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THE EVENING STAR,
With Sunday Morning' Edition. WASHINGTON. SUNDAY December 8, 1912 THEODORE W. NOTES Editor The Kvrnins Slar .\rw?paprr Conpilr. J jiuslness Office. Ufli St. and Pennsylvania Affnu'. Si'n York i >flle? -Trtimne Boll'linx. office: First National Rank BuildingCuroin-an office: 3 liwut Sf.. I sun Ion. England, a. v ? The Evnine Star, with the Sunday roornlnt: edition. Is delivered hy carriers within the city at 45 cents per month: daily only. 25 cents par month: Sunday only, in cents p-r month, Orders may N- sent hy mail, or telephone Main 244'>. Collection is made by carrier at the end of each month. i Rr mail, post aire prepaid: Pailr. Sunday included, one month. fiO cent*. Pa I 'y Sunday ey.eptnj. one month, to cent*. Minrnav smr. *1 rmr. wiimwv Slur. Ji'. w year. Katored as second 'lass mail matter at the post J ? office at Washington. I>. C. f7In order to avoid delays on account of persona! absence letters to THE STAR should r<'t be addressed to any individual connected tilth the office; but simply to TDK STAR, or to t e Kdltorial or ISusiness I>e|.artment. according to tenor or purpose. Europe's Preparedness for "War. The scare a general European w ar has .subsided. IVace between Turkey am) her fries serins assured, and a" will presently be smooth again. Rut things looked black for the great powers for a little while. All of them were disturbed, and several very much so. \u?tria-Hiingary talked belligerently. Russia, unofficially,, responded in | kind Germany slept with one eye open. : and in the daytime kept both eyes go- . fug. France sympathized with Russia, j pud Great Britain with France. The eiisis was weathered largely be-| cause ail the powers were well prepared ! f-?r a scrap t 'aution w as imposed by peril. "Starting something" might shake the world, and do incalculable damage. Tt might wipe out the starter. France looked at Germany. and saw j an army on edge. ficrmany looked at France ;lml saw an army in better condition than a French army had known In thirty years. She looked then at Russia. and saw a power sufficiently recovered from t he Manchurian catastrophe to take a lively hand in a Kuronean campaign. And Great Britain thought of Austria-Hungary and Italy*, and they of Great Thitain. Everybodv was ready, and. therefore, prudent. The great armaments were agencies of peace. Had two (>i* more of the powers been out of condition - behindt 'nd with military equipment?a 11 on to strike misfit hovc.swept the prepared powers into action: and action jnce begun in sneh a tieli] and for such stake** would probably have broken a:l records f<*r bloodshed and property destruction. The wisdom, then, of preparedness for . war has again been illustrated, and the ; Illustration should not he lost oti us. We ftie fortunate in our boundaries. We are , no? menaced a- the K:ir >pean powers are; h> memories of old feuds conne ted with ! , n*a- neighbors. or with spirited rivalries ' , ' growing out of tra*le and landlust. \\ e?j ] Rre tin bigge>t thing of the kind in our j . re? k of wools. Not in this hemisphere IJ Is there any power to dispute supremacy, j j Kut. for all that, it behooves us to keep j In fighting tr.m. Wars burst out unex- | peotedly. This time last year no states- ' j man or soldier had i:i mind what has he* n uc ompiisOod in less than ninety j days l?y a huddle of mountaineers . against trained lighting men. like tiie Turks. The difference was the mountaifi?-?rs were p epared. The Turks were not. Hence Turkey's defeat and humiliation. I.ct us take warning. I'npreparedness often brings war. and when war comes in response to such a temptati >ii. woe is the fate of the unprepared pai ticipant. 1 1 Inviting Burglary. ' TlianL't f . i I Vi i. i.f t mil i rt i. ! 1 . ??- .; *? 1 > < T. II V . f.* i CC *?* I ?? V7 J?VI?VT | men of Kl:zab?th, X. J.. another robber i' n ho has pillaged Washington homes of j ' valuables has !x-in captured. This man. ' n ho confesses freely to his offenses, has ' Seen a much more extensive and success- ' ful operator than the youth who imag- 1 n<-ii himself a "Raffles" and undertook to ? t a living out of society by means of ' t mask and jimmy and electric lantern ' and a pistol. The man caught in Kliza- 1 beth. who comes here of his own will to 1 clear up a number of local crime mys- 1 teries. had reached the stage of skill and resource where he was really a menace to 1 private property. His story, set forth in Friday's Star. should be attentively j ead hv all householders for the sake oi' j: the suggestion whi h it affords of a risk j .hat has heretofore been run unknow- 1 ngly by those who have gone away and 1 eft their houses temporarily unoccupied *nd unguarded. The placing of a note on :he front door to the effect that some ?ne ha_s gone awflv. but will return In a rertain length of time. Is obviously a direct invitation to the housebreaker. ~>Th*-r signs are quickly noted by this class of keen-eved thieves, whose business it is to take advantage of every pening and opportunity. A basket of laundry left for the washerwoman to tarry off. neglected milk bottles, perhaps lightly drawn shades at all windows in the daytime?these are some of the signs bv which the sneakthief knows that the j souse is temporarily untenanted. Of course, a man working in the daytime takes his chance of detection, hut the ihief who has just told his story had no difficulty on that score here, and probably in other cities he has worked his game without difficulty, by taking advantage of the carelessness and heedlessness of people. These matters are easily remedied, and probably In the light of this i burclar's confession There will be no j more away from home ' signs conspieu- j 5u?ly in evidence?until people grow care- I : a wC .a ?l.l - ft less amuu an'i lurgei mn csson. 1 " 1 Some. of the Greeks failed to see the use of stopping a war that they were ror.vincrd would have to be smarted over sooner or later. Public Building Provision. < >n" of the representatives in r*ongress complains that tin- system of appropriating for and planning public buildings throughout the country is wrong, and that tee I'nited States government is put to an enormous expense not only in constructing but maintaining the structures for t accommodation of its offices in 1 if.*r* nt parts of th?; country. His ob1* -tio'i to be that too much money ;s .