of the 'interests." But during the next four years the whole subject Is to be discussed in the press and in the lecture field, so that by 1916 voters will be able to ap praise the glories of true progress!veness, and record themselves that year accord ingly. This is the third "campaign of educa tion" inaugurated in the last forty years. First came the proposition of a tariff for revenue only. That was put forward rather modestly in 1872, but very aggress ively In 1878. Its advocates contended that the people only required enlighten ment on the subject to knock protection Into "a cocked hat," and they set about providing the flood of light. But somehow the illumination has not worked. Here we are in the year of grace 1812, with thsj democrats celebrating a victory based in part on their tariff contentions; and yet. they are certain to recognize protection in whatever tariff revision they put through next year. The hat has not yet1 been cocked which is to receive the dead body of protection. Then came the "campaign of education**! on the money question. Gold was de scribed as the pub.ic enemy. Let it be put down. An unlimited iasue of green backs would save the people from op-* pression. This remedy was in time, changed into a demand for the free coin age of silver at 16 to 1. Let the people ?be educated, and then the power of gold, < wielded by the New York money ring, would be broken. But here we are resting securely on the single gold standard, and not a chirp is h<>ard from any source de manding a change. The old greenback leaders are all dead, hnd not even Mr. Bryan among the silver leaders is ex pecting Mr. Wilson to try to undo what has been done for gold. Shall we see a like result in this mat ter of the courts and their procedures? Will the "campaign of education" pro posing curbstone reviews of Judicial de cisions and curbstone recalls of judges1 bear no better fruit? At the end of forty years will our courts, profiting meanwhile by wise and conservative suggestions about their procedures, still rest, as they now do. on the foundations laid by tha fathers and unshakable by gusts of pop-* ular clamor? What more likely? Whajt contributes more to the confidence of both the political and the business worlds in our institutions than this feeling? A real "campaign of edu?ation," indeed, is a strange provision for loosening a corner stone of good and free government. Edu cation shou.d, and probably will, make ( the government the stronger. Warring Against Noise. If these Maxim men keep on much longer they will stop most of the noises that now afflict the ears of people dwelling in and near large cities. First came the Maxim device to silence the sound of a pistol or rifle shot. It unquestionably has had an influence upon the noisiness of warfare, although that does not greatly a fleet the public. Pistol shots are not frequent in the course of city life, even though the pistol laws do remain so lax and loosely enforced that gun carrying is common. But the principle of the Maxim gun silencer is now being extended to other sources of noise, and there is hope for the nervous and those who depfcore the present tendency of community life to loudness. Motqn-cycles, stationary en gines, rock drills and locomotive safety valves have in turn been Maximized, which means that their noise-making has been minimized. Now comes a motor boat silencer, the effect of which is to prevent the emission of sound audible thirty feet away from the craft. Now one of the Maxims is working on a silenoer for noisy street cars, and he will have the good wishes of millions of peoplo in this research. Something that will pre vent the shrieking wheel flanges at curves will do very well for a starter. Noise is the chief nuisance of modern life and most of it is unnecessary. In April a large number of enthu siastic statesmen expect to show their constituents how easily and quickly a tariff can be revised by people who are not experts. Europe thinks that an lateroceanic canal should belong to the world, but that art treasures, in spite of certain arguments to that effect, do not. Mayor Gaynor has come ideas about the metropolitan press that ought to make him a very interesting lecturer at a school of journalism. SHOOTING STABS. BY PHILANDER JOHNSON. Elimination. "Never mind," said the disappointed j boss; "there will be other elections; and the next time we will win by hook or crook." "Yes," rejoined the henchman; "but what's the use of wasting time with the hook?" Thanksgiving. Oh, gratitude's the safest g>lan. No matter what your lot; It's easier bein' thankful than Explainin' why you're not. Practical Suggestion. "What is your idea of the way a man ought to talk when he is being inau gurated as President of the United States?" "Well," replied the experienced ob server, "if he takes my advice he witl talk from behind a good solid barricade of overcoat, vest and chest protector." The Epigrammarian. "What," inquired the man who strives for verbal precision, "is the plural of the noun bull moose?" "Is it a noun?" replied the man whose Ideas of grammar a e hazy. "Certainly. Why not?" "I didn't know a noun could be active, Irregular and in the past tense." A Generous Attitude. "Doesn't it annoy you to have a mem ber of your congregation go to sleep?" "No," replied the patient clergyman. "I take it as an evidence that he has profit ed by my previous instruction and has a clear conscience." No Upheaval. We're feelin* purty cheerful down to Pohick on the Crick. At first the town