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FAIR IS GUAYAQUIL
BUT A DEADLY SPOT Terror of Yellow Fever Even Lurks in Beautiful Port of Ecuador. GREED OF MERCHANTS BAR TO IMPROVEMENT Bepnt&tion at a Peat Hole Seeps Out Competition and They Proiper. BY CHARLES M. PEPPER. GUAYAQUIL. October 13, 1013. Guayaquil is so fair to look upon that on*- wonders whether it is not really the paradise of the tropics. Coming up the Guayas river, there is a perpetual pano rama of green on either side. The hills beyond Duran, where the railway starts on its elinjb over the Andes to Quito, are draped with emerald verdure. From the deck of the steamship anchored in mid stream. the city itself flashes with color. Yet Guayaquil is one of the world's plague spots, and for half a century has had a reputation for unhealthiness that has been unsurpassed by any port in the orient. The indifference shown by the rich community which controls its destiny has added to its ill fame. Ma larial fevers are merely incidents of liv ing in this swampy region, and the na tives themselves are not exempt. Small pox may almost be said to be endemic, although it prevails with the usual mild ness of this disease in the tropics. Yellow Fever the Terror. Yellow fever is the malady which has given Guayaquil Its terror- In former days, when Panama and other west coast ports were infected, Guayaquil always could be counted on to make a worse showing. though this was not admitted. Guayaquil itself frequently presented a defensive front against the other ports, as it does now" occasionally, especially if there happens to be acute political ques tions at issue with neighboring countries. The humor of these defensive measures is not always apparent to travelers coming from other ports on the west coast. Ten or twelve years ago some of us who had come from Panama and thought we were going to get up into the interior to Quito were made to feel the humor of being turned back and not allowed to land be- j cause we might bring the fever. There were Just a do^en cases in Guayaquil Hospital at that time. Notwithstanding the high mortality , rate for strangers there always has been a foreign colony in Guayaquil, survivors of those adventurous commercial pioneers who wanted to share In the prize of its rich commerce. The people of Guayaquil may nevcir have quite deserved the repu tation given them of cynical indifference to the dangers to which the foreigners were exposed, but they were philosophical about it Though everybody who came from beyond tlte equatorial region was exposed to the Infection, the view (hat the inhabitants took was that it was his own affair if he chose to take these chances. This may be one reason why Guayaquil differs from the other west coast ports in the extent to which its commerce and financial interests have been kept in native hands. Gradually the foreigners have crept in and have got their share of the cacao or chocolate bean trade, and also of the coffee and other tropical products. One-flfth of the chocolate which the world consumes is produced in Ecuador. Large Foreign Colony. The foreign colony is now quite numerl ous. which is evidence that some of those who came from a healthy world outside have survived. One of these, an Ameri can. has often thrown open his home to his stricken fellow-countrymen, and he does not care to say how often he has had to notify friends or relatives in the states of the outcome. Another foreigner, a European, after forty years' residence in Guayaquil, finds himself surrounded by a patriarchal band, and declares that it is not a bad place In which to rear children and grandchildren. He had the fever the first year he came, and, having survived, became a philosopher. A fa vorite bit of philosophy he takes from Swinburne's "Garden of Proserpine": From much Io*e <?f living. Krvin Iioim- h ml fear set free. This European has Seen how Guayaquil can cure the newcomers of too much love of living. "The Houseboats on the Styx"' also enters Into his philosophy, al though the Guayas river is hardly com parable to the Styx. It is broad and deep and has a swift current. . Guayaquil's yellow-fever record con tains the names of some notable victims. When Thomas Xast, the cartoonist, found his career ended and sought a po sition in the consular service the only place John Hay could find for him was at Guayaquil. Nast came down to a j<assing steamer one day to greet an American minister going down to Chile. He spent the day on board the steamer, drew a funny picture of himself as con sul at Guayaquil and presented it to the minister. When the latter arrived at hfe post he read in the newspapers of Nast's death from yellow fever. Maj. John A Harman. a retired officer ?f the Engineering Corps of the United States Army, whose engineering genius made the construction of that railway possible, lived long enough to see his studies verified and the rails carried over the most difficult section of the Andes. Then, one day when he was directing the work out on the road he complained of ill ness and in four days was buried, a vic tim of th?' fev?