-pent in putting up federal buildings in small towns, where a moderate rent 'or office rooms would secure adequate accommodations f< r the use of the government. There ran he no question that as a result of the "log-rolling" methods adopted in the past in appropriating for public buildings many useless expenditures have been incurred, as in the case also of the rivers and harbors work. But the net result Is good. It has carried the federal organization in tangible form Into all parts of the country. It has givep a dignified .and in many cases an artistic symbol of the national authority to communities that otherwise would }mv'e uo adequate token of the government. It has provided good working quarters for the representatives of the executive departments, infinitely better than any that Could be^fcnud. There inay have been extravagance now and then in U?e matter of planning and construction. But in the main, with the exception that buildings have perhaps been given at times too liberally for the purpose of making votes for the appropriation measure, the money has been well spent. The chief fault, to be found with the syst?m of public building provision by the government heretofore has been that it has failed to gnuip the federal organisation adequately right here In Washington, where every need should long ago httvei been cared for bv means of appropriations "on a broad scale. Despite the number of large and imposing structures that the; I'nited States has erected here the rent roll the government Is now paying annually Is large and continues to grow. The t'nited States is in truth at least ten years behind in its work of construction at the capital for Its own requirements. New buildings for the State. Justice and Commerce and I,abor departments have been tentatively provided for in that the sites have been purchased at large expense, but the formal authorlza tions for these constructions havo not been given by Congress. although each is most urgently needed. two of the departments occupying rented quarters, while the State Department continues as 10ocenpant with two other departments of a building tbat is barely large enough for one of the three. The Department of Agriculture, now scattered among many small rented buildings, has for some years be<*i awaiting the completion of a construction project that started with the erection of two detached wings in advance of |he main building. Practically every other department of the government is- cramped for room and forced to occupy outside quarters in part. in'the Ugiff of the conditions here in Washington, criticism of the public building policy of Congress should lie not against the liberality with 'Which appropriations are made, but against the lack of attention to the main necessities of tbe governnu-nt at the rapital. It is to be hoped that at this present session an effort w-ill be made to start work on the structures, that are so urgently required here to enable the I'nited States to transact its business properly. : s, The Constitution. The late Senator Kayner was joked a good deal about his frequent references in debate to the Constitution, but took the jibes in friendly part, lie was guilty, and not at all ashamed of his guilt. All provisions of the instrument had excited his admiration, and he praised what he admired. Those who had given it less attention. or been less impressed with its comnrehensi veness and wisdom, could not shame or rattle him with their flipfancy. He tried all new governmental propositions by what he considered the supreme test. He wanted to know how they squared with either the letter or the spirit of the great charter. At a little earlier day the late John H. Reagan of Texas played this part in Congress. tirst in the House, and then in the Senate. He often quoted the Constitution in debate,' and always with insistence that it should be strictly obeyed. "Usten to Reagan." said a member of the House in an aside to a neighbor on i>ne occasion when the Texan was holding the floor on his favorite theme "After trying for four years to destroy the Constitution he has fallen in love with t, and is trying to cut everybody else out." Hut it might be well for all the members of the next Congress to ""brush up" i?n the greatest of the works of the fathers. For the Constitution is now going to be very much in order. All the leading subjects will lead to it. Take the tariff. Is. or is not. protection constitutional? The Baltimore platform, drawn by Mr. yan, says not. Mr. Wilson, w ho ran and was elected on that platform, does not accept Mr. Bryan's dictum. Under w hich king, good people? Take the trusts. Assuming that the anii-trust law needs strengthening, can it be made strong enough to throttle monopoly without violating the spirit of the Constitution? The question is circulating :n political as well as in legal circles. Has something at last arisen defying treatment under the rules laid down? And Jf the rules must oe cnangea, in what way, and how far? Tcke the currency. Is the delegation t>y Congress of the power to issue circulating notes by banks strictly' constitutional? If not, shall the notes of the national banks be replaced by the government's notes? And if so. when and under what provisions shall the change be made? The senator or representative in the next Congress with views about the Constitution will find frequent opportunities to express them, and will not be joked about it if he indulges himself. The great charter is going to be very much in evidence. Gov. B'.ease's profane suggestion as to a destination for the Constitutibn may be realized if ail the amendments proposed from time to time go through. Sincere friends are trying to impress Albert T. Patrick with the numerous examples of men who have spoiled their luck by talking too much. Expectations are confident for a downward revision of thermometer reports between this and inauguration day. When Gov. Wilson says his play is over anvd hard work must begin he expresses it rather mildly. The versatile talents of T. K. cannot be lured into the discussion of a program of inaugural festivities. The Fight Against Poverty. Tl,? ? 0 1.. . l A ^ i i duuuiivu ?>i i in i r?e nf> noie of tive work that Is being done now by organized charities in ail the large cities of the country. Mere palliatives in the form of alms and occasional rounds of supplies ar.d the establishment of institutions are no longer considered as of real value in the fight against improvidence arid destitution and suffering. Thus the work of the Associated Charities and the Citizens' Relief Association of Washington, which held their joint annual meeting the other evening, is constructive at every stage and the disbursement of over $ir.,n?io during the past year is to be considered as the community's investment in the prosperity of the people. Under the present system of charity work those who give to the funds are assured that in every instance an effort is made to correct the conditions that make for poverty, to overcome intemperate habits fhat lead to inadequate provision for the family, to restore invalids to health so that they can become wage earners instead of a burden upon others, to teach habits of thrift to those who have been careless of their resources, to point out the dangers of insanitary living and thus lessen the chances of illness. These are all practical endeavors and the detailed reports of the organizations show that they are bringing substantial results. Poverty, of course, can never be absolutely abolished, for there will always remain thriftless, intemperate, slothful ones who will neglect their duties, shift their burdens" to other shoulders and depend upon alms for subsistence. That is a tailing* of human nature that can probably never be eradicated iiltpgetherYet the percentage of sufTetfng attribl utable to such as these Is by no means large. On the contrary, under the stimulus of the carefully constructive work of present day charity organizations It is being demonstrated that only rarely are such instances encountered, which will not yield to treatment. To the extent that charity giving is