was" iookin* fur soma unexpected trick Such as Fate likes to play on folks that gets well satisfied In order to prevent 'em from the ways of too much pride. We thought that the election was a-galn' to turn things loose j An' leave us In a state where nothin' wasn't any use. I Each said that if his party was defeated in the fall Us ordinary people wouldn't stand no show at all. But there isn't any sign of an excuse to be forlorn. The stock ain't lost their appetites fur oats an' hay an' corn, An* peop.e keep on eatln' jest as in the other days, Creatln' a demand fur everything thet we kin raise. An' I've noticed it was much the same in 'lections of the past. We always got a skeer which proved without a cause, at last. Although a governmental change sets rumors flyin' thick, We keep on goln' jes' the same at Po hick-on-the-Crick, RECLAIMING THE WASTE LANDS People of today no longer watch for the possible rediscovery of Aladdin's lamp In fact, they are usually so Modern prosaic that they scoff at - __ . the idea of modern conjur M&glC. jng, ^n)j yet out of the waste places of the west have come cit ies; orchards have g:own up where be fore wu only barren land; thriving towns have appeared where once only the sand lay, and human beings move in a world of flowers, trees and nature's products. No lamp was rubbed to bring this about, nor was it accomplished in the twinkling of an eye. Still, the fact remains that out of the waste places have pome life and growth. Instead of a lamp, the force which b: ought this about consisted of strong, determined men, money, work and pa tience?always work and patience. In stead of the name Aladdin, we find the words reclamation service. Seventy mil lions of dollars has been spent during the last ten years to reclaim arid lands. Thirty projects have been undertaken; some have been finished and some are still to be completed. A report of one year's work shows that 826,000 ac es were made irrigable, almost 7,500 mi.es of canals were constructed and fifty three tunnels were dug, having a total length of over 110,800 feet. Approximate ly 1000 bridges were built, with a total length of 61.000 feet. Nearly 800 build ings were erected, 625 miles of road made, over 2,000 miles of telephone lines put up and nearly 850 telephones install ed. More than 91,000,000 cubic yards of material were excavated. Arid lands were reclaimed in twenty states. The three highest dams In the world are among those constructed by the service, while the dam being con structed at Arrow Rock, Idaho, will be even larger than any of these. Each month approximately $1,000,000 is spent. The working force of the service, executive and field, numbe-s nearly 10 0<X). while the correspondence received at the headquarters here ranges from 1.000 to -4.000 letters every month, practically all of which requires to be answered. * * * Estimates vary in regard to the area of arid lands possible of reclamation. One conservative estimate Possibilities Places it at 30,000,000 acres, but more sanpuine Estimated, experts say it will be possible to water from 70.000,000 to 100, 000.000 acres. The total number of acres already reclaimed Is aoout 2,000,000. The value of the crops prouueed on these Irri gated lands In one year amounted to fl 000,000. As a result of the work of the reclamation service land values have creased more than ,^.000.0o0. Approxi mately 16,000 families are now residing on farms which are being watered ^ gov ernment canals. Not less than 25.000 people have been added to the population of the cities, towns and villages, as a rect result of this work. The reclamation service is arid government lands by . to them. That may mean ean a few miles of canal or It may m?*" dlinrintr 150 miles. It may mean building a comparatively small re^rvolr or it may mean constructing a huge dam. Once tne land is made Irrigable, it is plo?e<l off into farm sites, usually from forty to eighty acres each. The total c?st ' . claiming the land is then fl?ored and the total Is divided equally, according to the number of farms Under t\^ ^ec'^ any act. similar to the homestead act. any citizen with sufficient money who is the head of a fam.ly can secure one^of the.e farms. The only cost is that of the ?water right," that being the an?u?f due for making the land irrigable. ^*1?^ three years, provided half of the land haa been cultivated, a patent Is granted and the land lasses from the hands ot tne government to the individual. _The cos , per acre, ranges from $30 to $98, accord ing to the extent of work necessarj to make the land irrigable. m * * Reviewing the history of the reclama tion service as a whole, its maximum ac tivity and expenditures were Annual ,n 1U07. In 1?02, which year marks the establishment of Work, the service, lees than $100, 000 was spent. In 1908 the expenditures amounted to less than $1,000,000 Then came a steady Increase, until in 1907 $14,000,0u0 was spent. Since then the an nual expenditures have decreased, until $7,000,000 can be taken as an average. Among the several large projects, one ia the dam recently completed In Wyo ming, the highest In the world, be.ng 328 feet from base to top. That means J tnat this Flatiron building in New York wculd fall short of reaching the top b> 47 feet, and that the top of the dome of the Capitol itself would fall short 21 feet. When the spring showers and sun shine fall upon the snowy peaks of the eastern rim of Yellowstone Park a thou sand streams rush down to ftll Shoshone river This composite torrent, when checked by