-r. Scores of men. some of them bright young Americans, who, in humble capacity, helped build this call way, met the same fate. Mosquito's Deadly Bite. Dr. Whitman, a capable officer of the United States marine hospital service, or the public health service, as It now is, one day was ordered from' Callao to Guayaquil. He has made a reputation from his studies of the bubonic plague. He remarked that his new field doubt less would give him a chance to extend his res? arches Into yellow fever. A few months later he said one day that he feared an infected mosquito had bitten him. Within five days he was buried. A year or more ago revolutionary event* mad? the presence of the Ameri can gunboat, the Yorktown, in Ecuado rian waters necessary. The necessity for its presence had Just passed and the Yorktown was about to depart for other waters when Commander Bartelotte was stricken with the fever and died. Instances of 'his kind tend to accen tuate the suggestion that the sanitation of Guayaquil may not be purely a domes tic matter. Bubonic plague did po; reach Guavaquil till long after it ravaged Bombav and other ports of the Orient, although such a pesthole would be hospitable to its early coming. It had been epidemic at various points on tl.e west coast, from Panama to Valparaiso before it found its way up the Guayas river. Payta, in northern Peru, almost at Guayaquil's front door, had been devastated bv it and the procession of victims being tiken to the hospital while others were carried out to burial, was a common sight from the decks of the vessels which were In that period anchored out in Payta bav Some observers said that the bubonic spared Guayaquil because it could not fight Its way in against the other plagues The municipality maintained that its own excellent sanitary service and its rigid quarantine kept out the bubonic But one day the plague appeared, and with virulence. Passengers on one of the steamers coming up from Callao heard that it was epidemic. Fairly *t fective measures were adopted largely through the activity of the government at Quito. Dr. Lloyd, the American Ma rine Hospital physician, then on duty in Guayaquil, was employed by the muni i cipality with the sanction of the govern ment and was given pretty broad powers. A campaign of rat extermination was be gun, and many of the wretched shacks in which th? poor class lived were burned. It looked for a time as if, in consequence of the preventive measures against-, bubonic, there might be a new and sanitary Guayaquil. But as the epi demic gradually exhausted itself and the esses became sporadic, the zeal was les sened. until the port again be.caxne nor mal in its utihealthlness and with no greater mortality from the bubonic cases than at other west cQ&st' ports. Better Things With Canal. Viewed from the Guayaquil standpoint, the sanitary situation is not bad at the present time. There is no epidemic and west coast steamers are in and out uninterruptedly. The rigid quarantine maintained at Panama by the American canal officials sets a standard which can not be ignored, but no harbor wo-ks and other improvements have yet been under taken and no sanitary measures adopted which will enable Guayaquil to be placed on a level with Havana, Panama and Rio de Janeiro as ports where yellow fever is under control. The opening of the Panama canal to traffic will require-the adoption of some pych measures. Ecua dor might feel that she could isolate her self from the world and retard her own development, but it is not possible that a plague port so near to the canal can exist Indefinitely. Plans for harbor improvements and | sanitation h$ve been Under consideration ' for years. Some of them were little more I than temporary schemes, while others were scientific and comprehensive and were the result of technical studies by competent engineers. Two or three times contracts have been made, but they have come to nothing. The last one, a conces sion held by a French company, lapsed a year ago. In some o f the plans evidences of thrift were shown. One, for instance, provided for a large quantity of drain pipes to carry off the rainfall. Somebody was said to have an option on a supply of pipe of a certain size. The specification was based on the undoubted fact that by di viding the annual rainfall by twelve, the average monthly rainfall would be ob tained. It was