concentrated through the agencies that are animated by this constructive concept, with the i idea primarily of correcting faults, finding employment and making the poor seif-heipful and self-sustaining, the percentage ot those utterly dependent upon alms will be diminished. Dependence upon charity is a habit easily formed by those of lax moral fiber, and while to some kindly disposed, sympathetic people it may seem at times harsh and cruel to insist upon investigation before giving, it is only by such means that the drift toward slothful-, ness and improvidence is checked, charity organization furthermore affords an effective agency for the detection of fraud, which is freely practiced from time to time under the guise of abjen? suffering and need* These organisations should l?e liberally supported and. heartily encouraged by the romnr.:nity as an effective means to the end --of - reducing, poverty to a minimym. / : ' ?? I . J- } High School Foot Ball. Stress has been laid in public utteranees by public school officials upon the value of foot ball as. a means of deyelpping character. One of the speakers on a recent occasion, when the successes o(,the season were being celebrated, said that the game encourages a spirit of generqsity and fair play: that it helps to do a*wa'v with physical fear; that It teaches?va boy that it does not hurt so much to b?? liuyt; that it cultivates resolution and develops a boy's ability to see clearly, to heat* accurately. to determine quickly and to act instantly. This is indeed high-oommendation for the sport. But what of the price that is paid for these lessons? What of the broken leg* anil arms and -collarhonea the wrenched backs and the broken heads? There are many of these in every city where foot ball is played by schoolboys, even under the laterft revision of the rules, supposedly in the interest of open and fair play. This year already there have been numerous mishaps on the local foot ball tield, with a consequent loss of school time. Washington is fortunate in not having experienced a death on the gridiron field this season, but that has been a matter of good luck rather than any protection afforded by the rules or methods of play. Secretary Wilson has done a great deal for agriculture in the past sixteen years, even if he lias not enabled the farmer to equal the pace in commercial prosperity set by the trusts. Senator Aldrich's banking and currency investigations can never be expected to be as picturesquely interesting to the popular mind as the financial studies of Mr. Bryan. ? ? * . Suggestions to annihilate the electoral college seem needlessly cruel. An electoral college enjoys itself In its quiet way without annoying anybody. Some of the suggestions for post office supervision may cause Russia to suspect that it has overlooked a few points in the regulation of printed matter. If the rats and mice who wander around unobserved can think, as some scientists believe, they must have many a laugh at human expense. Julian Hawthorne as a practical liter ary man could not help taking a certain amount of interest in a mine that looked to him like a best selier. Glasgow is now sharing London's natural curiosity as to what connection there is between window smashing and woman's suffrage. SHOOTING STABS. BY PHILANDER JOHNSON. Opinions. ' "Wise men sometimes change their opinions." "Yes,'' replied Air. Growcher. "But what a lot of people mistake for an opinion is simply the mental echo of some other man's loud voice." A governor who uses profanity as figures of speech Is now referred to by the village wag as an anathewatician. Wishing. How reckless human wishes are! He wished he had a motor car; Then wished that he could find a plan To wish it on some other man. Progress. "Your husband has made remarkable progress in art." "Yes," replied Mrs. Cumrox. "He is rapidly getting where he can remember the artist's name and forget the price." In Doubt. "I suppose your constituents would be benefited by cheaper postage." "Well." renlied Senator Sorerhum. "after looking over iny daily mail I don't know whether they ought to have the least encouragement in writing more letters." Sly Management. "Haven't you a handsomer chafing dish than that?" asked the customer. "Vou want something even more ornamental than this?" "Yes. I want one so beautiful and expensive that my wife wouldn't think of trying to cook anything in it." The Question. My Uncle Jim has stood the test. He fought clear through the fray. He voted all his friends and kin upon election day. He knows the questions of the hour, with answers to them all, "Initiative." "Referendum" and likewise "Recall!" About the tariff question, too, he has a lot to say. He surely knows his alphabet both ways from schedule "K." We're waiting for the news. Suspense makes all our bosoms throb; We're wondering if they're going to give dear Uncle Jim a job. He knows exactly how to answer queries on finance. Some folks have tried to puzzle him. They never stood a chance. The questions of our foreign policy he takes in turn And answers them offhand to any one that wants to learn. He knows the way to set >m right when times get out of joint; This world to him is one sublime interrogation point. But the question now supreme?with all our nerves it's playing hobIs simply this; Is Uncle Jim In I-lne to Get a Job? WORKING FOR SI # "For the improvement of the means t< for navigating safely the Vessels of the A navy and of the mercantile marine, by ^ providing, under the authority* of the p Secretary of the Navy, accurate and O cheap nautical charts, sailing directions, tj navigators;-and manuals bf instruction for the ufe* of the United States and n for the benefit and use of navigators gen- ir erally." tjtich were the duties imposed n upon the hydrographic office by the act of Congress establishing it June 21, 1SWJ. Nearing the half-century mark of its [existence, the hydrographic office represents an important factor in connection y with all sea traffic. Supplied with the charts and sailing directions issued hv. this office, tfip master of a little sloop need no longer fear encountering here- * tofore un'charted islands or unknown Cl dangerous reefs. His course, practically wherever he may wish to go. is clearly marked out for him, together with the islands which lie along the route. Or p the captain of a giant steamer plowing . its majestic way to. and from Europe ^ knows, if he has the charts and latest bulletins, of whatever changes may have ? occurred in the position of buoys, or of n: any derelicts which may lie in his path. ti "The improvement of the means of ^ navigating safely" is by far a harder tj problem than insuring the safety of land . p] progress. The treachery of the sea pre- p( Rents much greater difficulties than the treachery of the land. The difference between the two has been aptly expressed by an old negro, who when asked was he going a certain place by land or e', water replied; "If T goes by land and p( dere's a accident* there I is. hut if I goes by water an' some'ln' happens, where is w I?" And that is the eternal problem in ^ protecting those at sea. If aught hap- di pens, there is no sheltering cave, no S( welcoming nearby village, but only the ja vastness of the sea itself In the great