the dam, wdl form ala*? *^ feet deep and covering ten square miles. When the crops are thirsty the dam gates are opened and the water Is released into the river below. There another dam. a low concrete structure, diverts the water through a three-mile tunnel and into> a forty-mile canal which passes along the upper edge of a valley containing loO.OOJ acres. Four years ago this land was desolate. Today It contains more than 250 farmhouses and three thriving towns, while 10,4300 acres produced crops In a single y ming eight projects have been begun, two of which are now completed. The total area of land Is about 1,130,000 acres In the southern part of the state, whir. tt? North Pl.lt. river flows Into a deep canyon, another masonry dam has been Constructed. It rise* 215 feet above bedrock, and back of It is a lake ^th a capacity great enough to cover Rhode Island a foot deep. This dam is situate forty-five miles from the nearest railroad conseauently it was necessary to transport an maewnery. cement and Pulsion sover the desert during its construction. Manj. miles down the river another structure turns the stored up water into a nlne.y five-m le canal, through which it is car ried to the valley. When this project was undertaken only six farmhouses could be counted. Today there are more than ?50, while more than 1,500 families are living In homes of their own. It remained for Colorado, however, to be the scene of the most spectacular project which the reclamation service has accomplished. Of all the vallejs o the western slope two _ in ^0l0" rado, Uncompaschre and Grand, have focussed the attention of the entire country. S-tuated on the main transcon tinental highway, in the midst of the .most wonderful scenery on the continent, no section of the west Is better known. From an agricultural standpoint, how ever, Its value has only recently been realized. It is in the Uncompajhgreval ley that the government accomplished the spectacular. For several years two large forces of men burrowed day and night through a mountain 2,000 feet high and six miles thick, excavating a tunnel one portal at which Is in a profound oanyon 3,000 feet deep, and the other at the up per end of a broad and fertile valley. September 23. 1909. President Taft pre sided at the formal ceremony whion opened this great project. He placed a gold bell on a silver plate and the elec tric connection released the pent-up floods of the Gunnison, and its waters, passing through the mountain, flowed out upon the Uncompahgre valley to fructify a thirsty desert. The tunnel i* lined with cement, as well as the main canal for several miles. The irrigable area of the Un compahgre valley is 140,000 acres, of Which 36.000 acres were public at the be ginning of the work. The Grand valley project consists of rrvRklpg Irrigable 53,000 acres, of which 35.000 are public. To bring this about means the construction of a diversion dam of masonry, with a movable crest, 450- feet long. It also means building seventy-one miles of canals and 12,000 feet of tunnels. The work done in Idaho is best describ ed by C. J. Bianchard. the statistician of the reclamation service. * * * "In the spring of 190*," said Mr. Bianch ard, 1 "I camped for the night on the banks of Snake river, Ifla Idaho ho. My companion, the en __ . gineer, confided to me bis Marvel, plan* for a great work In this section which was to create In the desert a garden covering twenty-five Bquare miles. He drew his plans roughly in the sand as we sat by the campfire. 'Here,' he said, *1 shall build a dam to turn the waters Into huge canals on either side.' When I returned another year the dam was finished. Pointing to a landscape of desolation, whose outer ends touched the sky. and on which there was no sign of habitation, he said: 'This desert will one day become a show place ?a garden, rich and productive, and sup porting in comfort a thousand families. "Three years ago, standing where 1 had before, I realized that the engineer's dreams had come true. Look where 1 could in any direction I saw no desert. Cu.tivated fields, with harvests ready for garnering; pleasant little homes on each 40 and 80 aczes; children playing in the sunshine, sturdy and happy; the garden crops being gathered for winter storage, gave abundant evidence that the soil was productive $nd, when watered, gave generous rewards to the farmer. Twenty two hundred families are living there to day, when only a short time ago there was no sign of human life. Four pros perous towns, soon to be cities, have sprung up along the new railroad. This is a transformation to make you rub your eyes with wonder and amazement." The largest project is at Yakima, in the state of Washington. A number of lakes have been acquired by the service and are being used as storage reservoirs to supplement the stream flow. The land being irrigated lies in the Yakima valley, on the eastern side of the Cascade moun tains. One interesting feature of the work was the construction of the Tleton canal, which for several miles hugs the edge of a precipice several hundred feet above the river. m * * This is a cement-lined ditch, and the placing of the lining was a particularly difficult task. Cement forms Hard made in the valley near the m v stream were carried up the steep canyon side on cable ways, or by means of cars, and then set in place. More than two miles of the canal is in tunnel. In the Yakima river a concrete dam has been built which di verts the water into the Sunny side canal and irrigates 43,000 acres, but