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THE EVENING STAR,
With Svnday Moraine Edition. WASHINGTON, STOTOAY January 25, 1914 THEODOBE W. NOTES Editor Tbm Urania* Star Vewspaper Company. Snafne** owe*. Ilth St. and Pens?ylras!a Ae*nue. New York Office: Tribune Rulldinjj. Chlcaao Office: Plr*t National Bank Bufldln*. European Office: 3 Regent St.. London. England. The Etenfni? Star, with the Sunday mornlnsr edition, I* delivered by carriers vrlthln the city at 45 cents per month": dally only. 2R cent* per month; Sunday only. 20 cents per month. Ord^ra mar be Bent by mall. or telephone Main 2440. Collection la made by carrier at the end of each month. Payable fn adTanc*?by mall. postage prepaid: Dally, Sunday Included, one month. 00 ccnta. Dally. Sunday excepted. one month. 40 cents. Saturday Star. $1 year: Sunday Star. $2.40 year. Entered a* ?*>?v?nd-cla?s mail matter at the poat office at Washington. D. C. C7"In order to avoid delarS on ?l personal absence, letters to THE STAR ahoald cot be addressed to any Individual connected with the office. b'it simply to THE STAR, or tn the Editorial or Ruslness Department, according to tenor or purpose. Mr. Wilson and 1916. Whenever Mr. Wilson refers to the Baltimore platform as the inspiration of his actions, somebody bobs up with a re minder about the plank relating to a second term in the White House, and complains of Mr. Wilson's silence on the subject. But invariably the plank is misquoted. It does not commit Mr. Wil son against a second term, and very propc rlv he has not committed himself. Why should he do so. when he has just set out on his journey, and so much of the road is before him? The Baltimore platform was prepared in haste, and by a rhetorician. Mr. Bryan, between turns on the stage in the con vention hall, presided over the commit tee. and what he paid "went." lie had made himself felt in town, and there v as expectation that he would name the candidate. Why not. therefore, permit him to write the creed. So he wrote the creed and nominated the candidate. Later, he changed his mind about the candidate, and nominated Mr. Wilson instead of Mr. Clark. But the creed would have answered in Mr. Clark's case as it did in Mr. Wilson's. As for the second term question, as many republicans as democrats want the Constitution changed to suit the one term proposition. But until the Consti tution is changed to forbid a second term, either party will be at liberty to renomi nate a man who has succeeded with his presidential commission. As matters stand. Mr. Wilson is in a comfortable, not to say commanding, po sition. He has started in to redeem the platform upon which he was elected: and the task is a huge one. He cannot hope, even with the best luck, to "do it all" at this session of Congress, nor yet tlnish up at the short session. Something must go over until the next Congress. Now, if the democrats control tiiat body it will be on the record, and the record will be Mr. Wilson's. Why, then, will he not have his way with that body as he is having it with the present one? And, if he does, he will be in action as a joint executive and legislative force at the time of the holding of the next demo cratic national convention. What else would such a body do under such circum stances but put its best foot foremost, unless expressly forbidden to do so? On the other hand, if by that time there is strong indication of a change of pub lic sentiment and a return of the repub licans to power, what democrat of presi dential size will not share in Mr. Wil son's discomfiture? Mr. Marshall and Mr. Bryan are members of the administra tion, while Mr. Clark and Mr. underwood are associating themselves with the con gressional program which Mr. Wilson is both preparing and putting through. Win or lose meanwhile. Mr. Wilson will be the most prominent man in his party in 1010, and in either case the logical man for its leadership that year. Household Efficiency and Economy. Last night's conference on the subject of the cost of living in this city was in spired by the belief*that if the consumers and the producers of foodstuffs can be brought closer together each will benefit. There is a field here for constructive work along lines of practical conserva tion. The Housekeepers' Alliance, which is heading the movement, is aiming to promote efficiency in the household, and the highest efficiency is gained through co-operation. Just how far the plan for direct dealings between the producers and the consumers can go must be de termined through experience, and the ex periments w hich are proposed will be watched with interest. If by cutting out one profit the farmers can supply their customers directly at lower prices than have heretofore been paid, the advantage v ill be almost entirely with the con sumers. Tf the two factors get together on the basis of :t splitting of the middle man's profit, there will be some advan tage to bolh. The Housekeepers' Alli ance also has a profitable field of opera tion in the teaching of economy in the i kitchen and in the establishment of proper principles of marketing. House keeping is not the carefully studied work it formerly was. So much is left to servants' care and supervision that it has become in a great many cases necessary to train girls in domestic science in the schools, for lack of opportunity, or desir?