j,, majority of cases. [j * ai * * ol Tn endea vorlncr to increase the safetv K of navigation a great fraternity has been f" formed. It has no writLife-Saving ten constitution and by- hi laws, and perhaps this at Fraternity. is the flrst timp the t? word fraternity has hoen applied to it, ^ and yet it exists. It is merely one of dl those organisations .which spring up |n through the necessity of mutual aid, ti without any intentional beginning. In this 81 instance the demands of thcorgapization are simple assistance. As a rule that assistance takes the form of sending in- w formation either ahead to land or to other vessels as to the state of - the q weather, and any important fact which may happen to be noted: such, for instance. as that d buoy has broken its moorings, or a derelict has been sighted, w All these things are gathered together and g, then disseminated, and in this way the entire sailing world is made cognizant of * the existing conditions at sea. The hydrograDhic office is the principal fc medium through which all such informa- fa tion is spread. Bulletins are issued at U] regular intervals, which are given to all mariners with the understanding that a( they will report anything they may see ti of importapoe to other mkriners. In other la words, the hydrocraphie office holds the reins of communication with practically the entire maritime fleet, and through the medium, of exchange keeps mariners ss posted. F Tiie hydrographie office is a division of A the bureau of 'navigation, and is under s the Secretary of the Navy. The main of- al flee is in Washington, in charge of Capt. ec Oeorge F. Cooper, the hydroerapher, and tl Lieut. Commander F. E. Rldgely. assist- er ant to the hvdrographer. About too em- la ployes 'constitute the working force at m the office headouarters. In addition to this office" sixteen branch hydroeranhie la stations are situated in the principal se ports, in the country, of which twelve m are in "charge of naval, officers. These tii branch offices are mediums of receiving n< and giving out information also. at Two principal lines of work are car- ni ried on by the hvdroeranhir office. One CI is the preparation and issuance of nau- A tieal charts, and the o*her is the issu- se anee o' a weekly bulletin containing a.' items of interest to mariners and cor- tu reetions as to lights, dangers evistin-r ar and other data of an important but tern- to porarv nature, this bulletin being the pi most important issued th Three classes of charts are issued? to those originating in the hvdrographie of- gj flee, coast and geodetic survey chart--and British admiralfv charts. Practically all those charts which the hvdrozraohic of fire prepares are engraved on Conner plate, a process which has been found to give the hest results. Of the hvdrocTaphic office Issues there are 1>24 dif- T ferenf charts. O'M different coast and geodetic survey charts and 2.002 British admiralty charts. The number of copies issued of these three classes runs as A high as 210.000 a year. * hi * * ti The essential featurt| of any chart issued h.v the hydrographic office must * .. ^ hi necessarily be its accuracy. Issuing' Mariners apply to that office . for charts because they want tlie most up-to-date and correct ocean maps obtainable. Therefore the maintenance of correct charts is one of the biggest parts of the work. Five men are kept continually busy, and in a sin- ol gie vear the number of corrections as; amounts to about 220,oo0. All maps be- t) fore they leave the office are stamped hi with the date, under which appears "cor- w rections inclusive to date." While the Ci majority of the bulletins issued by the ^ office are sent to mariners free, all jn cliarts are sold, the money thus oh- tr taincd reverting to the fund kept for the preparation of cliarts. In this way the ol continued sale of charts means their continued issuance. g* The weekly notice to mariners has the of largest circulation of any bulletin issued Oi by the office. This is due to the fact that Y it contains information of value to all P< seagoing people. Kach week about 35,000 w copies are issued. Another weekly publi- ot catipn is tlie bulletin, a one-page sheet, A containing interesting items on maritime b( subjects, often in the shape of a brief tii from some professor's address or other tt scientific source. The circulation of this ui is about 4,500. A daily memorandum is cc also issued. This is not printed, but sa merely mimeographed, and is sent only tli to the hydrographic branches and the m maritime exchanges in the important oj ports. I'nless this contains some special n< warning or important notice, it is mailed w to the points of destination. Only 250 tii copies of this are prepared. The office st prepares another important publication or pt series, known as pilot charts. Of the five St different charts three are monthly and tii two quarterly publications. The monthly of charts deal with the North Pacific, North A Atlantic and IndiaM oceans, and tlie quar- th BLEASE OF SOUTi From the Syracuse Herald. of The worst of it is that there will be no ^1 it f t bo cell! >n1 <>ll il<1 I'lin I tf Kfl'pilljs II 1 I <MI1 lilv DV uv/w? ? 1 x.?. South Carolina that a man like Blease can rise to l)ecome the governor of their state. , Fr?un the Baltimore American. cc With its Constitution consigned by its governor to regions unmentionable to I r ears polite. South Carolina is in the lime- * light as affording a striking if undesir- Wl able, picture of gubernatorial anarchy. w if From the Syracuse Post -Standard. jg Does South Carolina really stand for w Blease? j.-r From the New York Tribune. Gov. Blease's sentiments regarding the in Constitution are extremely progressive. ,.r From the Buffalo Kxprvss. Over against Gov. Blease of Soutli Caro- co lina, with his glorification of lawlessness, ta set Gov. Donaghy of Arkansas, who de- dc mands severe penalties for lynchers. I r From the New York World. Lincoln used to tell ubout the south- hr western orator who "mounted the plat- |k form, threw hack his head, shined his dc eyes, opened his mouth and left the con- w sequences to God." ly No more accurate description of Cole gr Blease. governor of South Carolina, could nt he written. But ho^. long are the people th i IFETY AT SEA. ?mm ?rlies with the South Pacific and South .tlantic. These charts show the various feamslilp tracks and data relative to eather conditions, and are among those ublications having a large circulation, if the monthly charts the total clrculaion is about 10,000- per-month, while allost 5.000 copies are issued each quar?r of the others. These, like the weekly otices to mariners, are given free, to marlers in exchange for whatever data they lay collect at se&. ; * * * The hydrograpliic office supplies the 'nited States naw with all the charts used by it. Practinternational cally every country in Exchanges tho world has a hydro" XiXinanges. praphic 0fflce, with hlch an exchange exists with the United tates hvdrographic office. In this way harts are obtainable which the various dices do not possess themselves. Charts -om all hydrographic offices can be rerodueed. Up to the present time, howver. this country- has purchased outright -om the British admiralty whatever harts have been