It will ultimately supply 94,000. This valley probably contains some of the most valu able agricultural and fruit lands In the world. It is a region of small farms in tensively cultivated. A crop census of the lands irrigated by the Sunnyside canal In 1909 showed a gross average yield per acre of $70. Some of the crops show the following amazing yields. Strawberries. $150 to $400 per acre; cherries, $150 to $350; peaches, $200 to $1,000, and apples, $200 to $800. When, in 1910, the Yuma, Cal., project was thrown open to the public there were ten applications for each of the 174 farms. This land was made Ir rigable through means of a dam nineteen feet high, 4,780 feet long and 200 feet wide, which diverts the waters of tlie Colorado river. Through a unique ar rangement at the headgates of the canals the waters of this muddy stream are drawn off comparatively clear. A different method has been carried out in the Garden City, Kan., project. Instead of dams and tunnels, a pumping system is used for the recovery of under ground wavers This water is delivered into a conduit leading to an old distribut ing canal known as "The Farmer's Ditch." The plant consists of twenty three pumping stations, each driven by electricity from a central power station. There are 10,677 acres of irrigable land in the project. a * In earning on such a work as that toeing done by the reclamation service one of the most necessary Value of adjuncts is publicity. A "D 1*1* "+ special branch of the rUDllClty. Washington office here has charge of that particular end of the work and is kept continually busy. When a project has been completed the public must be notified before the farms can be inhabited. That is done in many ways. The newspapers, magazines and mails are called Into use and thousands of notices are sent out. Many regular cor respondents also receive notices. While the United States government is not trying to make money through this work, It is not, at the same time, trying to give the people something for nothing. That seems, however, to be the opinion of some, if their letters can be taken as a fair example Many of the letters which are continually flooding the office are from people who have practically no money at all, who yet desire to secure one of Uncle Sam's farms. In some in stances, however, the note of pathos is so evident that It is hard to have to send a negative reply. Work weary people of the cities, hearing the cry of the open country, write to know If they can own a little home of their own with a little garden. And sometimes they write that although they have no money, they will work hard to get such a farm. In addition to this general publicity the Reclamation Record is a monthly bulletin which is published by the service. The reclamation service is a branch of the Interior Department, and was for some time a part of the Geological Sur vey. The director of the service is Fred friik H-nnep Newell. The portion of the country in which lands are being reclaim ed Is divided into five parts, each under the charge of a supervising engineer, while each specific project is in charge of an engineer. The chief engineer at Wash ington is Arthur Powell Davis. ECHOES OF THE TURKO-BALKAN WAX. From the Pittsburgh Gazette-Times. Reports from the Balkans and Con stantinople indicate that war does not improve. From the Port Huron Timea-Herald. Probably if Abdul Hamid is within reaching distance of a telephone he has ere this called up the palace in Constan tinople and emitted the horse laugh. From the Albany Evening Journal. What the Balkan region needs is ap plication of the merger principle to the numerous sma'.l states. From the 8c ran ton Tribune-Republican. The King of Montenegro is said to be a poet. That may account for the war enthusiasm. Perhaps the people would ratheF fight than read his stufT. From the Syracuse Herald. Servla now has a "march to the sea" also, which is worthy of being the theme of a good, lively song. From the Rochester Post-Express. "It is doubtful if the Bulgarians h*v? the qualities most essential for success ful attack," writes Baron voa der Goltz, the celebrated German strategist, in a current magazine. Evidently it is Just as dangerous to write war predictions as it is to write election forecasts. From the Kansas City Star. Under the circumstances, it can hardly be referred to at present as the "sub lime poi te." From the Denver Times. Evidently it is almost as dangerous to battle at Constantinople as at Armaged don. From the Milwaukee Sentinel. It begins to look as if the expression "Terrible Turk" would soon be in the same class of humor as "white hope." From the Bnffalo Evening News. Others complain of Austrian hoggish ness in the Balkans, and they are right. Austrians complain of the utter selfish ness of their neighbors. And they are right, too. From the Kansas City Times. It is usually the impregnable places that fall. Next to Gibraltar, Constanti nople has been taken more times than any other* FIFTY HEARS AGO IN THE STAR Orders for the relief of Gen. McClellan from the command of tb* Army of the Potomac were Issued McClellan's from the adjutant gen .. , eral's office In this city Jteiief. November 5, 1862, but were not received at the headquarters of the army until late on the night of the 7th. Word did not reach Washington until Sunday, the 9th. and thus the issue of The Star of November 10, 1862, carries the first announcement by this paper. It was naturally a subject of universal com ment at the capital, and The Star of