pointed out that this sys tem of averages would not work in this case since the heavy rainfall is confined I to a period of about four months, and the pipe must be large enough for that period. The cardinal obstacle in all the efforts to secure the proper sanitation for Guaya quil such as would be a protection to the west coast commerce, as well as to the community itself, has not been the cen tral government at Quito, but the city of Guayaquil. In the existing circumstances, the trade of the country is at the mercy of a small group or clique of wealthy men. The total commerce amounts to $22,000,000, and approximately 90 per cent of this passes through Guayaquil. The minor ports have tried to get some of it, but they make little headway. Keeps Out Competition. The group in control is satisfied, ap parently. So are a few of the foreigners, who regard the yellow fever as an asset ! in keeping out competition. i Before the railway was built to Quito, Guayaquil was practically a separate commonwealth and was politically inde pendent of the capital. The railway has given the government at Quito a better grasp of the situation, yet Guayaquil is still a powerful political factor and. if not always ready to openly defy the Quito government, has various means of thwarting it. Sanitary affairs have been largely controlled by the local junta or health board, which is backed by the mu nicipality itself. The inability of the Quito government to secure the co-operation of the junta in carrying out its measures, although the sanitation of Guayaquil is recognized as national and not municipal, usually has resulted in a deadlock. During the last two years the influence of the United States has been quietly ex ercised to persuade the government of Ecuador to solve the Guayaquil situation. The Panama canal has been regarded as a sufficient justification, and the experi ence 1n cleaning up the isthmus and keeping Colon and Panama free from yellow fever was an object lesson. At the request of the Ecuadorian govern ment a commission of experts, headed by Col. W. C. Gorgas, visited Guayaquil and made a thorough study of the condi tions. The report of Col. Gorgas is elaborate and Supplements the technical reports previously made by engineering experts. It expresses no doubts as to the ability to establish and maintain a healthy port. Contracting firms have had their representatives on the ground. V\ ashington is reported to be exercising persuasive pressure to have the work done by Americans, but the point has not yet been reached where a contract has been awarded. The seneral plan for im provements includes the extension of the present water, sewerage, drainage and paving systems, and possibly the widen ing of the river wall, which extends the whole length of the city. These im provements ultimately are to cost *12, ."?00,000. Provision has been made for a ten-million-dollar loan, vrtth the custom revenues as security. The question which blocks the contract is whether Quito or Guayaquil shall handle the funds. Ecuador's Future at Stake. The future of Ecuador, if it is to have a future, depends largely on the sanita tion of Guayaquil. Whether the city shall remain for some years longer a plague port, denying itself the benefits of the canal, is not entirely a domestic matter, but its present determination rests with Ecuador. The country wants railways built, and the administration of President Plaza is exerting itself to secure their construction. The congress h^s authorized various railway loans rather more than can be absorbed in the immediate future. Yet some of the proj ects are of commercial practicability and would Justify the investment of foreign capital. But this capital will not be ob tained until it is shown that the traffic w hich may be developed will not be ham pered by Guayaquil's isolation from the commercial currents of the world. The west coast countries are now in terested in the movement to open up a water and rail highway from the head waters of the Amazon to the Pacific A large section of the interior of the South American continent has a vast economic future if these plans are car ried out, and the country which opens the first highway ty the Amazon head waters will command the situation. Ecuador has a historical short route The naked painted Indians from the Napo. who sometimes wander up the passes of the cordilleras and into Quito know the water courses and the nioun ^ trails which would opsn up com inunication. Preliminary engineering reconnoissances .also have been made by explorers. The rubber of a large rfcglon requires an outlet from these Amazonian regions to the Pacific, but it will not find its way out through Guayaquil in the present circumstances The Ecuadorian