needed-, while, on the thcr hand, England purchases one or lore copies of each chart desired, and ten reproduces all others she may need. similar method will be employed by lis country in the near future. At the resent time about $15,000 is being expanded annually for British admiraltyharts. ? In preparing nautical charts a survey as to be made just as in the matter of ind maps. An instance of the methods nployed in this work is shown in a reort of the hydrographic office which mtains the following: "The Paducah as engaged in the vicinity of Cape racias a Dios, Nicaragua. This is a very ifflcult. coast to survey, but about lifio luare miles of hydrography and the adicent coast line were covered. Astronomal stations were established and posions determined at Cape (Jracias a Dios nd Swan Island. In the determination f the longitude the wireless station at ey West, was utilized, it having been reviously arranged for that station to >nd out a tick at a certain time daily, he distance is about 0OO miles, and it is flieved to be greater than any previous tomtit tn m ulfo liuo of W i fftr lis purpose. While this office has no tta for determining the probable error P this particular determination, it is imDUbtedly very small, as it agrees withi one-half minute of former determinaons by chronometers carried from teleraphic determinations at Havana." * * * The total area of the surface of the ater is 142.l32.ft80 square miles. For every square mile of known ceanic land in existence there are ? 2.5ft square miles of water, ourvey. That shows the size of the ork to be undertaken by. a hydro aphic office in surveying, for although 1 the known area of water is not navigae, a large proportion is, and must therere be surveyed and charted. Another ict which shows the vastness of any idertaking of this kind is that the averse depth of the sea is 12,1HW> feet, or six mes as deep as the average height of nd. The greatest depth of water ever >unded was 27,ftftO feet. The present hydrographic office can be lid to be the result of Lieut. Mathew . Maury's endeavors in that direction. scientist, he studied the needs of the sas, and did all in his power to bring aout some means by which sea travel >uld be made more safe, and in 18(J8 le hydrographic office came into existlce. The establishment of steamship nes grew out of his original recomlendations. An interesting example of just how rge is the problem of surveying the as is shown by the Sargasso sea. A ystery concerns its composition, poslon and practically every feature counted with it. What is^ it, where is it. id why is it, are all questions that have ?ver received a final answer. When liristopher Columbus was sailing toward merica he encountered the Sargasso a, and recorded the fact in his journal i follows: "Thev began to see many ifts of grass, which were very green id appeared to have been quite recently rn from the land." Upon sight of this lenomenon his sailors exclaimed that e very sea itself was turning into land thwart iiim. And to this day the Sarij^so sea remains a mystery! * * * Its position, so far as has been definiteWotnrminnrl in t It 4 tlnnti,. hiiiiv ?.t. ?o ill lit' IIUI ill I la II 111. ocean. Egglike in shape, he Sea the large end lies toward ? p Florida. It is about 600 01 trrass. iQi'^s southwest of the zores. while the Bermuda Islands are ie only bodies of land within its area. ?ing on its northwest edge. The area of ie Sargasso sea is? supposed to be about lo.noo square nrlles. Tire surface of this x!y of water is completely covered, or ) some claim, with masses of yellowrown seaweed. Some mariniers have lid it was impossible for a vessel to lake its way through these masses of aweed, but this has been found lncor ct. Interwoven with what small percentage " truth which has been found out about ie Sargasso sea is such a large percentte of mystery and weird phantasy that ie two are almost inseparable. Some ive it that tiie Sargasso sea is a giant hirlpool, from which a ship, once lught. never returns. The center of this ist expanse has been likened to a huge -aveyard. the hulks of dead ships standg as their own gravestones. As for the uth, scientists are still studying it still sagreeing about it, and the mystery irgs. To substantiate the claim of the Sarisso sea being a giant whirlpool proof ' several lost ships has been brought, ne of these, the Marie Celeste, left New ork for Europe in 1KS7, with thirteen ?ople on board, including the captain's ife and child. Two weeks after setting it a British bark sighted her in the tlantic ocean, without sign of life. A >at was sent to her, and an examinaan was made. Nothing seemed wrong; ie boats were all in the davits, the hull idamaged, rigging and spars in perfect mdition, and the cargo intact. The ills were all set. the week's washing of te crew hung out to dry, a half-eaten eal on the. table, the sewing machine ien, with a child's garment under the >edle, while the log book was posted to ithin forty-eight hours of the arrival of ie British boat, and it showed that no orm hud been encountered. What hapned to the Marie Celeste? The United ates government spared no efforts to id out, hut no trace of any member the* ship's company was ever found.1 IK A c? n n r? 1 i* iiu iiic nai^ausu ac<t; x trriicL|JS it was ie cause, and perhaps not. Who knows? H CAROLINA. that unfortunate state to tolerate the lease type of public official? Has not >uth Carolina's humiliation at Richmond en a sufficient lesson? <>m the New York American. The Governor of South Carolina has the iurage of his convictions. urn the Chattanooga Times. Once more the press will proceed to arm up Gov. Blease, and lie needs it. It uuld disappoint this blatant demagogue he were ignored, but. unfortunately, he a governor, and bids for notoriety alays have many takers. otn the Pittsburgh Dispatch. And there are proportionately as many different governors as bad cooks. mil the Memphis Commercial. Appeal. I T1 f U'D V?ttl PC 4 in\* P loo on 11 o o c-wl *u\it - * " ? ,? v u i o v.cur i tan 11 v cu ?rvr\/ invicts in South Carolina: which cerjnly looks like the high record of parining. nm the Hartford Courant. Wholly characteristic are Cole Blease's ags to the other governors that he )|ie8 to make a record of WK) free parins before he gets through, and that hile he is governing South Carolina no nchers in that state who have the one eat justification and who get the right ?gro will have anything to fear frou) e laws or the courts. FIFTY YEARS AGO ' IN THE STAR The railway station was one of the busiest places in Washington fifty years ago. and the following artiR ail WRY cle in The Star of December _ i 1. 