November 10, besides printing the dis patches. publishes a long discussion of the causes leading to this radical action by the administration. The Star was in clined to take Issue with the government in Its decision to make a change in the command of the Army of the Potomac, in the light of Information then had regard ing his relations with the War Depart ment and to defend him from the criti cisms held against him on the score of bis dilatory tactics and unreadiness to carry out the orders of the military chiefs of Washington. It is evident that a vig orous controversy waged between the local papers on this subject. The Star paid tribute to Gen. McClellan's patriot Ism and military sagacity and besought his friends to accept the action of his superiors in command as a thing accom plished. "to be made the best of to secure, with the command of the army in other hands, the glorious decisive victory for the good cause he would surely have achieved within but thirty or forty miles of the point at which he had arrived when ordered to retire personally from the field." * * * In The Star of November 12, 1862, is an article commenting on two orders issued by the War Department. Important Which were regarded as of /v , exceptional importance, af uraers. fepting not merely the wel fare of Washington, but the fortunes of the war: "The country will doubtless join us in thanking the War Department for issu ing, yesterday and the day before, two orders evidently destined to have the happiest effect upon our future military operations. The first is the order direct ing all officers of the Army of the Po tomac then in Washington to rejoin their respective commands within twenty-four hours. Already it has entirely cleared Pennsylvania avenue and the Washing ton hotel halls of more than half the offi cers who last week swarmed them; those left being invalids, paroled prisoners and^ staff officers, quartermasters, commis saries, surgeons, etc., the latter neces sarily here on duty. The Instant return to their respective regiments of the large number of officers thus hurried to the front must serve greatly to Increase the efficiency of the Army of the Potomac. "The second is the order decree:ng that the government railroad service shall hereafter be efficiently managed, pro nouncing the penalty of instant dismissal of those who fail to expedite the dis fiar es of freight, etc. It may not be known to the public that very much of the difficulty between the late commander of the Army of the Potomac and the War Department concerning the alleged failure of the latter to comply with the former's requisitions for supplies grew out of the distracted state of things In the manage ment of the rovernment's affairs on the railroads, recognized in this order, and thus abated by a single stroke of the Secretary s pen There can be no doubt that with the exception of horses nearly all articles called for by Gen. McClellan for the service of his army, were in stantly ordered to be forwarded to the front by the chiefs of the branches of the service to whom those orders were directed. In most instances they were forwarded with admirable promptitude. But once loaded in the railroad cars, they were lost sight of in a sea of confusion for weeks and weeks, at times. Trains upon trains of wagons were sent to the railroad to convey the supplies to the front, and were forced to return empty because, though duly shipped, no tidings of the goods could be obtained. This, as remarked above, is the key to much of the unfortunate misunderstanding be tween Gen. McClellan in the field and the authorities here, on this point. The department's announcement that all un der its control who hereafter fail to do their best to secure prompt delivery of such freight shall instantly be dismissed from the service will doubtless promptly cure this evil." * * * At last the city's street car line was finished, at this time fifty years ago and in The Star of November Car Lines IS. 1862, is a paragraph ym* . ? j telling of the accomplish - Finished. mentt ^ f0:iows: "The work of laying the rails on the city railroad throughout was finished yesterday afternoon, and now, with the exception of finishing some of the switches and turnouts, the road Is com plete. This afternoon a ear conta'nlng the officers and a number of invited guests is riding over the whole length of the road. Tomorrow It is expected that every branch of the road will be in opera tion, although, as a sufficiency of stock has not been got, a limited number of cars will have to suffice the public for a few days. It is the intention of the com pany to run on all the branches from an early hour in the morning to 12 o'clock at night, and to put cars on the different routes as follows: From High street, Georgetown, to the Baltimore depot, 35 cars; navy yard to 7th street and thence to N street, connecting with smaller cars to the park, 16 cars; from Baltimore de pot up Pennsylvania to New York avenue, to 14th street, out to Massachusetts ave nue, where they will connect with smal.er cars for the Boundary. 