\ to give them home instruction. True efflcicncy calls for the best utilization of all the human agencies as well as the most economical provisioning. old-fashioned ideas about "busting trusts" have been somewhat modified owing to a realization of the risk in nocent bystanders must take of being hit by the flying debris. The food expert who told how long to chew a piece of steak has become silent pending a satisfactory answer to Inquiries as to how to get the steak. A suspension of hostilities by Harry Thaw and William T. Jerome will be a sad blow to Evelyn Thaw's press argent. New Questions for Discussion. It is suggested that the question of government ownership of tejt-graph and telephone lines and that of presidential primaries go over to the short ses sion, or even to the next Congress. Both are certain to lead to much debate, and neither is pressing. Both can wait until questions that are pressing have been disposed of. Upon the whole, an excellent suggestion. Postponement will mean, of course, that the two questions will enter into the contest for control of the next House. And that will be fair. The people have never been called to pass upon either question at the polls. Both have been informally discussed, but not with any great earnestness. They ought to be made texts for direct campaign debate. I>o, or do not, the voters want them? The President favors presidential pri maries. alTh^v ; '? * r* n* selection .?'.i . . . i j ? .'.i.-, tlc, J he would have lost to Mr. Clark by a more pronounced expression of party opinion than Mr. Clark, through the de fection of Mr. Bryan, lost to him at Bal timore. While this Is a frank stand for Mr. "Wilson to take, it is yet not suffi cient in Itself to carry the proposition through. So important a matter should be submitted for an expression at the polls before Congress takes action of any kind. As to government ownership of the wires the President has not spoken. His approval is assumed because the Post master General was permitted to give his approval to the proposition. Postmaster General Hitchcock favored the project, and wanted to submit it to Congress, but as Mr. Taft did not approve it, rothing came of it. Still, in a case so important, and carrying if adopted an enormous outlay of money, Mr. Wilson should, and probably will if afford?-d time, say yes or no. Next fall's campaign will not lack for issues. The tariff, the currency, the trusts will enter into it and they alone would be a-plenty. But the other things with which Congress will (leal at this ses sion will likewise be subjects for debate, the republicans attacking, the democrats defending, the record. But the more issues the merrier?the more work for spellbinders and brass bands and other makers of music. We have entered on a new line, and it should be thoroughly explained to the voters, not by piecemeal, but in its entirety. They ought to be advised as to just where and how fast they are traveling, so that if they want to complete the journey, or turn into another course, they can give the order. What they say with their ballots "goes." If the ma jority divides, the minority under the Constitution takes charge and rules. Sullivan and the Senate. Roger Sullivan announces for the Sen ate in terms that do credit to his heart, whatever may be thought of his head. Evidently the man has been touched by the peace talk now so prevalent, and desires to contribute his share, small though it be, toward bringing about in our domestic affairs an era of good feeling. Shall he be encouraged? Or shall we see the Illinois electorate turn a deaf ear to his appeal for an oppor tunity to make his deeds square with his words? Mr. Sullivan is a boss, and makes no denial of the fact. He has been posted as such by many prominent men. in his own party, and by all the prominent men in the opposition party. He knows, too, that at present the cry against bosses is unusually resonant. Still, he offers for office, and appeals for the fair and unexcited judgment of his fellow citizens. Determined that the anti-bosses shall not down his voice in the praise of tlje President. Mr. Sullivan speaks up in trumpet tones himself for the new lead er in the White House. A close student of history, he pronounces Mr. Wilson the author of a program which is "clearer, closer to the ground, and contains less hair-splitting than that, conceived by any body within tiftv years." That period includes the program of Abraham Lin coln: Could an Illinoisian go further than to put the author of the New Freedom above the great emancipator? And yet another point. Mr. Bryan is the premier of this administration, and In supporting Mr. Wilson Mr. Sullivan will be supporting him. Love # me, love my premier. This calls for ro^ only light but sweetness on Mr. Sullivan's part. For only a few years a^o Mr. Bryan and Mr. Sullivan were at daggers drawn, and Mr. Bryan, drawing upor a vigorous and picturesque vocabulary, characterized Mr. Sullivan in a public speech as a "politi cal highwayman." This evidently has been forgiven. What Mr. Sullivan now desires is an. opportunity to work in official harness with Mr. Bryan in for warding the policies Mr. Wilson has in hand. It i3 interesting to consider how much attention Mr. Sullivan and Mr. Lewis would command as colleagues in the Senate. They contrast strikingly, but might supplement each other most ad vantageously for their constituents. To Mr. Lewis might be allotted what is called dress parade work. On field days, when the orators were out and In full | cry. Mr. T.ewis would be near the head of the pack. For the quiet work, done in committee and therefore too little valued by the masses. Mr. Sullivan would serve, and would get a good share for Illinois in the distribution of favors. As a prac tical politician he understands that sort of thing thoroughly. Shall the senatorial team be Sullivan and T^ewis? Or shall we see the Wilson ites and the Bryanites cold to the warm overtures of Mr. Sullivan? Every time a profit-sharing plan is announced by a. great manufacturing concern the face of the ultimate con sumer assumes an expression of wist ful inquiry. The fear that radium treatment may become unduly expensive may invite attention to the high cost of getting an ordinary prescription filled. Some of the natural political antag onists of Woodrow Wilson are com pelled to confess that they admire him as a man of nerve. Dissolving a trust has heretofore had the result of showing the management how to run the business to greater ad vantage. An aviator who dies a natural death is pointed out as a man with an ex traordinary record. Lone Distance Aviation. A question of keen interest to scientists and in some measure to the non-technical is whether there will be any material advancement during this present year in point of practical or commercial aviation. It Is a notable fact that despite the spec tacular loops and flights of Pegoud and some other exhibitors, which have thril'ed multitudes abroad and only incidentally indicated the development of more perfect control over heavier-than-air machines, no marked improvement in any form of "flying machine" has been accomplished The most notable llight of the year past was perhaps that of Vedrines, who made his way without mishap from Paris to Cairo. Egypt, by way of Palestine. This was a severe test of reliability. Now dis cussion of the possibility of transatlantic flights is revived, and the suggestion is made that possibly 1014 will see an actual start in this direction. By transatlantic fly ing. however, does not mean necessarily an attempt to cross the ocean straight away by the usual steamer routes. That would be a manifest impossibility in the present state of the art. The fuel problem is the main deterrent, however. Confidence is felt In the stability of the machine, but with the strongest and most reliable apparatus it would be necessary to provide at least two operators. A Rus sian aviator named Sikorsky has been making progress in a direction that prom ises success In the line of transoceanic flight, not by way of the steamship lines, but with stops at Iceland and Greenland. He has been working on the multiplica tion of power units bavlng flown success f" :'l v ri'h '*? ? . miles an hour. By uniting his power he is able to make a tremendous speed, greater, it iB reported, than any yet offi cially recorded. It is estimated that he, with this machine, could make a con tinuous flight of 900 miles, carrying two passengers, and this would enable him to cross the ocean with stops at Iceland and Greenland, each flight consuming about seven hours, which is at the rate of about 127 miles an hour. This is only slightly In excess of the fastest flight re corded during the past year. The possi bilities of such flying are at once ap parent. With time for stops and repairs, it would be possible, perhaps, to pass from England to the North American continent, say Newfoundland or Labra dor, in perhaps two days, barring serious breaks. Whether there is any practical advantage in such a flight remains for development, yet it cannot be denied that a demonstration of the feasibility of human transport from England to America in forty-eight hours is potential of great possibilities in the near future. The stage of the large aeroplane seems to be at hand, and when opce such a machine, capable of carrying a number of persons at high speed over long dis tances, is evolved, the problem of human flight may be said to have been definitely solved. The District Militia. With nearly 134 per cent of the men of enlistment age enrolled in the organised militia the District stands at the head of the list of the states In the matter of maintaining its National Guard upon a basis of efficiency. Gen. Mills- report, showing this, has other points of local interest, which appeals to congressional consideration. The chief of the division of militia affairs, pointing out the ad mirable spirit shown here as manifested by the large response to the call for militia enlistments, notes particularly the need of a suitable armory for this organi zation. which is at present wretchedly served in this respect. While