1882, affords an interestOtatlOn. jng description of the conditions there: "The ltfth Regiment of New Jersey Volunteers, which has for some time been doing guard duty at the depot of the Baltimore and Ohio rajlroad, lias been relieved by Company G, Ud District Volunteers, unde." command of ("apt. Stockbridge. Perceptible beneficial changes have lately been made under the direction of the efficient passenger agent. Mr. Mdmonds. It will be remembered that heretofore the soldiers doing guard duty, when not immediately employed, were located about the door of the ladies' waiting room, in the depot, their knapsacks, blankets and muskets lying around everywhere. much to the annoyance of ladies waiting for the departure of trains. Mr. Kdmonds has obviated this inconvenience by locating the soldiers at the opposite side of the building, and has erected racks for their use to deposit their baggage. The guards are also now extended all round the building for the protection of passengers and others having business with the company. The beneficial effect of this is apparent to every one. Passageways and entrances are now not. blocked up. and better order is consequently preserved. "The railroad company have of late increased the rolling stock of their road by the addition of ten new and magniti?ent ears, at a cost of $1?M>,0U0. These cars were built af the company's works at Mount Clare and are first-class in all respects. The seats and interior fittings Of the oars are of black walnut, and the ears are so arranged as to lie much more roomy than the ordinary railroad Carriages. There is no spring to the ciooi l.nt Ane i ? 4 I... 4 I ova i, uui mr ? (XI su tunpii ui.iru iiwil a peculiar easy rocking motion is given when the train moves. The interior of the car presents to some extent the appearance of a steamboat saloon, and, in fact, is copied after the interior of the steamboat Isaac Newton. The cars have openings in t+ie \op, allowing a more free circulation of air. a great desideratum in a _ crowded car tilled with people. "Notwithstanding the immense business in the passenger travel of the road at this time?.starting off as they do fourteen and eighteen cars tilled with passengers?everything is conducted with clockwork regularity, under the management of Mr. Kdmonds. All the passengers are not only provided with seats, but they are so classified as to secure to all the greatest possible amount of pleasure and comfort on their journey. Certain cars are especially assigned to ladies, and they are not, therefore. thrown into promiscuous assemblages and disagreeable associations. "The depot and cars, too, are now kept in a more cleanly condition than heretofore. The freight business is also very extensive. Curing the week preceding Thanksgiving a large business was done in freight, of boxes .containing turkeys, chickens, etc.. from parties in the north to their soldier friends and relatives in the camps about Washington. On one night no less than fifty boxes of this sort of freight arrived. "Among the most obliging and indefatigable officials at the depot is Mr. Reuben Collins, who has charge of the baggage. He has been employed in that position for seventeen years, and has never yet lost a single piece of baggage, although between 300 and 400 pieces have been assigned to his care at one time." * * * In The Star of December 2. ix?>2. is an abstract of tlie annual report of the commissioner of public buildings Shaky and grounds, which is of in- | n terest now as reflecting the Bridge, difficulties then experienced in the matter of the Long bridge, which | was at that time regarded with quite as I n< il..b nitorti/tinii oo it lt"> a mUtV \'Oa rg I llliil ii su.-!|;iv. iuii a."? u ?? na m??.i ,? v w* w later: "The bong bridge over the Potomac river has been "used as a railroad bridge during the past year and has been kept in repair by the War Department at a very great expense. The structure is too weak to sustain the weight of heavy trains and has several times given way under their pressure. The ordinary travel over the bridge has been entirely suspended by a recent order of the WarDepartment. to the great inconvenience of the community. "To obviate these difficulties the Alexandria, Washington and Georgetown Rail; road Company propose to construct a new bridge by the side of and connected with the present structure, to be occupied exclusively by t-he railroad track. The construction of such an additional bridge, while it would increase the capacity of the road to facilitate the transportation required by the government, would greatly promote the convenience of the pubic by leaving the old bridge dpen for ordinary travel. It is desirable that Congress shall, as early rs possible, authorize the company to construct the additional bridge proposed." * * * Pickpockets were very busy in Washington at this time fifty years ago, the light-fingered gentry eoniPickpockets in hore for the Winter , ? , as the most southerly at WOrK. ,.jty they could reach -"il 4. ? ~ *1. nrb t ll n 1">1 t li <! rir wiinoui jj(i>Mu^ miuugii me miKvut ^ lines. In The Star of December a, 1X62, is a news item giving warning to the public in connection with the arrest of an artful dodger who was taught at his tricks at an auction at the corner of Oth street and Pennsylvania avenue, and was arrested after a chase. In The Star of the next day is this paragraph: "Yesterday afternoon Mr. Peter Palmer of Schenectady, N. Y., was riding in one of the city railroad cars, and it was so crowded that he and many others were obliged to stand. Mr. Palmer noticed a respectably dressed , old gentleman who was crowded next him, and that he had inserted his hand . under his (Mr. P.'s) vest. Although he * had $80 he did not suspect any wrong intention of the old gentleman. At 13th street the car stopped and the old man got off, and Mr. Palmer soon after missed his money. He went at once to ' Patrolman Donn in search of his fel- < low-passenger, but did not find him for some time, and then he had changed his ( hat for a cap. Twenty-one dollar's were found upon him when searched, including a note similar to one among 1 I those Mr. P. lost. The prisoner was 1 I taken before Justice Donn, where he gave the name of W. H. Halley. but 1 I upon the testimony of a witness who l ' recognized him the alias O. Harvey was affixed to it. He is apparently about sixty-five years of age, and said he ? was only in Washington to see the city. 1 He was committed to jail by Justice j r Donn." | | A COST-OF-LIVING OPTIMIST. ! t . I \ A touring r-ar I can't afford. I With chauffeur trim and handsome; Too quickly melts my little hoard. And unless 1 can land some 1 Fresh dollars for my sinking fund I I'll be done, good and proper. t This cost of living lias luo stunned ? I'm rldiug for a cropper. j No theater seats for me. I trove? . No oi>ora bos this winter. No other sport has any show When cash becomes the sprinter. I'll have to do with ff-wer togs. Or wear last season's garments. I feeil no fine tdue-ribbon dogs. But only trust-bred varmints. * With dollar egg* now prophesied. And milk a whole rent higher: With ]a>rk and beef on rising tide I And chickens each a flyer. The man of millions e'en may groan F At price of oue day's dinner: But what's his fuss to the tit that's thrown By any humbler siriUL-r? <: Still, this is not complaining vera-'? 1 It's really well inteutioiied: I The break for me might be much worse. If I'd had all things I've mentioned. t The Joy of Life I've ne'er quite lost, , Given prices large or small, sir. 'TIs better to have natd tfce cost * I Thau ne'er have lived at all, sir. v ?New \'ork World. c t EUROPEAN-BALI The dispatches from Sofia and Iamdon announce that the armistice l?etw'een the belligerents w hlch was signPeace od at Blghtcho bv the plenip, potentiarica of Bulgaria. Sen'ia. Montenegro and Turkey on the 3d instant, provides that \ tlie same shall meet for ctmferende in London December 13. 