12 cars, and from the Baltimore depot by way of 7th street to steamboat wharf, 10 cars. At present all transfers are made at the corner of 7th street and the Avenue, one of the busiest places in the city, but in a few days different points of transfers will be established,?viz., at 7th street for pas sengers going to the park or steamboat wharf; corner of New York avenue and 15th street, for passengers on the 14th street line, and at the corner of New Jersey avenue and B street (Capitol Hill), for the Navy Yard passengers." DR. WILSON CALLED. Dear Doctor Wilson:?When you ran A great big lot of folks assured me That Just as soon aa you begun Yon would not atop till you had cured me. So. Doc, I'll tell you all toy woes, Enumerating: every symptom I can recall, though 1 suppose I'll later find that I have skimped 'em. Dear Doe, I've coalitls bad; It makes me go on something sinful When I reflect how much I've had To pay to get my winter's biu full. And my assimilation's weak? I can't absorb all my expenses. I'll not say more, for when I speak Of thia my wicked wrath commences. Doc, when I purchase thinara to wear 1 sometimes think I'm going dotty; The prices give me such a s< are That sometimes I make speeches naughty. And. Doc, please fix me up a dose Of something that will cure my feeling Of fast becoming comatose When eggs ana batter hit the ceiling. Doc. here's another symptom which My wife and daughters say Is hofrla; They say they cannot buy a stitch Unless I speak in accents torrid. Well, Doc, don't wait too long a while? I'll put a brake upon my passion? . But won't you Hi it w the style Will for a short time stay in fashion? Dear Doctor Wilson: There is mofe, But my intention rather falls me. I have been bumped until I'm sore? Perhaps you'll figure out what alia me. Please do just aa you advertised And put me in a cheerful hnmor. I'm waiting now to be advised. (Signed) Yours, The Ultimate Osbsumct. ?Wilbur D. Ne#bit, la the Chicago Evening Post. MOVING FOR PEACE IN TURKEY Amid th? clash of arms and the confu sion consequent upon a defeated and flee ing army that overflows Fall Of Constantinople the fa'.l of Mitriatrv the m,n,stry on th? 301,1 *' ultimo passed almost un noticed. Kiamil Pasha, who was presi dent of the council of ministers, suc ceeded Ghaai Moukhtar Pasha as grand vizier in the new cabinet, which is large ly composed of the old. Ghazi Moukhtar s retirement was vol untary. The hero of Plevna was scarcely the man to meet the humiliation of de feat and its heartaches, and he resigned, to give place to Kiamil Pasha, whose temperament and wide experience titled him for the ungrateful role that is his. A word concerning the retired vizier is in 'place and a just tribute to a truly great^ man and soldier?a real "grand Turk The hero of Plevna was high commissioner of the imperial government , t ?-ro, K^ypt, in l.sjio. and it was there X roet and admired him in the ungrateful a"d futile mission with which he was charged?that of maintaining intact the of Turkey over Egypt, men aced by the British occupation. Ghazi Moukhtar accepted .the portfolio of grand vizier barely three months ago, and because of the reign of the party of union and progress.' which required a strong hand and the talisman of a great name to intimidate, if not suppress. In terviewed recently, he said: . 'The Toung Turks have ruined our army. Formerly part of the officers came from the ranks and the rest from the military schoo s. The Young Turks changed that. They pensioned or found other situations for the men who had risen from the ranks and replaced them by youngsters from the military acad emy. During three years about l.5?K) Joined in this way. but all of them were too young and inexperienced. "Our battalions of infantry, which are 800 strong had only seven oftice s each at the outbreak of the war, whereas in the past they always bad sixteen or sev enteen. What could you expect our brave soldiers to do without officers and with out food, for we had no commissariat department? They could do oniy one thing?they fled." Kiamil Pasha was named grand vizier not only because he was hostile to the party of union and progress, but this time It was a question of saving the face ,?T. ^he Turk-aye. even the government itself?Turkey in Europe being menaced oy ruin and annihi ation. By tempera ment. and experience with men and with diplomats, he was perhaps the only Turk notwithstanding his eighty-four years, capable of dealing with the situation. * * * Kiamil Pasha's first act was to reas sure the foreign ambassadors in Con stantinople of his in Aeassurance tention to maintain or bv Kiamil der" "Do not think " Dy iuamii. he added ?that eUher i or the sultan will ever abandon Constan tinople. My sovereign will await death in iiis palace and I. in my office." Noradounghian Pasha, named minister for foreign affairs, lis eighty-five years old. He Is reported to have said: "Twen ty-seven treaties concluded du. Ing the past century by the natives of Europe have guaranteed the integrity of the Ot toman empire!" This is perhaps quite correct, but manv honest and inte ligent Turkish official's have protested against the misrule which would inevitably create the storm that has come in Macedonia. At this moment ten days after the for mation of the new ministry the Turkish army that was relied on to do away quickly with the armies of the Balkans has been defeated and routed at every point and the allied armv is at the gates of Constantinople. A Servian army has captured Uskub and, marching westward ! to the Adriatic across Albania, has taken possession of the posts of Durazzo and S S. Juan de Medua. Monastlr Is besieged Adrianople is hopelessly invested by the Bulgarian army and Eskl-Baba. Demo tlka and Tchorlu have been carried by the irresistible Bulbars. The beaten and demoralized Turks are endeavoring to gather up the uncertain fragments of a proud army in the fortifications of Tchatalja. Nor should it be lef* unwrit ten that