this is true to a large degree elsewhere, it does not fo;low that Washington should be con tinuously neglected in the matter of armory provision. In another particular the District militia is the subject of im mediate consideration by Congress. The House, in passing the District's appro priation bill, cut off an allowance for pay ing the members of th'e guard in accord ance with the system of "efficiency" ratinss which has enabled its officers to maintain a hiyh standard of drill attend ance throughout the year and to take tn the annual camp a large percentage of the total membership. If the bili passes in its present form it will be impossible to hold the enlisted men in line and the attendance at the annual camp will be unquestionably reduced by a very heavy percentage. Last summer, as a result of the workings of the "efficiency" rating pay scale, there were over 1,800 men in camp, not counting the field battery and the nava' militia, both of which organi zations had their own practical drill out ings. This was a remarkable showing and it unquestionably made for a mate rial increase in the efficiency of the guardsmen. T'nder the terms of the House draft there will still remain the federal pay equivalent to that of the reg ular army, for the period during which the guard is in camp, but this will not suffice to compensate those of the militiamen who are in private employ and who must lose money if they go to camp. The enormous radish sent to Secre tary Bryan was raised by Japanese gardt-ners in California. However, a radish is neither an olive branch nor a big stick. The extraordinary gifts for silence displayed by John Lind must be dis couraging to the lecture managers w ho are always looking for new talent. In a spirit of optimism it may bo doubted whether Mr. Pindell will ever create the discussion in Europe that he has aroused in America. ? ?' 9 The previous challenges by Sir Thomas Lipton leave very little that is new to be said in the line of preliminary dis cussion of the big race. Being a lady, Mrs. Hetty Green has not expressed herself at any great length on the workings of the income tax. SHOOTING STARS. HV PHILANDER JOHNSON. Deteriorated Pastry. ??This political pie " said the dis appointed office seeker, sadly. ?'Well, what about it?" "It isn't anything like the kind our fathers used to make." Preparation. A man should think before he speaks, Composure to be gaining. And sometimes he should pause for weeks And take athletic training. Always a Consideration. "Tou never lectured for compensation, did you?" ??1 won't say that," replied Senator Sorghum. "Whenever I spoke in public I expected my compensation in votes in stead of cash." A Distinction. "What a lovely completion Mrs. FUm gilt has!" "That isn't a complexion," replied Miss Cayenne. "That's a disguise." Proud to Know Them. "I suppose you set a good example to your children?" "Indeed we do. I heard my oldest boy I tell his sister that their parents are the best tango dancers in \the village." A Dissenting Voice. There Is talk of women votln' down to j Poliick on the Crick. The-qien folks all got up an' spoke In favor of it quick, Exceptln' old Joe Struthers, who remark ed that as fur him. The benetlts of such a plan seemed all remote an' slim. lie always had the time when an election day came 'round To go to town an' tussle with the prob lems so profound. But as fur Mrs. Struthers, it was quite a different case. If she should quit, there wouldn't be no one to run the place. He said she took a day off once an' went to see her kin. Joe Jes' Ftood 'round not knowin' where an' how he should begin To do the chores an' follow out the regu lar dally plan. He couldn't git nohelp from questlonln' the hired man. The critters on the place, from chickens to the Jersey cow. Seemed all upset an' plnin' an' inclined | to raise a row. Joo says fur women's rights in principle | he'll always stick, ? i' " migi'.ty hard to srare *c:n down l to i ohi-.K on CricK. WHAT THE GOVERNMENT IS DOING The presence of smoke in the a!r causes the loss of 25 per cent or more of daylight In most of Fighting the large cities of the GtmnlrA United States. This Is " one of the important points in the summary of a study which has just been concluded by L>r. Her bert H. Kimball, professor of meteor ology of the United States weather bu reau, and in his report under the sub ject of "Meteorological Aspect of the Smoke Problem" he shows that in some cities the loss of light because of the presence of smoke Is considerably great er, and that in Pittsburgh, where he con ducted his study, the amount of light is only about 00 per cent of what it is In Sewickley, a small residential suburb. Dr. Kimball's study was made in co operation with the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research of the University of Pittsburgh, and his calculations on the loss of light offer additional data, which make it appear that Pittsburgh deserves the name of the "Smoky city." Dr. Kim ball also brings out the fact that in the business section of Pittsburgh the pres ence of smoke and fog reduces the dis tance at which things may be seen to about one-tenth of the limit in the open