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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, October 26, 1913, Image 73

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83045462/1913-10-26/ed-1/seq-73/

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?1
HERE Ik much
that if mystifying.
Interesting and
beautiful In the be
liefs on which the
festival of All Hal
lows was orlKi-1
nally based. Orig
inally this festival
consisted of All
Saints' day, on
November 1; AH
Soul.*' day. on November 2, and was pre
ceded by the evening of October 31 called
All Hallows' eve. or Hallowe'en, when
all the spirits of evil and mischief
?aid to b* out for a holiday. Today the
festival of the saints and souls is largely
forgotten.
The festival of All Saints day was in
stituted about 1,300 years ago by Pope
Boniface IV. because the great and in
creasing number of saints recoffnlaed y
the church made it impossible to dedicate
particular days for the individual honor
of each one.
AH Paints" day is celebrated as a ho
dav by the Greek. Romish, Anglican an.l
Episcopal churches. According to ?.
Chryaoatom a festival in honor of all
the saints was observed on the -u i -
after Whitsuntide as early as the fourth
century by the eastern branch of the
Catholic Church. This was < ^ed -
Saints' Sunday. This day was not ob
served bv the western Catholic hurch,
however, until the beginning of the sev
enth century, or about t*)< A.D.
m
* *
After Pope Boniface IV obtained pos
session of the Pantheon at Rome, which
had originally been dedicated to all the
gods of the ancient Romans, he decided
to prepare it for Christian worship and
rededicate it to the Virgin and all the
saints of the Christian church in place
of the old gods of pagan Rome. The
Pantheon was therefore dedicated to
them on May and on the anniver
sary of this day a celebration was an
nually held in honor of all the saints.
The change from this date to that or
November 1 for the festival of all the
saints apparently dates to the time ot
Pope Gregory, who two centuries later
dedicated a church in honor of all the
saints November 1 A.D. 8-'J0. W hen the
Anglican and Frankiah churches were
finally persuaded to adopt the custom of
holding an Ail Saints* festival November
1 was at last generally accepted as the
suitable date for it. L<ater it was popu
larly called All Hallows' day, or Hal
lowmass, and the evening before it then
became All Hallows eve, or Halloween.
All Souls' day, November 2, has been
celebrated by the Christian churches of
Western Europe ever since the year 01W.
It was instituted about live years earlier
by Odilon. Bishop of Cluny, as a day
on which masses should be said for the
repose of the souls in purgatory, and
was soon considered so imp6rtant that
it was never allowed to be postponed
for any other church festival.
*
* *
The two chief characteristics of the
old popular Halloween celebration in
England and the British Isles generally
were the lighting of bonfires and the
practice of certain customs based on
the belief that on this nlglit more than
on any other in the year ghosts and
witches were wont to be wandering
around. Later the spirits of the dead
were supposed to be free from the or
dinary restrictions that hamper their
intercourse with mortals, and could
therefore return to help or hinder
those on earth. Many persons today
take comfort in the thought that on All
Souls' day each year their loved and
lost are free to tarry with them, and
devout persons therefore make it a
special point to go to church and take
communion in order that they may be
brought into closer fellowship with the
saints and souls of the church trium
phant who have passed beyond the
veil into the spirit's rest, but who on
this day are in special communion with
the living members of the church mili
tant.
There is probably a physical basis for
this ancient belief that mortals are in
some way better able at Halloween to
get into communication with the world
of spirits. Just as trees shed their
leaves and fruit in the autumn and pre
pare themselves for a different system
of living during the winter, so that
curious essence known as the life force
or vital tire which in man and animals
is more or less restrained or limited by
the Ave senses, may on or at>out Novem
ber 1 become less fettered and more
detachable owing to certain changes in
the biochemical equilibrium of the ele
ments necessary to its physical existence
during the winter. These may produce
in it a greater degree of sensitiveness to
psychic impressions.
That the psychic phenomena manifest
ed at Halloween had thfir root in natural
! causes seems evidenced by the Druids'
veneration for the festival at this season.
Pokornv says that the peculiar char
acter of the Druids was that of mighty
Borcerers, and is in complete contradic
tion to the conception of an Indo-Euro
pean priest. The Celts or Gael^ called
them "the supreme wise."
*
* ?