the Greek forces, under the command of a valiant crown prince marching from victory to victory finally have captured and occupied the Impor tant stronghold of Saloniki. A dispatch from Paris, referring to Austria's attempt to interfere with Servla, say8: That all Europe should be plunged in'o war simply because Servia shall nave or shall not have a port on the Adriatic is s'mply mons'rous." Prime Minister Asquith emphasized ^ neiand s standine on that issue in h's speech at the Guildhall on the 9th instant Referring to the instructions of the Aus trian ministry to its representative at Belgrade that "he should point out to Servia that Austria was determined un der no c'rcumstances to perml* Servla to occupy Durazzo on the Adriatic," Mr Asquith declared: "Upon one thing T be lieve the general opinion of Europe to be unanimous, that the victors are not to be robbed of the fruits of what has cost them so dearly." id * |'For the moment." continued the prime minister, "his majesty's government dep ^ recated the raising and English pressing of isolated ques Pnai+Jn-n tlons, which, if treated rusinon. separately and at once, might lead to divergence and should be hoid up for a wider point of view In the general settlement." The language !s sufficiently clear. Eng land did not desire war. She wou'd use all the efforts of diplomacy to prevent It. But all the world might read between the lines of Mr. Asquith's speech. It was manifest that Austria would not be permitted to exclude Servia from the Adriatic and thus take from her the Just fruits of victories which had cost her so many lives on the field of battle Mr. Asquith and Mr Churchill, first lord of the admiralty, declared that the Bt t ish navy was prepared for any emei gency. There is little cause for anxiety, for Austria-Hungary will not find Europe in the same mood as in 190X. Least of all, Russia could not suffer this biow at the Slav. That Eng'and and France would support Russia there is no question. Just what action Germany will take in the matter is not certain, but at this writing she is loyally standing by the concert of Europe. Public opinion in England, which stood by the government in its predilection for the Turk in the beginning, has been turned completely in favor of the Balkan allies, whose remarkable campaigns have won public sympathy and even enthusi asm. The reasons assigned in a recent arti cle aa to the depreciation of the Turkish soldier have been made the theme of a writer in the Grande Revue of Paris. The author of the article writes: "The incorporation of Christians in the Turkish army became the source of im- I mense weakness. It certainly taught the Moslem soldier that his Christian brother ; . CABINET MAKING. From tbe Toledo Blade. In insisting on naming a cabinet him self, Gov. Wilson lays himself open to the charge of being undemocratic. From the Birmingham Age-Herald. AH the amateur carpenters are at work on Gov. Wilson's cabinet, and no two ot them agree. From the Brooklyn Eagle. Dr. Wiley Is not looking for a cabinet position. But benaoate of soda is not to be encouraged by this advance declina tion. From tbe Bridgeport ETening Post. A cabinet made up of disappointed as pirants for the presidential nomination is suggested. From the Buffalo Express. A woman's organization in Colorado de mands that Mr. Wilson take a woman into his cabinet. Nominate Maude Ma lone for Secretary of War. From the Knoxville Journal and Tribune. No, Champ Clark la not one of those who are seeking a cabinet position. was, after all. not a had follow, and this fact set h s slow mind at work, and per haps quenched his fanaticism. When th?? order for mobilization was piomuigatei from Constantinople. Greeks. Bulgarian* and Servians fled, and it is not impossible that the Turks, who as Ghazi Moukt tar declares, "had no commiManat,' lb I also." * * * As for the "djehad," or holy war. Ash mead Bartlet. English correspondent, writer that he does not bc Holy lieve the holy war, If t*t preached, would affect thw soldier one way or the other. "The Turkish so'dier not long ag*> lost his former religious fanaticism. H* asks for bread, not benedictions. Hi / wants shelter, not salvation. He want* something tangible in this world, and n? t paradise and forty wives in the next." It is recalled that the Ottoman arncv staff announced officially that they oould place in lino 1,1t.O>o men. For these a. budget was constituted of more than I $ou."U0>>00. They wanted a solid army ar?i j fleet Germany had not voted so much. ; There was much said by the German of ! fleers in Turkey of what they wou d d<? I with "setting up" the Turkish so'.dier. The German officers doubtless provided a. commissariat for themselves, but forgot to provide one for the soldier. A writer In the same Grande Revu<* writes on the economical po nt of view of the war whi?-h has tried th?- nerves .if financiers and diplomats quite as much as the nerv? s of the soldiers. At the inception of the war. before th? fires had been lighted, cap tal e*i er - enced all the horrors of shock and panic. ! The first week In October would not b* marVed by a glorious page in the histor ?* of money mark?:n Rarely was such panic. Bondholders asked in trepidation i what of their coupons? In Serv'.a th^ I Skoupchtlna voted a moratorium," or j extension of three months, and doubtless ; the other Balkan states have done Mke i wise Money in the orient .s not always jso urgently necessary as in the Occident, "bokra," or tomorrow, is a familiar and j effective response of governments as of | individuals who cannot meet their t'nan I cial obligations. The Turkish government lis reported at this moment by the cor respondent of the Gazette de Frankfort at Constantinople a.