country. "Conditions at Pittsburgh are of espe cial interest," says Dr. Kimball. "Ac cording to the statement of Mr. Henry Pennywltt. in charge of the United States weather bureau office at Pitts burgh. previous to 1885. when soft coal whs almost exclusively used for fuel for both domestic and manufacturing pur poses, the air was ordinarily filled with smoke and soot and many dark days were the result. About 1885 natural gas became very plentiful and cheap, largely supplanting soft coal as a fuel, and the air became comparatively free from smoke. The price of gas was increased about 1805, and the use of soft coal was again resorted to, with the result that the air was again filled with smoke. In the years 1905-1907 many days with dense smoke were recorded, but. the panic of 1907-08 resulted in a diminished use of coal in manufactories, and there has been an improvement in domestic fur naces and in methods of stoking, so that the volume of smoke has again been greatly diminished. However, the air in the vicinity of Pittsburgh is never free from smoke except after a rain or snow storm, and with high westerly winds." The people of Pittsburgh realize that the smoke nuisance is bringing about a great economic loss because of the less ened amount of light which is afforded them for work during the day, and also because of the damage done by smoke to both buildings and merchandise. The Mellon Institute has been conducting a series of studies of the smoke problem for many months, and four other reports similar to that which has just been writ ten by Dr. Kimball have been issued. The Smoke and Dust Abatement League of Pittsburgh has been formed, and its literature will likely prove a model for work along the same line which other cities will carry on in the attempt to do away with the smoke nuisance. In sum marizing the need of meeting the smoke problem now the Pittsburgh Smoke Abatement League has issued the follow ing statement: "Smoke is not only a cause of expense to the maker of it but a nuisance and a cause of expense to every man. woman and child in the community. We may well speak of 'The High Cost of Smoke.* "It is injurious to health: it destroys vegetation; it Increases the density and aids-in the persistence of fogs: it cuts off sunlight: it increases the cost of living through extra laundry and cleaning bills and extra household expense, and it causes the deterioration of buildings and building materinls. "There is nothing mysterious or im possible about smokeless combustion. Of course the prevention of black smoke is not always easy?there ar?? conditions that must be taken into consideration. How ever, Pittsburgh engineers are a unit in saying that in a great majority of cases i smokeless combustion is possible, desir able and economical." The studies of the smoke problem which have been made in Chicago. Cleve land and Harrisburg, Pa., have all given | much important data, of which use is being made by those who are making a study of the Pittsburgh smoke problem. The government, through the I'nited States bureau of mines, is also taking a practical interest in smoke abatement work by operating smokelessly its own power plant, connected with its experi ment station at Pittsburgh. The intensive study which the Pitts- i burgh people are now making of the' smoke problem is likely to bring forth re sults which will prove valuable to the people in every city of the country where there is the slightest amount of smoke, according to government experts in both the bureau of mines and the United States weather bureau. They say that cities are gradually awakening to the realization that the presence of large quantities of black smoke is not an indi cation of manufacturing progress, but. on the other hand, is an indication of great economic loss through the continued use of out-of-date plants, in which the combustion of coal is imperfect and smoke is thereby caused. In the studies of the smoke problem made in both Cleveland and Chicago con servative business men estimate that the actual cost of smoke to the people in their cities amounted to more than the taxes annually collected to run the cit ies. The presence of any smoke what ever in the air. engineers say, destroys to a degree any beauties that the build ings may possess, increases the cost of cleaning of buildings, of carpets, furni ture and clothes and brings about a great loss in dry goods each year to the mer chants because of the soiling received t from the smoky atmosphere before the j goods are sold. That the present generation Is living In a time which might well bo called the "cement age" is Indicated The Age of by a preliminary report Cement cornP>ftted during the past week by the United States geological survey, which shows that ap proximately 92,400,000 barrels of Port land cement were produced by Ameri can manufacturers in the year 1913, an increase of nearly 10,000,000 barrels, or 12 per cent, over the production of 1912. and the world's record for production by any country during a single year. These figures mean little to the aver age person until he is told that this tre mendous output of the product which is today one of man's