The Druids were also physicians and
rainmakers and were versed in the arts
of divination and prophesying. Their
skill as rainmakers was said to be such
that they could conjure up storm and
snow, they could turn day into night,
they could compel the wind and sea to
obey them and could cause Are and blood
to rain from the sky. So great was their
acknowledged power that even St. Pat
rick is said to have implored for himself
low eve. it is. to say the least, curious
to learn that the feast of Allhollows
was reputed to drive the Finns almost
out of their wits.
A good idea of the terrible creatures
whom various old traditions asserted
might be enoountered if one ventured out
on All hallow eve Is to be seen In
Schoengauer's (1420-1490) copper engrav
ing representing St. Anthony assaulted
by the devils. Naturally it would seem
that If a saint could be so tormented
the torments of a sinner would be be
yond description. The Finn, whether
pagan or Christian, who believed in the
possibility of actual spiritual manifesta
tions had cause to fear at Allhallow
tide, for if good he might fear the tor
ments of the spirts of evil on Allhal
low eve, and if bad he might fear the
retribution of the saints released on the
following day.
In parts of Scotland and Ireland it is
still believed that at Halloween the
bonds that hold soul and body together
are so relaxed that any one versed in
the mystic knowledge underlying Hal
loween rites or the druidecht science
can detach his soul from his own body
and roam where he will until the demons
return to their homes in the morning.
Similarly also the detachability of the
soul from the body on this night is said
to permit a person to summon to him or
her other souls, those of the living as
well as the dead. It is on this principle
that those rites are based which claim
to summon and make visible the soul
THE CUP-BEARER WOULD THEN POUR THE ALE INTO THE SEA WITH
AN APPROPRIATE ADDRESS.
the special protection of God against the
conjurations of the Druids.
The magical science of the Druids was
called the druidecht. Knowledge of it
is said to have. been best and longest
preserved in Alba (Scotland) just as the
magic art of the early inhabitants of
the Scandinavian peninsula was best
preserved among the Finns.
R. Much says that the Finns, who in
prehistoric times had occupied a large
portion of the Scandinavian peninsula,
were considered by the Invading Ger
mans as conjurers, so that old Norse
flnngert, literally Finnish work. Is un
equivocally used for witchcraft, and in
their own religion the wizard, the sha
man who mediates the relations between
men and gods, and may even coerce the
latter through his art into his service,
holds the central position.
So intimate was the knowledge which
the Finns were supposed to have of the
spirit world that in ancient times it is
daid that sailors would refuse to sail if
a native of Finland was on board, for
they believed that the Finns were in
league with the devil and could there
fore cause accidents.
*
* *
In connection with the traditional
ability of spirts to return at Allhal
of the future husband or wife of the
earnest Inquirer. Many of these rites
are too familifer to require repetition.
The essential feature of them all is that
the will of the experimenter or some per
son present decides and generally an
nounces in advance in what manner the
spirit shall manifest itself and reveal its
message if it has any. The will is the
really dominant factor controlling the
manifestation and can terminate it to a
great extent when it chooses. The ele
ments used or the other features of the j
system of divination practiced are mere
accessories that facilitate but do not
dominate the appearance of the soul
wraith or the delivery of its message.
*
* *
The Druids recognized the existence of
five elements, earth, air, fire and water,
to which they added a fifth element the
vital principle which they called "nev,"
and which some scientists today recog
nize and term vitalism and some the
animal soul. This is more or less subor
dinate to the will or spirit of man.
It seems to be a fundamental princi
ple that disembodied spirits can only
make their presence manifest to the or
dinary human intelligence by means of
one or more of the elements of *na'*?T"
These elements figure In all of the divi
nation systems used at Halloween.
In order to summon the spirits of tnose
drowned at sea it Is generally customary
in Scotland to go alone In the darkness
or moonlight, entirely without artificial
light, on All Hallows' Eve to the shore
of the sea or some body of water where
persons have been drowned. If the
would-be viewer of spirits has sufficient
will power and fearlessness to repress
the morbid feelings or fears that such
an environment usually inspires, and f
he determinedly persists in suIn?OI^!?S
the dead by the concentration of his win
power, it Is said that they will eventual
ly appear to him unless there is some
fault in him or unless they have eome
objection to him or his method of sum
moning them. ^ . ,
In this manner it is said that drowned
friends may be summoned and will ap
pear, unless the caller has in some way
wronged the spirit whom he
In such a case it is easy to see that a
more or less active consciousness of
guilt or a more or less latent fear of
reproach might make the
somewhat fear to see the very spirit
whom he desired to see, and he would
thus unconsciously fetter the dominant
action of his will whose vibrations or
emanations where needed to summon the
spirit. An experiment of this sort would
bo of doubtful success or satisfaction to
any one who had not a Earless splr t
and a clear conscience toward the spirit
summoned. Children born on Halloween
are popularly supposed to be endowea
with various mysterious faculties, J*Mch
include the faculty of seeing and speaK
ing with supernatural beings.