- having in the im perial treasury the tnod?st sum of 50.<*?? j Turkish pounds, less than s iii.om Th* ! government actually lacks pounds j to meet urgent expenses. To go to war I under such circums:an *es will appear ?marvelous to the o-ci lemal but it will be intelligibly to the European who has lived a long time in the orient. * * * The fever of patriotism which has swept over the Ba,k:n states will permit the depleted treasuries of Patriotic allies to go on without a p piaster if need be until the xGVCr. fever is over and the obiwt of their dream atta ned. A correspondent from Belgrade tele graphs on this subject: The patriot.c ?war fever has taken hold of the Servian i nation, man. woman and even young : girls. Among the peasant*, as wej as the patricians, there reigns the same exaltation of patriotism; all afllrm that ! they would be chagrined and humiliated at any intervention of the powers tend ing to interrupt the "crusade" in which they were engaged. It w-aa 'impossible for them to halt midway: they would show to Europe what the ittle states, hereto fore disdained by Europe, may do. When !an entire people sacrlfi es with Joy Its ; property and lives for the lMwsratlon of jits brotheis and the glory of country It ; challenges admirat on. The Servian people note with astonish ment and bitterness the lack of sympa thy the Europeans show them. The Samoouprava expresses Inclination that. France and other nations keep their sym pathies for the Turks alter so many massacres of Christians and would se<* the Christian popu at on of the Balkans remain under the yoke of the Turkish barbarian. If the powers employ force to perpetuate this rule, the peoples of th* Balkan states will have the suprame honor of fighting for their liberation and to perish to the last man. Tn?> Samoou prava, however, adds that Christian Eu rope will not subscribe to such monstrous action. The Novoie Vremia writes of a very marked change in the attitude of Aus tria-Hungary, explicable not only be cause of the victories of the Balkan armies over the Turks, but also because of the effervescence provoked by those victories among the twenty-five mM'ion Slavs of Austria-Hungary. *' * The explanation given by the porte of Turkish defeats hits ere'ted much ill humor among Austrian Turkish journals. The porte de ?, clares that in the first ?XCUSC. combats the soldiers sent were for the most part Christian. Bul garian. Servian and Greek "riyaks." or subjects of Turkey. These fai'ed to flght against their brothers end sur endered or fled. That justification caused the German element of Austria to reflect that 00 per cent of the Austrian army is com posed of Slavs who would doubtless imi tate the example of the Christian Slav soldier of the Turkish army. And the Xovoie Vremia sententious'}- adds that "Austria-Hungary would have more chance of success against Germany, for example, than against one of the Slav powers." The war. begun but little more than a month, has been conducted with mar velous precision and rapidity, unti' now it is at the gates of Constantinople, and the proud Turk is suintr for peace. The powers h?ve apparently abandoned the possibi itv of maintaining the "status ouo" and admit that they mav not rob the victor of tlie Just fruits of his vlc The powers still cling tenaciously to the Mea that the maintenance of the Ot toman sovereignty in Europe 's indis pensable to the re-establishment of a durable peace. No less an authoritv than si Franc's Charmes. in the Revua des l>eux Mondes, reiterates tha' prin ciple, which apears to be the syllabus of the pol'cy of the powers. The victorious all'es will refuse peaoo on the basis of a policy that ha- never mafn'ained peace, but war in Europe, arid massacre in Macedonia. Bulgaria cannot ferret these h'deous facts Con stantinople, to the shame of Christian Europe, lia-' been the center of political intrh'ues which foren'ed s'rKe and armed the Moslem against the Christian To tell the man from the Ralkans that the sovereignty of the sultan should b? maintained for the pi-ace of Europe is to tell him an oft-to!d, bu' idle ?ale. Scutari, on the ea?tr-rn side of the BoFphorus li the logical capital of the defeated Turk, who has forfeited forever his right to reside in Europe. The Balkan empire is the best guar antee for the durable peace of Europe, and Constan'lnople is the lo?r'cal and tra ditional capital. CH. CHAILLE-LONG. SUFFRAGE VICTORIES. From the Nashville Temiesseeaa. Judging by the fact that ten states now have woman suffrage In effect, the cry of the corrupt politician that "women must keep out of po itics" will be relegated to the discard, much to the politicians' dis comflture. Ftora the Birmingham Ledger. No doubt the suffragettes feel good over carrying four more states for their causa. It looks as if It is only a qestlon of tlm<* before the women can vote in most of th* states if not in all of them. From the Memphis Commercial-Appeal. Michigan Is preparing to contest th? woman s suffrage e ection victory in that state. Evidently the Michiganders don't want the Michigeese in the government places. FYotn the Providence Evcninic Bulletin. The suffragettes of New Tork are say ing things that show Gov.-elect Sulser made a mistake if he thought to avoid criticism when he ran away rather than walk in their Saturday march.