most useful build ing and paving materials has increased by leaps and bounds from less than - In 1 Wfi" tr> nptirlv 1,000,000 barrels in ISO", to nearly 100 THE TRUST From the Concord Monitor. However, President Wilson did not go so far as to recommend the removal of the "trust" legend from the dollar of our daddies. From the Brooklyn Kaffle. The President mercifully did not inflict 22,000 words on the ticker. From the New York Kvening Post. President Wilson's opponents are re duced to attacks upon his pronunciation. This is the penalty we pay for having e'ected a litery feller. From the Chattanooga Times. Dr. Wilson's trust medicine doesn't taste so bad after all. From the Charleston News anil Courier. President Wilson's trust message holds out the olive branch to the enemy?pro vided the enemy surrenders. From the Troy Itecord. The President's anti-trust message made no reference to interlocking jobs like a cabinet position and a Chautau qua lecture route. Doubtless he feels that time will take full care of Buch de partures from the straight and narrow business path. From the New York World. President Wilson's advice against "loading down" he anti-trust bills is ex client. of course, but every anti-trust I bid should be loaded." nevertheless. times that amount In less than twenty years' time. There are so many uses for cement to day that it is almost impossible to list thorn. The popularity of cement as a building material continues to increase, and for certain paving purposes it per haps will always remain unrivaled, be cause of its cheapness and durability. Cement today enters into the manufac ture of everything from buildings and bridges to telegraph poles and sewer pipes, and has come to be recognized as a most sanitary and lasting material which can be manufactured at a reason able price. Notwithstanding the rapid increase In the demand for cement, as its uses hax'e multiplied, this is the one material which has played no part whatsoever in the high-cost-of-living problem. As the amount used in this country has been doubled every few years, the cost had been gradually dropping, and the con sumer today is payijng approximately half of the price per barrel which was quoted for the same material in 1895. Although the price of cement has been cut in half during the last twenty years, the quality is perhaps better than it has ever been. Engineers hare developed the use of ce ment in construction work to a point where it "is now possible to erect a prac tically indestructible skyscraper of this material, and buildings of this type are going up in large cities in all parts of the country. Brick and stone pavements are rapidly being displaced by those of ce ment, because the latter pavement Is sanitary, cheaper and more durable. Ex periments are being made in various parts of the country In the construction of cement roads, and on the farm hun dreds of uses have been found for this material. * The cements used by the government In its various operations, including the con struction of the Panama canal and the large irrigation dams built by the United States reclamation service In the west, are all tested carefully by the United States bureau of standards. One of the most significant features about the increase in the use of cement during the last ten or twelve years is its increased use in sanitary engineering. From a public health standpoint cement is one of the most important building materials now in use. Not only does it offer a surface which is sanitary and practically waterproof, but it has come to be one of the most valuable agents em ployed by municipal authorities under the direction of public health officers in the work of ratprooflng cities. This work is most important for the interests of all large cities, but more especially the large ports such as New York. San Francisco. Philadelphia. Bos ton and other places. The infection of the bubonic plague is known to be car ried by rats, and the most effective fea ture of a campaign against this dread disease is the construction of ratproof buildings of cement and other materials in which the pests cannot live. Since the fire of Hhk? most of the new buildings put up in San Francisco have been construct ed along plans which have made them thoroughly ratproof, and cement has perhaps played a more important part in this work than any other material. The fact that cement can be manufac tured so cheaply is unfortunate in one respect, because the cheapness of the product often makes manufacturers so careless that preventable waste often bankrupts a plant. From 4 to 10 per cent if the raw material, it is said, is wasted in the form of flue dust in many of the kilns in which cement roek is prepared In a number of the European plants and in some of those in this country this dust is caught and saved, and thus the manu facture of the product is made more prof itable than it otherwise would be. The tipures compiled by Ernest F. Burchard of the geological survey show that the leading cement-producing center is in what is known as the I^ehigh dis trict. which includes eastern Pennsylva nia and western New Jersey, where last year more than 27.000.000 barrels of the product were manufactured. Illinois and northwest Indiana produced more than 12,000,000 barrels: California and Wash ington, on the Pacific coast, nearly O.O'KX r*!0; Towa and Missouri. 