government hate had some plans for immigration, though rather vague, and a project has been held of a movement of population-from southern Europe. There Is no room for immigrants on the table lands of the Andes, up in the clouds, where barley and other cereals of the temperate zone are cultivated. These districts barely afford subsistence enough for the native Indian population The vallevs beyond are carable of colonization, and are not unhealthy for races from north of the equatDr. N*o immigration movement can be expected unless means of communica tion are opened up from the coast and Guayaquil is robbed of its terrors a* a pest hole. Reputation Widely Known. Its reputation is known in southern Europe, and immigrants .anqot he in duced to pa^s through it. There are other reasons why the sanitation of Guayaquil is a rather crucial question for Ecuador at the present time, but they are not necessary to enumerate. It has been claimed that the interest of the I'nlted States in cleaning up the plague port is a detriment, because of the anti-American feeling prevalent in Ecuador. Even if this were trje it would not be a sufficient reason for the administration at Washington neglectinir a duty which the Panama canal has mad* imperative. But the prospect of sanitation is not the cause of anti American feeling, possibly because a large section of the Ecuadorian republic does not take it very seriously. A disturbing factor in the present situation is the controversy growing out of the Guayaquil and Quito rail way. Engineering construction of the road was the achievement of the late MaJ. Harman. but the financial genius who got It through was his brother Archer Harman.' who was thrown from his horse j^jid killed in Virginia two A Charge Account Is Your Privilege 10% Discount on Accounts Closed in 30 Days Good Goods At Low Prices This Buffets This Large Quartered Oak Buffet, $36.75 Large Quartered Oak Buffet like the illustration to the right; it has four large drawers and two cupboards. One of the drawers is lined with felt to form a sliver drawer; it has two other small drawers and one large one which may be used for storing of table linen. It Is a very pleasing claw-foot design and has a large French plate glass mirror surmount ed by a carved ornament that gives a very rich effect. It is highly polished throughout. 409 TO 417 SeJvekhi St. KW Phone Main 2826 Motion Bed including Thick Felt Mattress . The illustration to the left shows our One-motion Davenport that is transformed from a handsome Davenport by day to a comfortable bed at night by a single silent motion. Upon opening it a pure cotton felt mattress is disclosed, which rests upon a separate spring from that which supports the upholstery, so that you do not sleep on and wear out the upholstery or its supporting springs. When opened it makes a bed 6 feet long and 47 inches wide that is unrivaled for convenience and comfort. This Two-Motion Bed Davenport,4C|A 7C With Wardrobe Box, Genuine Boston Leather Bed Davenport, like the illustration to the right. It has a large wardrobe box under the seat which may be used for the storing of bed clothing during the day. This davenport is converted from a handsome davenport to a comfortable bed simply by lifting the seat. This allows the back to fall, leaving a full-sized bed that is comfortable, as well as attrac tive. Dining Chairs This Slip Seat Oak Chair, $2.49 - The Solid Oak Dining Chair shown in the illustration to the left is made of solid oak, well polished, and with imitation leather slip seat. It Is of box-seat construction, and is well glued, making it a very substantial chair. The heavy cross stretchers which join the legs add much to the beauty and strength of the chair. ? Chiffoniers This Golden Oak Chiffonier, $4.98 Solid Golden Oak Chiffonier, like the illustra tion to the right. It has tive large, roomy draw ers that are dovetailed and glued to make them substantial, and paneled ends that assure rigid ity of construction. It is nicely polished, has wood pulls 011 all drawers, and Is nicely finished at the top with a neat carving. A wonderfully substantial chiffonier, and a bargain at the price. Reed Rockers This Large Reed Rocker, $1.98 Full Roll Reed Rocker, like the Illustra tion to the left. It is nicely shellac .finished in the natural reed color, and is made very substantial by the extension of the large roll from the back of the rocker to the bottom of each leg. This insures rigidity of construc tion, which Is helped much by the cross stretchers, which hold the legs in place. $27.50 For This Wonderful "McDougall" Kitchen Cabinet. The McDougall Kitchen Cabinet shown in the ilfustration above has a full sliding nickel-plated top, which doubles the working space .if de sired. It has removable flour bin. as well as sugar bin. It Is raised on sanitary legs, which allows you to sweep under the cabinet. In the base there is a large cupboard for kitchen utensils, as well as bread, cake and cutiery drawers. It Is constructed of solid oak throughout, and has a seven-piece set of glass cereal and spice jars. On the door of the base there is a tow*l and utensil rack, with a space for a breadboard. 