*
* *
Prom the most ancient times November
1 has been observed as a religious fes
tival in England. On or about this day
the ancient Druids, the priests of the
swarthy Britons, were accustomed to
hold a great autumn festival long be
fore the conquering Romans ever landed
In Britain. This festival was said to be
one of special thanksgiving for the
gathered harvest, and on this day old
fires were everywhere extinguished and
new fires were lighted in honor of the
sun god, to whose watchful care they
.believed that their life and its main
tenance were due. Later when the
Britons became Christianized, this func
tion of watching over and caring for
the faithful was ascribed to all the saints
in whose honof the festival was held on
the Bame day as that chosen tor the old
Druid sun festival.
In writing of the Druid customs Bor
lase said that the Druids, like the Per
sians, had also their solemn fires on the
eve of November, to which the people
were obliged to resort, and rekindle the
private fires in their houses from these
consecrated fires of the Druids, the do
mestic fire having been, for that pur
pose, first carefully extinguished: the
Ghavrl. of the ancient Persian religion,
have the same custom to this day.
The new Druid fire for the ensuing year
was kindled by the friction of two' great
planks rubbed one against the other un
til fire was produced. A pot full of water
was then set over U, and this water was
later sprinkled on the people, or on cat
tle infected with plague. This, the
Druids claimed, was shown by experience
to be successful.
*
* *
Borlase thought that it was very prob
able that the "tlnegin" or forced fire
not long since used in the isles as an an
tidote against the plague or murrain of
cattle is the remainder of a Druid cus
tom.
Borlase also mentions that the Persians
thought that their holy fire was the cause
of domestic plenty, and placed the sick
before It, thinking It of great and healing
virtue, and that the Druids probably had
the same opinion of it.
The custom of lighting fires at Hal
loween has until comparatively recent
years been kept up In Scotland and
Wales, parts of Great Britain, where the
descendants of the ancient Britons are
most numerous. A real or fancied rela
tion between it and the welfare of those
sitting around it led to the custom of
placing in the dying embers as many
small, stones as there were persons around
the fire. If in the, morning any pebble or
pebbleB were found displaced, it was con
sidered certain that the person whom the
displaced pebble had represented would
die within a year.
* *
The Druids had a curious belief that
on the eve before the Thanksgiving fes
tival in honor of the sun god the dla
bolical powers were stimulated to renew
their activities and make trouble, evi
dently to lessen If possible the thank
fulness of the devout. On the eve- of
October 31, therefore. Saman. the lord
of death, was believed to summon all
of the wicked souls that in the preced
ing year had been condemned to Inhabit
the bodies of animals. These agents of
mischief evidently became the witches
and hobgoblins and demons of later tra
ditions.
In parts of Ireland the eve of October
31 was and Is said still to be called
Oidhche Shamhna, meaning the "vigil
of Saman." The word "shaman," as ap
plied to wizards in Finland and else
where. Is probably derived from the same
original word or root as "Saman."
Before setting out to work mischief It
was believed In Scotland that all the
denizens of the spirit world, imps and
elves, fairies and hobgoblins, witches
and demons, assembled and anointed
themselves with the fat of a murdered
babe, who, however, must not have been
baptized. This was quite Important, for
necromancers generally And that the rite
of baptism or even the clothes of a bap
tized person Interfere with demoniac ac
tivity The fat was evidently a mere ele
ment necessary to assist In making
themselves visible to the eyes of any
mortal whom they chose.
After assembling and feasting the pow
ers of evil would then fly through space
on wing, or on cats or broomsticks, to
work mischief after until the cock crow
ed at dawn, when they would again as
semble and after dancing with their
backs to .one another, would scatter to
their haunts.