1*1?? rxf tlta arttiiutirp tpcl ' J Mr \."II'UI I Vii. V I V I ?v ? ' - - - ? by Dr. Danef. president of tho Bulgarian chamber, may be briefly resumed thus: Tiie belligerents will remain in the positions they at present ooeup> ; the besieged Turkish forces shall not be rovictualed. It will be noted tliat the objections made by Greece as to the revk tuaiing of Ad- i rianople have been accepted. Greece, it appears, has not definitely rejected the ( armistice, but has reserved iter decision. Prior dispatches from Paris announced that M. Athos Romanes, the minister of Greece to France, bad declared to a correspondent that lie had informed M. Poin- j care, premier of Franee. tbat Greece had refused to agree to the revk tuaiing of such places as Adrianople, Scutari and Janina. still held by tho Turks. If Turkey were permitted to do so tt would enable her to renew the war with vigor in ease the armistice was not followed by a firm peace pact. Greece besides favored a debarkment of Greek troops in Asia Minor and would attack Constantinople from that side. Moreover. Greece protested against an armistice at that time because Turkey was l>ein?: forced by her naval forces to surrender certain islands i in the Aegean sea, surrender of which was imminent. There arcsome details in the dispatches from Constantinople of the meeting of the plenipotentiaries at the little village of Baghtche. Tho Turkish plenipotentiaries. acting as hosts, received their guests, the Bulgarians, at breakfast. Nazitn Pacha, general-in-chief of the Turkish army: Reehid and Riza Pachas represented Turkey. Gen. Savof, commander in chief of the Bulgarian army; Gen. Fitchef. chief of staff of the army, and Dr. Panel, president of the Bulgarian chamber, represented the allies. a * The manner of the coming of the Bulgarian guests was a surprise, and to no one more than Xazim Arrival of Pasha himself. The RulT! . garlans, were expected to Bulgarians. arrlve mounted. the only means of transportation since Nazim had caused the railway bridge which separated them from Tchatalja to be destroyed, one of the last acts of his military operations. The Bulgarians, however, arrived promptly by railway carriage: The Bulgarians had executed during the night the almost imftossible feat of restoring- railway communication across the river. Ttie dispatches from London appear to give great importance to the entry of llermany in the arena, when until now she seemed to be content with the role of spectator. Herr von Bethmann-Hollweg. German chancellor, delivered a fiery speech in the reichstag on the -d instant in which he warned Russia that Germany would aid her allies of the triple alliance if there should be war. And the dispatch adds that the chancellor's speech had caused great sensation i in the chancelleries of all Europe on account of its belligerency. For a fact there does not appear to have been so much sensation created as the correspondent would have us believe. The Russian press have had some, thing to say and have said it sharply. The Xovoie Yremia. of course, leads off with this remark: "History is repeating itself, but it is not so easy now to force Russian diplomacy Into a guarded retreat. Such intimidation will frighten nol>ody." If Herr von Bethmann-Hollweg in an unguarded moment made the threats attributed him it was inspired perhaps by the fact, if it was a fact as reported that very day. that Italy had signed a renewal for three years of the GermanAustro-Itatian agreement, familiarly known as the "tripllce." * ? Dr. von Rethmann-Hollweg's speech, on close examination of the only text refwrrted, has not such an Chancellor's ugly look as the pug- I ? , nacious Interpretations of bpeecn. Eondon and St. Petersburg report. The chancellor commenced by summarizing' the efforts of the powers to delay the Balkan war as long as possible: that when it got beyond their powers of control to localize it they (the powers) considered measures of conciliation. The paragraphs which appear to have affected the nerves of the London and St. Petersburg press are as follows: "When our allies. Austria-Hungary and Italy, in maintaining their interests are attacked, although this is not the present prospect, by a third party and thereby threatened in their existence, then we. faithful to our compacts, will take their part firmly and decisively. "Then we shall tight side by side with our allies for the maintenance of our own position in Europe and in defense of the security and future of our own fatherland. I am convinced that we have the whole nation behind us in such a policy." The chancellor further declared that the allies could not dispute the right to a word in the final settlement. The wishes of the powers would have greater weight if presented collectively, and that negotiations to that end were on foot and he hoped for their success. Elsewhere in another dispatch from Ix?ndon the chancellor is reported as having warned self-seeking powers to keep their hands off. and to England especially (referring to a dispatch of same day. December ", from Geneva, announcing that F.n^land would nroolaim n British urn tectorate over Egypt January i>. Germany would not toleraie that, nor any interferenee hv Russia, whose first move to arms would be followed by the German war cry. * is The speeches that followed would indicate that Herr von Bethmann-Hollweg's utterances had been deDebate in natured. Herr George t> Redebour. social demoReichstag. crat compiained that a more complete exjHtsition of the questions involved in the Balkan war was expected. It was impossible, lie said, to glean a positive fact from the chancellor's statements to show for what purpose Germany was to be ready with i sword in hand to aid her allies. "I'ponj the nature of these purposes," he said, i "depended whether Germany was or was ; not to throw into the scale her whole in- 1 tluence for the preservation of the peace." Herr von Ividerlin-Waechter. the foreign secretary, demurred to Herr Bedejoi.rg's attack on the ruler of a great lation with whom Germany lived in >eace. . "This affords Vic the welcome opporunitv." said Herr von Kidtrlin-Waechter. | ii measured words, "to declare tnai hroughout the recent crisis our relations vith England were particularly confidetilal. The negotiations between London ind Berlin were carried on through thej risis with mutual confidence, and they , lave rise to gratifying intimacy in our i elations. They have also done a good i ervice in promoting a good understand- < ng between the powers, and I can give it I WILSON ANI torn the A'l.any Evening Journal. i Now can you guess which of the two ' vill do the most talking when Wilson and iJryan confer? 'rem the Wilmington News. ' Gov. Wilson has invited Mr. Bryan to t met him at Princeton after the Prest- i lent-elect returns from Bermuda. Doesn't ( ook if the governor were going to < ;no< k the Kdxuskan into a cocked liat. 'rum the Indianapolis Star. President-elect Wilson lias just paid < xcesa postage on a bundle of letters in i ihich lie is informed that some democrats! t to not wish to see W. J. Brjtan selected J i [AN ALLIANCES. las my settled conviction that they w 11 continue to do so." Did the chancellor make such a threat as reported concerning England's proposed proteeiorate over Egypt? It !