44 New Dandy" Ranges Our "New Dandy" Ranges are known as be ing famous for their baking. They are well made, and can be had with or without the mantel sh?lf. They can be arranged to burn either wood or coal, and are very economical. Large No. 8 "New Dandy," With Mantel Shelf, $27.75 Large "New Dandy" Range, like the illustration to the left. It has six eight-inch lids and a shelf on the end. The mantel shown in the illustration Is Included at the above price. The oven is very large and is a good baker. The firebox is brick lined, and the stove will prove to be very economical in the use of fuel. Heating Stoves This Is the time of year when heating stoves are needed to take the chill off the room these cool mornings. You will find that we are amply prepared to take care of you in this respect. Our line is wonderfully complete, showing all ' kinds of heating stoves, from the largest down to the smallest. It will pay you to take a look. This Excellent Oak Heater, Four Feet High, $ 10.98 Large Oak Heater, like the illustration to the right. It stands four feet high, and has an iron firepot large enough to hold fire to heat several rooms. The body of the stove itself is of plan ished steel, nickel trimmed, and finished ofT with a neat ornament at the top. It has a large ash pan, and the drafts allow the fire to be turned either up or down without danger of going out. Dressers A Regular $22.50 Mahogany-Finish Dresser, $18.75 A beautiful pattern in a mahogany-finish dresser Is shown in the Illustration to the left. It lias two swell top drawers and two other large drawers, and is fitted throughout with wood drawer pulls. The heavy French plate mirror is in round shape and is sup-, ported by two gracefully turned standards. Kitchen Cabinet Table This Large Kitchen Cabinet Table, $6.98 * *> * ?The Large Kitchen TaMe-Cabinet shown in the illustration to the right has a large, wooden table top. Below It are two large draw ers. and two large bins which may be used for either flour or meal. The table' rests on four sanitary legs, which raise it from the floor and allow It to be swept under. It Is substantially constructed and finished in natural color. Brass Beds This Two-Inch Continuous Post Brass Bed, $15.75 A pleasing design in a two-Inch Continuous-post Btass Bed, as shown in the illustration to the left. It is full sized, and has flve fillers In both head and foot. The lacquer is guaranteed absolutely against tarnishing and will always remain bright. $22.75 This Claw-Foot Table and 4 Slip Seat Chairs The Solid Oak, Claw-foot Table shown in the Illustration above is a pleasing design with a large barrel pedestal ami claw feet. Th? labie has three leaves, which allow it to be extended to six feet when needed The chair shown above is in imitation leather slip seat, with a well turned panel in ?he back. It is constructed of solid oak throughout and the box seat construction makes it very substantial. The four chairs and table are included in the above price. ' , ? Mayer & Co.,409 to 417 Seventh St.; Thermatic" Fireless Cookers Save Work Wonderfully <?' You've a delightful surprise In store for you If you do not know how much time and labor a "Ther matic" Cooker will save you; not alone does It save you unnecessary labor, but it saves you money In gas, butcher and grocery bills, for the tough cuts of meat can be made as tender as the best when cooked In the tireless cooker. "Thermatic" Cookers will roast, bake and stew and will do much to help you solve the high cost of living. $39.00 $35.00 In Genuine Mahogany The two beautifully matched pieces shown in the illustration above are In genuine mahogany, very highly polished, and are In a very pleasing serpentine front design. The dresser has two small top drawers and two large drawers, while the chiffonier has two small top drawers and four other large drawers. Both are surmounted by a large French plate glass mlror in oval shape, supported on graceful standards. years ago. Archer Harman was a re markable man. He coaxed money from conservative Scotch and English finan ciers and from shrewd French finan ciers. He alternately cajoled and threat ened President Elay Allaro, Under whose administration the road was completed His methods aroused savage resentment and. at the time of his death, it was felt that this