*
* *
The Christian recipe for avoiding the
evil spirits who were free to wander
around and work mischief on Hallows'
eve was to keep busy saying kind
things to all and to keep equally busy
doing kind deeds to those less fortu
nate than themselves. These charitable
words and deeds were supposed to
furnish ammunition to the souls about
to be released from purgatory on All
Saints' day, and with these spiritual
missiles the souls were said to be able
to stone the witches until they suc
ceeded in drawing a drop of red blood
and one of black poison from the left
shoulder of the tormenting witches and
thus prevented them from working
further mischief.
In the history of the world not over
eleven persons are reported to have
visited the infernal regions and to
have been able to return from it. Of
these, Christ only was able to con
quer all the forces of death and helL
As the gates of hell are said to be
opened at Halloween, it is well to con
sider what the early Christian church
believed was the appearance of the
creatures guarding the gates of hell.
From the Pistis Sophia, which embodied
the doctrines of the ^Christian Gnostics
of the third century, the following de
tails are taken from a complete ac
count said to have been given by
Christ to His mother after His descent
into hell and His triumphant return
from it and resurrection from the
grave.
The outer darkness of hell was said
to be surrounded by a huge dragon
with its tail in its mouth. Hell it
self had many regions of punishment,
of which there were twelve chief
dungeons of horrible torment, each
with a separate ruler, with the face
of a different animal.
?
* *
Each of these rulers of the twelve
dungeons within the dragon of outer
darkness had a name for every hour
and each changed its face every hour.
Each dungeon had a door which opened
to the height, and an angel of the
height watched at each of the doors of
the dungeons to keep the dragon and
the different rulers from turning the
dungeons upside down. Over each
door was said to be one of the twelve
authentic names of the dragon, but
they were all so contained in one an
other that "he who uttereth one name
uttejeth all."
Even from these brief outlines, it is
easy to see that an assemblage of even
a small detachment of these hideous
creatures, either under the leadership of
Beelzebub, who is here called the prince
of hell, or of Satan, who is called the
prince and captain of death, would be a
gruesome sight. It is not surprising,
therefore, that in former times for one
reason or another the faithful stayed
indoors on Halloween or spent the night
at church to invoke for the souls of the
living and dead the protection of Christ,
who had conquered death and who was
believed to have the keys of death and
nell, and was therefore able to subdue
and lock up the wandering creatures of
hell or the guardians of its dungeons, i
*
? *
A curious Halloween custom was long
observed on the Isle of Lewis, and the
ministers there had difficulty In persuad
ing the people to abandon it even after
they were Christianized. This custom
consisted in going by night to the Church
of 8L Mulvay. From the church one of
their number would march out into the
sea until he was up to his waist in water.
In his hand he would carry a cup of
ale especially brewed for this occasion
from malt donated by the inhabitants of
the Island, each family contributing a
peck of malt as Its quota. When waist
deep In the water the cupbearer would
pour the ale into the sea with an ap
propriate propitiatory address to a sea
god whom they call'ed Shony, a name
which may have been a corruption of the
Irish Shamhna, whose vigil the Druids
thought was held on this eve. Shony was
believed to have an Influence over the
love divinations on Halloween seems
to be of Roman origin and connected
with the worship of Pomona, the god
dess of the harvest of fruits, especially
of garden fruits. Her name was derived
from the Latin word for apple,
"pomum," and a sacred jrrove dedicated
to her in the Ager Solonlus at Ostla
wan called the Pomonal. She was fre
quently represented as a beautiful
maiden bearing fruits in her bosom
and carrying a pruning knife in her
hand.
Pomona's romance seems to have in
spired various Roman poets to write of
her. Ovid says that she was a fair, but
cold nymph, who was too much Inter
ested in her care of the trees in gen
eral to have any interest to spare for
love or lovers. One of these lovers was
called Vertumnus. He was called the
transformer, whose business is was to
ripen the fruits which Pomona cared
for. As a natural result of their similar
interests Vertumnus fell in love with
Pomona, but she cared little for him,
although he sought to woo her under
many different gruises. As a last resort
he took the fori 1 of an old woman and
managed to' secure the unsuspecting
nymph's attention. He then tried to
frighten her by telling her of the sad
fates of those who like her had despised
love. This aroused Pomona's Interest,
but not her love. While this warning
was still in Iwr mind Vertumnus dis
guised himself as a youth of perfect
beauty, evidently symbolical (f the
SUMMONING THE SPIRITS OP THE DROWNED.
crops and naturally must have had some
influence over the sea where he dwelt. .