* I scarcely possible that he did. The tlrat j step to a British protectorate would he A [aoucteous request from England that Germany would i.e pleased to ahan<ion> In Egypt the privileges of the capitulations which German \ pas senses in common with the I'nited States and other poWT*. These pri\ '.leges if abandoned are ueaally rrrosnijspil hy s.en.- courteous eon? cession on the part of the state asking the abandonment. Xcllhor (irrmitiv nor the other interested nations would sae-ftloe their privileges in Kjrvpt except unj.-r the conditions above cited or as an act of war. The language .ittiUuted He: r von Kethmann-Hotlweg appears to lw irni probable beeau o intpolitb . n<1 im;atlit<* * * If It shall prove r i; thai he tier ;:n chancellor as assert -d d. dared th it r iMii) It I interests tt | German preserving Turkey as a r , t powerful and re. m at intercs*. ,,, far ntorc importan' :han an> if. i'? which have stirred t < anger the ? s of Isondon and irt. I*, t. >lwrrg. (JcrniHiit, it was tint.-; r d, w. d t readily ahandon tin- <> d >tained over Turkish a IT a . t' t;. nople and in Bagdad The tinf. tu a a failure of Von der Holts to aciomp: t with tiie Turkish army the in. ve * things lie had promised could ! i 1 at tin- door of Krupp's guns, wh o it '1 proved inefficient. A Turkish army reorganised and Turli tinancial administration eatabllahed un i- r Herman control would convert tiie Ttu* into a more efficient aid to Hernial > a military ftower than under former conditions. Prior to Turkey's .-rushing and humiliating defeat the Turk practiced wild art and independence the opposition of tiie jealousies and ambitions of other powers. No power, not even Herman*, which had apparent authority at Constantinople. was able to successfully control the Turk. It has been asserted many times of lata that Germany and Austria-Hungary favored and even urged tiie victorious allies not to stop short of Constantinople. Why? In tiie first place Germany and Austria-Hungary' would by force take the first place as friends and possible allies of the Balkan states. Second. Constant! n<>p|e w mild liar at one ana me nanir nine the ambitions of Russia and England. The Turk, established by Herman aid at Scutari, on the Asiatic shore. If removed from Kurope would prove a formidable ally for Herman power in Europe and German pow.r in Asia. * a * Were these the considerations wh:cli Induced France and England to represent to the victorious Ua'.P0SSible kan allies the danger of a -n march to Constantinople when the way was confessedly open? These considerations may only appear when the curtain falls upon the I?ndon convention. England, it is understood, is Germany's rival In everything, and mora especially rival for the affections of tha Turk. What the British mind has suffered to maintain these affections only testimony of Mr. Gladstone, laird John Morley and such eminent and noble Englishmen may tell us now. England is a great Mussulman power, because of the great number of Mussulman subjects in India. Because of these England was disposed to condone the atrocities committed in the near east that she might not offend the sensitiveness of her Moslem subjects in the far east. The Bulgarian massacres have served to raise the spirit and strengthen the area of thu Christian Balkan armies which huvs finally crushed the Turk to earth. It is pertinent now, when the Turk has committed other massacres, to show the cruelties df the reasons of stats which since many years have subjected England's conscience to such considerations. Mr. Gladstone's letter of August 14, 1870, to the l>uke of Argyl is illuminating: "I am," said Mr. Gladstone, "entirely in harmony with you as to your view of the eastern policy. It has been depressing and corrupting to the country. healthier air has been generated by Indignation at the Bulgarian masaarres. which have thrown us back on our rather forgotten humanity. 1 hnp? the subject will BAt ulnmlmr thpfiilifh f Ksa r*PPsfi ?? III II W 1 ! W\ I I Dizzy's speech (so J call him, with all due respects to the peerage) in the Turkish debate, gave me a new light on hi* view. He is not quite such a Turk as I had thought. What he hates is Christian liberty and reconstruction. He supports old Turkey thinking that if vital Improvements can be averted it must break down, and his fleet is at Besika bay. I feel pretty sure, to be ready to lay hold of Egypt as his share. So lie may end as the Duke of Memphis yet." * * * Mr. Gladstone wrote in his pamphlet on the "Bulgarian Atrocities." which. I iepeat, Iwve served to creGladstone's ate a gnat Christian state TJ in this Balkan alliance on UOpe. the principle of "the blood of tiie martyr is the seed of the church." that it was too late to convince Europe, but that he hoped to convince America. "America," h<- said, writing to Mr. Eugene Schuyler, "has neither alliance with Turkey nor grudges against her; nor purposes to gain by her destruction. She enters into this matter simply on the ground of its broad human character and moment; she has no American interests o temnt her integrity and to vitiate her aims." Mr. John M or ley mow Eord Morley) in his "I-ife of Gladstone" has completed the picture drawn by Mr. Gladstone of Bulgarian atrocity and which may be thrown upon the canvas again in L<ondon as incident to the recent Turkish massacres at Saioniki. Mr. Morley wrote: wrote: "Fierce revolt against intolerable misrule slowly blazed up in Bosnia and ITerzegovina and a rising in Bulgaria, not dangerous In its<elf. was put down by Turkish troops dispatched for the purpose from Constantinople with deeds described by the British agent who Investigated them on the spot as the most heinous crimes that had stained the history of the country. Moved by these symptoms of a vast conflagration Russia. Austria and Germany agreed upon certain reforms. To this instrument known as the Berlin memorandum, England, along with France and Italy, was invited to adhere." The two other powers assented, hut Mr ^israeli refused, a proceeding that along with more positive acts was taken bv the Turk and other people to assume the moral support of Great Britain to he with the Ottoman and probably to threaten military support against ths Russians. And yet for the development of their military power and economical reasons, state reasons, both Germany and Eng land would perpetuate the I urk at? a ? ? tlon. England would maintain the TiT."X in Europe; Germany would rr-et>tablUh him in Asia. Of these two ambitions Germany's i.? the best from the Christian point of view, which may he that uf tne Balkan alliance. CM. CHAIGEE-UJNG ) BRYAN. as Secretary of State or for any other office in the Wilson administration. It will cost Wilson more than J?l if he rel?? ^ates Bryan to the rear "rem the Columbia State. People undoubtedly have a right to pro* test against Mr Bryan's appointment to the cabinet, and Woodrow Wilson tinloubtedly has the right?when he la exercising?to tear up the letters. "rem the Dayten Journal. It is suggested that if Mr Bryan would ?nly accept tlie presidency of the Chinese epubllc, Mr. Wilson would be willing to irge upon Congress the Immediate recogiltlon of the new nation.