8,500.000: Ohio and western Pennsylvania, 7,700,000; the great plains states, including Kansas. Oklahoma and central Texas, more than 11.203,000: Xew York more than 5.200.0*hi, and Michigan and northeast Indiana. '..065.000 barrels. The remainder of the cement supply comes from five or six smaller producing centers. Heavy losses from preventable diseases in the cereal crops alone cost the people of the country each year Diseases of more than twice as much p. i as it takes to run the whole Departmerft of Agriculture. This fact was brought out in hearings before the House committee on Agricul ture. when Carleton R. Ball, a govern ment grain expert, told the members that the office of cereal investigations of the department had estimated the losses to the grain crop from preventable diseases each year to be approximately $33,000,000. Representative Helgesen of North Da kota added that in his state alone the disease known as "black smut'' wiped out from six to ten million dollars' worth of the farmers' profits in two to three weeks' time some years. The loss of money by the farmers because of cereal diseases Is much more than $35,000,000 each year, according to grain experts. The sum named covers only the loss from disease if the farmers will .make use of the information which scientists have already gathered in their various experiments. The disease known as "smut" is a peculiar fungus growth on the surface of the grain, which either reduces its value a great deal, or destroys it alto gether. With the exception of corn, this disease can be prevented in practically all of the grain crops, according to gov ernment cereal experts. The best method is to use seed from a crop which is ktiown to have had no smut !n it, and the second method is to use hot water at varying temperatures In a manner which will kill the smut and yet leave the seed uninjured. Great care must be taken in following out the hot water method, be cause if the water Is too low ip tem perature the smut will not be killed, and if it is too high the grain is injured, and germination is prevented. The government has an office in the Agricultural Department, the principal duty of whose grain experts is to advise the farmers of the use of these methods in preventing these diseases, and the proper method to check the spreading of smut through the wheat, oats and barley crops. There are still some questions of the smut problem which are yet unde termined. and government scientists and cereal experts under the direction of Mark A. Carleton are working all the time to devise methods by which prac tically all of the troublesome diseases may be prevented. RAYMOND W. PUIXMAN. MESSAGE. From the Pittsburgh Gazette-Times. In other words, as far as Mr. Wilson is concerned, if the Money Devil insists on eating it must eat out of his hand. From the Rochester Post-Express. The President has eased his mind of a great load?that much must be con ceded. Fmm the Jacksonville Times-Union. We hereby remind those who think the day of miracles has passed that President Wilson'fe latest message pleased demo crats and republicans alike. From the Harri??burg Telegraph. We pause in wonderment as to what the colonel will say when he learns that some of his followers in Congress have approved President Wilson's trust mes sage. From the Wilmington (Del.) News. When the President entered Congress to read the message he was received with a "vociferous salute." Had Mr. Bryan appeared we presume it would have been a Chautauqua salute. From i !"? Baltimore Sun. You can't expect Big Business to take its medicine like it was vanilla soda water. From the Chicago Evening Poit. There is magic in the way President Wilson makes a big stick look like an Oiivt branch. I FIFTY HEARS AGO IN THE STAR ?Washington was suffering from an out break of smallpox at this time fifty years 11 aBO* whlch some physicians Smallpox had diagnosed as a mild Outbreak attac^ of varloloid. It was believed to have been due in large measure to the incoming of nu merous bodies of troops from all parts of the north. Considerable alarm was ex pressed in Congress regarding the matter, and in The Star of January IS, 1JM14, is to be found the fo lowing paragraph: "We notice that it has been proposed in Congress, as a precautionary measure against the spread of smallpox, that the public school children be vacclnat-d. and the city authorities are recommended to 'take immediate action in this direction.' Members of Congress do not seem to be aware that for many years It has been a requisite of admission Into our public schools that the candidate shall have been vaccinated." Apropos of the smallpox scare, the fol lowing paragraph in The Star of January 20, 1S64, Is Of interest. Indicating the in- I tense apprehension with which that dis ease was regarded half a century ago. j an apprehension which has not been alto gether overcome by the later develop ments of hygienic science: "Dr. Xorthrup, who runs the Guardian Society, also