When the ale-pouring and propitiatory
remarks were concluded, the cupbearer
would rejoin those whose interests he had
represented, and all would then return
to St. Mulvay's Church, where for a
moment they would preserve absolute
silence. Then at a given signal the can
dle on the altar would be extinguished,
and the company would proceed to the
fields to spend the rest of the night in
revelry.
The ancient Saxons called November
the "Wlnt-monat," or the wind month,
because of the gales of wind so preva
lent in the waters around Great Britain
at .this season. So severe were the No
vember winds in the northern seas of
Europe that evem the hardy Scandina
vians were accustomed to pull their
boats ashore and avoid exposure to the
elements until more genial weather. On
the eve of this windy month of No
vember the propitiation of the sea and
the sea-god must have seemed an
eminently fitting and wise proceeding
to the old mariners of the British
Isles.
The use of apples and methods for
beauty of the perfectly ripened fruits,
and in this guise he at last won her
affection, and after her union with him
the two were inseparable in tradition.
*
# *
The husband of Pomona in old legends
is also variously called Pomonus, Picus,
Picumnus or Vertumnus. Pomona was
especially a goddess of the ancient
Latins, while the neighboring ancient
Umbrians recognized a masculine god,
Pomonus. Since pairs of divinities were
not uncommon in the primitive irellgion
of Rome, it is supposed that the Po
monus of the UVnforian^ was identical
with ?ertumnus. and was the surviving
remnant of the worship of a pair of
divinities connected with the harvest of
fruits, especially apples. It is possible
that with this myth fragments of the
story of Adam and Eve have been min
gled.
The name of Picus or Picumnus some
times given to Pomona's husband pos
sibly represents a personification of some
of the factors necessary for the ripening
of fruits. As a god he was said to have
been a rustic deity, who was especially
concerned with the fertilization of the
soil. Ovid says that Clrre raw him ont
day whfn he *as out hunting and fell tn
love with him When she found that ha
did not reciprocate her affections sha
changed him Into a woodpecker, and his
purple doat with a golden clasp was
changed Into the woodpecker's plumage.
The original of these myths of Ptcus
or Picumnus. seems to have been an
actual personage, who was famous as an
augur and soothsayer. He is said to
have been the first king of Latlum. the
son of Saturn, and the father of Faunus.
According to Virgil, one of his descend
ants. Latinus. received the ambassadors
of Aeneas after the Trojan war.
?
* *
The festival of All Saints ss well as its
vigil on the evening before it was In
Great Britain generally observed by a
certain sort of feasting for whtch apples,
nuts and a dish called lamb's wool, frtileb
was a corruption of Lamas UbhaL the
old name for Halloween. These three
foods were considered Indispensably
An old account says that In. Notting
ham, in 1774. lamb's wool was prepared
by roasting apples on a suing until they
dropped down Into a large bowl of spiced
ale. In Ireland, where it was a constant
feature of the merriment of Holy Eve or
Halloween, it was made by bruising
roasted apples and mixing them with
milk. White wine was frequently sub
stituted for the ale or milk, and Brand
says that apples and nuts were frequent
ly added to the lamb's wool as a neces
sary part of the entertainment.
In ancient England It was the custom
on All Hallows' day or Hallowmas for
poor people and Deggars to go "a-soul
j Ing," as it was called This phrase and
I the habit of soul-hunting at this time
| merely indicated that the people who
i went "a-souling" simply went around to
| others asking for money and promising
| In return to "fast for the souls of the
j donors of the alms or their kinsfolk "
It was a custom among the richer Cath
olics in certain shires of England to dis
pense cakes of oaten bread to the poor,
and they "in retribution of their charity
felt themselves obliged to repeat this old
couplet ;
God have your wool.
Beans and all.
These loaves In the Cleveland country
were called "sau'mas loaves." evidently
a corruption of Sainana's loaves. They
were "sets of square farthing cakcs with
currants in the center, commonly given
by bakers to their customers." It was
the custom to keep them In the house for
good luck, as was the case with Good
Friday bread and cross-buns. The use
of seedcakes at All Hallows was also
customary in Warwickshire.