was perhaps fortunate for the future of the enter prise. Although foreign capital originally built the railway, it passed Into Ameri can hands, and is known as the Amerl can railway. There have been numerous disputes and controversies with the government. These were to be submit ted to arbitration. The Ecuadorian gov ernment named its arbitrator, and one was named by the State Department who was satisfactory to the railway company. When the American arbitra tor got on the ground he found that the Ecuadorian government proposed to have the findings of the arbitrators reviewed by the local courts. Then Mr. Bryan became Secretary of State, and he removed the arbitrator on the ground that the railroad had had too much to do with his selection. Place Becomes Patronage. Incidentally a place was provided for the constituent of an influential admin istration senator who was named as the new arbitrator and, since then, not much progress has been noted with the arbitration. The Ecuadorian govern ment has no reason to be dissatisfied with the situation. The railway is not in so comfortable a position. After a time, possibly, the controversy will be settled, and an equitable adjust ment will be made of the amount claimed to be due from the government and of the set-offs presented by Ecuador. The Galapagos Islands, is another of the matters which Is said to be re sponsible for anti-American sentiment. I This subject is an old one, but in re cent years there has been no serious i movement to secure the Galapagos as j a naval station for the United States, j Yet when an Ecuadorian politician . wants to get most in public view he goes out and declares that he will never consent to Ecuador alienating her precious heritage of the Galapagos. It is no secret that the United States navy, since the construction of the canal, does not think it important that there should be even a coaling station on the Galapagos. It commands the situation from Panama bay. The only question that could arise would be If Ecuador should seek to lease the islands to some foreign power, Asia tic, European, or even South American. That question is not likely to arise soon. Former Representative Charles S. Hartman of Montana recently has gone up to Quito and presented his creden tials as minister. When he was a rep resentative and left his party to follow Mr. Bryan's free silver banner Mr. Hartman was a forceful individual. Notwithstanding his lack of diplomatic experience, he has the qualities that are needed by an American minister to Quito. There is no doubt that he nas ahead of him some verv interesting experiences in equatorial diplomacy. Child Dies of Injuries. Francis Sauter, the three-year old boy who fell from the third story porch at the B and O apartment house, 2827 M street northwest, yesterday afternoon, died at the Georgetown University Hos pital about 6:30 o'clock last evening. Coroner Nevitt gave a certificate of ac cidental death. Incessant rain Friday marred the In tended demonstration at Westminster, Md.. in the Interest of the public schools. The parade of children was not held. A NAVIGATION AIDS CABED FOE. Vessels of Lighthouse Service Are Now Busily Engaged. The vessels of the lighthouse service are busily engaged in looking after buoys and lights on Chesapeake bay and other waters of the local district, keep ing them In proper order to guide ves sels past dangerous shoals. The tender Juniper, the gas tank ves sel of the service, is engaged In re -charging tanks of the light buoys on the James river, and in delivering sup plies to lighthouses from the Ports mouth station. Before going to Balti more for repairs, it is stated, she wiU visit other parts of the district on a gas tank buoy charging expedition. After having supplied the Diamond shoal lightship with fuel and stores the tender Orchid has gone to lightship Now 80. on the Cape Lookout station, Nortli Carolina, and to the lights in the lower part of the district. The tender Mapls has been engaged In buoy repair wor|| in the vicinity of Baltimore. Diamond shoal lightship, whieh was dragged from its proper position In a big storm Tuesday last, returned to ltd station next day. A notice to mariner* regarding aids to navigation in Chess* peake bay has been issued, as follows: Maryland?Chesapeake bay, Baltimore harbor approach, main channel?Craig* hill channel buoy, No. 12. spar, was re* ported broken off October 21; will be re* lieved as soon as practicable. Cutoff entrance gas buoy, 11^, and Brewerton channel gas buoy. IB. wers reported extinguished October 14; will be relighted as soon as practicable. The Woodlgwn Campmeetlag tlon of Havre de Grace. Md., has elected trustees and managers for 1914. The neat annual camp will open August & 1914.