?
* *
In Latin countries of Europe it has
long been the custom for the living to
visit the graves of their departed rela
tives or friends on All Souls' day and
leave flowers or a visiting card for the
returning spirits to see. In Naples, as
a courtesy to the visiting spirits, evan
the charnel houses were Illuminated with
torches and decorated with flowers on
this day and the skeletons were dressed
in order that they might suitably receive
the visits of their living and dead visit
ors, and were then arranged around the
walls in niches. Thus placed, they held
a reception all day long to the crowds of
living visitors who came to pay their re
spects to them.
The hospitality to the returning spirits
was still further extended at Salerno a
few centuries ago, for it-was then the cus
tom for the living not only to turn their
houses over to the spirits, but in each Of
the private homes sumptuous banquets
were provided for the souls of the depart
ed to enjoy in their brief return to former
scenes, and all the living residents of the
house would then leave the house and
spend the entire night at church so that
they might not in any way, shape or man
ner disturb the spirits in their enjoyment
of these feasts. It was considered very
unlucky if any of the food provided was
found uneaten in the morning.
In Malaga the poor people who evident
ly could not afford to provide sumptuous
feasts for their departed friends would
decorate their beds and remain outside of
their rooms all night, so that the spirits
might have a comfortable night's rest
while the living outside the doors ate
. boiled chestnuts and remained awake all
night to guard them.
&unbap jflommg ?alfe.
%
Jforgtoeness.
ffip ^arbtp ft. irtom.
"Forgive and ye shall be forgiven."?Luke. 6:37.
^|KHE cultivation of the spirit of forgiveness is transcendently im
Vi/ portant. for the reason that all need to he forgiven, and so all
need to forgive. Every one receives offense and every one gives
offense.
Many are quick to take offense and slow to
forgive. The danger in nursing a feeling of un
forgiveness is that it so often leads to crime.
The great object of forgiveness is to deliver both
ourselves and others from the evils which are in
separable from hatred and revenge.
The common ordinary mind knows only le
venge for wrongs or injuries received; but the
superior mind knows that revenge is both futile
and criminal.
To return evil for evil brings the offended 011 a level with the
offender.
The superior soul knows that the best way of avenging him
self is not to become like the wrongdoer.
An old Spanish writer said: "To return evil for good is devilish;
to return good for good is human; but to return good for evil is God
like."
How often shall one trangress against us before we cease to
forgive him?
At what point does patience cease to be a virtue?
These are very old questions. But surely patience can never
be anything else than a virtue. W e may cease to have it, but a
virtue is immortal and cannot cease.
[The ancient rabbis declared that forgiveness was to be extended
three times and after that the good man's wrath might be justly
visited upon the offender. It was doubtless in view of this rule that
Peter suggested an advance on the old conception by inquiring of the
Master if seven acts of forgiveness would not cover the full limit of
forbearance.
The answer he received took this question of morals out of
mathematical calculations.
"Not until seven times, but until sev
enty times seven."
These words could only mean that acts
of forgiveness were not limited to any
number?no matter how often the of
fense, seven times or seventy times sev
fn. it was to be met in a spirit of love,
forgiveness and help. Such is the Christ
law of forgiveness.
"His heart waa as great as the world,
but there was no room in it to hold the
memory of a wrong."
Forgiving is not only a duty, but a
privilege, affording the richest pleasure
to the soul.
Hare vou never felt tbe pleasure of forgiving
fraud or wroug.
Rippling through your soul like measure sweet of
sweetest poet's song?
Have you sever felt that beauty lies in pain for
others borne?
That tbe sacivdness of duty bids you offer love
for scorn?
'Tis the Christian, not the stoic, that best tri
umphs over palac
The principle of forgiveness is a dis
tinctive Christian grace. It was but little
known and pracUced In olden times.
Then the rule was, "eye for eye, tooth
for a tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot,
burning for burning, wound for wound,
stripe for stripe."
Christianity teaches that we are not to
render to any one evil for evil or railing
for railing, but contrariwise blessing.
It is a hard saying, and incomprehensi
ble to the worldly minded, that it is a
duty to forgive, even to love, our ene
mies; yet there can be no higher eoncep
Uon of nobility in life than such a dispo
sition. It does not mean to love their
enmity, or the spirit that prompts it, but
to have a loving and brotherly interest
in their personal welfare. It Is compre
hended in having a good conscience to
ward all men; that whereas they apeak
evil of you, as of evildoers, they may be
ashamed and repent that falsely accuse
your good conversation. -
The forgiving spirit is what attracts
most to a recognition of the good that is
in the Christian life. If we seek for
that which we call justice in getting
eveti with those who speak or do evil
against us, we shall not do well for our
selves or for them.
Shakespeare says:
Tbougfc^Justice be thy plea, consider this?
T1?at iu the course of justice none of us
Should see salvation: we do pray for mercy;
And that same prayer doth teach us all to render
The deeda of mercy.
The unforgiving cannot sincerely pray
the Lord's prayer.
If God should grant their petition wHen
they aslc that He "forgive them their
trespasses as they forgive those who
trespass against them," what would be
their condition?
To get what they asked for would be
a curse, not a blessing.
Archbishop Augustus Hare gives a fbrm
of prayer such as the unforgiving man
really offers every time he repeats the
Lord's prayer.
"O God, I have sinned against Thee
many times; I have often been forget
ful of Thy goodness; I have broken Thy
laws; I have committed many secret sins.
Deal with me, I beseech Thee, O Lord,
even as I deal with my neighbor. He
hath not offended me one-hundredth part
as much as I have offended Thee, but I
cannot forgive him. He has been very
ungrateful to me, though not an hun
dredth part as I have been to Thee; yet
I cannot overlook such base ingratitude.
Deal with me, O Lord, I beseech Thee, as
I deal with him. I remember and treasure
up every little trifle which show? how ill
he has behaved to me. Deal with me, I
beseech Thee, O Lord, as I deal with
him."
How shocking and horrible such a
prayer wotild be, yet it is in efTect the
attitude toward God of one who refuses
to forgive his neighbor, and yet prays,
"Forgive me my debts as I forgive my
debtors."
God forgives to the uttermost. Why
should not man?
To forgive wrongs darker than tbe death of night;
To defy power which seems omnipotent;
To tore and bear; to hope till hope creates
From its own wrack the thing It contemplates;
Neither to change, to faher, nor repent.
This like thy glory. Titan, la to be
Good, great and Joyous, beautiful and free;
This is alone life. Joy, empire and victory.
At a recent meeting of the board of
officers of the Christian Endeavor Union
it was decided to begin holding a series
of monthly president's conferences, to
begin the last Monday evening in No
vember. Presidents and vice presidents
of Christian Endeavor societies will be
Invited to these conferences.
& Challenge to Noting Jflen.
HE situation in China today, It is
declared, offers a great challenge
to the educated Christian men of
America. It calls for the best of our uni
versity graduates to reinforce the telling
work of those already in the field. Within
the next fifty years men are tp be trained
who are capable of leading 350,000,000
people.
"The Chinese leaders are face to face
with the greatest task which ever con
fronted men in authority," say's Prof.
Treat, a profound student of history,
after two visits to the orient, where he
had opportunity of studying at first hand
the trend of Chinese political and social
movements.
"But the chalenge is not alone to those
who can work in China in person," says
the Spirit of Missions. "Evejry church
man who appreciates the importance of
Christian education, every churchman
who realizes that the security of his home
and to a large extent the possibility of
his business rests upon a Christian foun
dation, must, if he be true to his profes
sion, endeavor to identify himself with
the church's educational" enterprises In
the orient."
"Western civilization," says Prof. Treat
again, "in its richest development is
Christian civilization. The successful so
lution of China's problem will require
men with knowledge and spirit to grap
ple with difficult political and economic
(Cisfttp million ?ittoucljtb
Cfjtlbrtn.
HERE are over 80,000,000 Moslem
children in the world, and Miss Von
Mayer, writing from Samarkand, says:
"I shall gather information as to num
bers, education and morality of children
here, but I cannot contribute anything
as to the religious work done, for not
a single one of the one and a half mil
lion Moslem children in this field, at any
time or any where, comes into contact
with Christianity." It is an undeniable
fact that Moslem childhood has had a
pitifully small share hitherto In the
ministry of the Cnristlan Sabbath school.
I questions. China may easily take upon
herself a veneer of western civilization,
but it will take men with a realization of
the need of Christian civilization to lead
China out Into a worthy national destiny.
China's past educational system has not
produced such men. For centuries the
best brains of the nation toiled laboriously
through long years of study, and through
somewhat grotesque, if searching, exami
nations to win political place and power, j
?But Chinese officials, though highly edu-;
cated, have been notoriously corrupt.
This condition is the inevitable result of
divorce between mental and moral train
ing. The mere recasting of China's edu
cational system into a western mold will
not in itself produce the type of leader
ship ^?e orient needs."
ftemarfeable jSbbrrtigement
HE "Neglected Continent" records
a very unique advertisement which
is in use by Nestor Escobar, a crente
In Goyaz, who was converted a. few
years ago by means of a Bible given
to him by a missionary. Escobar is
the proprietor of a popular pharmacy
and he advises his many customers
ai\d the public in general that a
good supply of material medicines,
prepared by chemical processes and
pharmacists in laboratories of high
standing, may be found in his estab
lishment. These, he reminds the pub
lic, are for the healing of bodily sick
ness, but are often of uncertain effect.
He adds that he has in stock also a
large quantity of spiritual medicines
of certain result and not made by the
hands of man. These are the Holy
Scriptures, which are the power and
wisdom of God for the salvation of
those who repent of their sins and
give themselves to Jesus Christ, the
only savior of sinners.
The material medicines as well as
the spiritual are sold at any hour, at
low prices, and are furnished freely
to the poor. Then follow in large type
seven texts from the Scriptures.
? ? * *
Home mission week for the most of
the Protestant churches of the country
will be held November !?-?.
2MIy Bap*.
t9tF* HERB are two days in the week upon which and about which I
tIL never worry, two golden days kept sacredly free from fear and ap
prehension. One of these is Yesterday. Yesterday, with all its cares
and frets, with all its pains and sorrows, has passed forever beyond my
control, beyond the reach of my recall. I cannot undo an act that I
wrought; I cannot recall a word that I said; I cannot calm a storm that
raged on Yesterday. All that it holds of my life, of regret or sorrow, or
wrong, is in the hands of the Mighty Love that can bring oil out of rock
and sweet waters out of the bitter desert?the Love that can make the * |
wrong things right, and turn mourning into laughter. Save for the beau
tiful memories, sweet and tender, that linger like perfume of dried roses
in the heart of the day that is gone, I have nothing to do with Yesterday.
It was mine; now it belongs to Qod. And the other day I don't worry
over is Tomorrow. Tomorrow, with all its possible cares, its burdens,
its sorrows, its perils, its poor performances and its bitter mistakes, is
as far beyond my reach of mastership as is its dear sister, Yesterday. Its
sun will rise in roseate splendor, or behind a gloomy mask of weeping
clouds. But it will rise. And it will be God's day. It is God's day. It
will be mine. Save tox the star of hope that gleams forever on the brow
of Tomorrow, I have no possession in Tomorrow. All else is in the safe
keeping of the same infinite Love that holds for me the treasures of Yes
terday. I can trust all that Tomorrow holds for me, in the Love that la
wider than the skies and deeper than the seaa There is left for myself,
then, nothing but Today. And any man can fight the battle of Today.
Any man can carry the burdens of just this one day. Any man can resist
Today's temptations. This is the strength, then, that makes the way of
my pilgrimage joyous. I think, and I do, and I Journey but one day at a
time. And while I do that God the Almighty and the All-loving takes
care of Yesterday and Tomorrow. ROBERT J. BURDETTE. ,
little jjetos of Pig in
terest.
EV. JOHN ROGERS GUNN, a
S\ pastor of New York city, has opened
a night school of theology, through
which he hopes to reach and help young
men of that city who are looking to the
Christian ministry- It will be open to
young men of all denominations.
* * * *
The College Church of Tokio. with a
membership of 1,000 students, has called
as Its pastor a Japanese pas tor from
Seattle* Wash. ^
iHtMionaries fUarooneb.
^?TELEGRAMS received by the board
^ of missions bring the information
that Rev. J. P. Lancaster and family
of Torreon had been marooned on their
way from Torreon to Monterey, and
later that he and his family had
reached Monterey and that they would
leave Monday for Georgia. Mr. Lan
caster's home. Mr. Lancaster has
stood bravely by without fear during
the scenes that have gone on In and
around Torreon. His situation haa
given concern to the board of missions
and this news bring*. | ~

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