officiates in some capacity (that of chaplain, perhaps) at Kalorama (smallpox) Hospital, and fills out his busy hours by newspapoalal labors In the House reporters' gallery. He is a good man. and mortifies the flesh by driving a hard-trotting horse with short stirrups. Well, it got whispered about among the reporters the other morning that Brother Xorthrup, then and there present, was fresh from his visitation to the smallpox hospital, with pestilence doubtless dis tilling: from every thread of his clothing and ilineament of his beaming coun tenance. There was, of course, a hubbub and scatteration among the press gang each and every member of which fancied lie felt the cold chill premonitorv of small pox running down his bark. Thcv held their noses and requested Brother Xorth rup to leave. Brother X. couldn't see it and stoutly maintained with Councilman Kaub that the smallpox travels in the air The reporters sent oft in hot haste to see speaker Colfax about it. Brother Xorth ruP.- ground. Up came a missive notifying Brother X. that his room was considerably better than his company. Brother N. fell back in good order upon the ante-room, grasping his avenging gil. lot in one hand and a handful of station ery In the other. When last heard from was folding his own against heavy odds and writing a many-paged protest to the Speaker." V * * With the advent of winter crime in Washington increased and some of the T) ri.* misappropriators of the .uayllgnt property of others became Robbery. unusua"y bold. In The Star of January 20, 1804, is the following account of a daylight robbery which startled the city: "Friday afternoon, about 3 o'clock (the news was not published until five days later) as Mr. John S. Anderson, a mes senger of the banking house of U John son & Co., was passing the corner of !'th street, on the Avenue, having in his possession J1.015.30. which he had just received from the Bank of Washington, two men approached liim hurriedly, one on each side. The one on his right asked where the Oth street cars ran to and from, Mr. Anderson turned to answer him, but. feeling some one rub against him roughly, he turned in the other direction to see who it was. The man who questioned him then remarked, *We go the same way. no matter which.' and both started and ran. Mr. Anderson Immediately saw that he had been rob bed of his wallet and money, and. rais ing the cry of 'Stop, thief!' pursued them. They ran over the Avenue to the wagon stand and got among the wagons, but Mr. Anderson overtook and arrested one, who did not have the money, and the other escaped. Mr. Anderson turned his prisoner over to Detectives McDevitt and Olarvoe and Patrolman Brewer of I the third ward, who were soon on the j spot. The prisoner gave his naine as George Payne, and was confined in the | station house for a hearing. Sunday he was taken out for an examination before Justice Clayton, hut the examination was Postponed until Monday, when the prose cuting witnesses were notilied by the justice that the case was further* post poned till Wednesday, at 4 o'clock p.m." In The Star of the next duv a brief paragraph noting that when the case was called the prosecuting witnesses did not appear and the justice dismissed the case, the presumption being that the money hjid been recovered. I * | * * Another daring robbery is reported in The Star or January 22, 1SG4. The cellar [ of a grocer at the corner of Grocery 13th and L streets w as found Looted l,roke" open and four fir kins of butter, ".VI pounds of cheese, nearly 400 pounds of pork, six dozen tumblers, several kits of mackerel. river 200 pounds of sugar, a sack or two of flour and a quantity of liquor, the loot altogether being valued at over ?r.no, had been, taken away. Xot only had the thieves taken all this plunder, but they opened a stable across the street and stolo a liorsc and wagon to remove the groceries. Several robberies of this kind had occurred In the same neighborhood within a few weeks, and the double crime Just described brought tht> residents of the second ward to the point of consider ing the establishment of a patrol for their own protection. ?* * * For some time during the winter of 18C3-4 Washington was the scene of a remarkable industry, con Kidnaping slsting Of no less than the Recruits vlrtual kidnaping of negro recruits for shipment north, where they commanded higher prices than In Washington. In The Star of January 23. 18U4, Is the following par agraph : "The pertinacity with which the bro kers in recruits hold to their business here of spiriting away negro recruits from the District Is accounted for by the fact that in some of the states?Connecticut for instance?the colored recruit counts for as much to the broker as the white recruit, and the pay for such recruits amounts to the snug sum of STOit each. I or thereabouts, in township, county, state and United States bounties. An outcry is made by the broker-recruiting agents that their business of picking up recruits here has been stopped. But they do not publish the fact that in their own states an interdict has been put by the state authorities upon any re cruiting from abroad In the territory. If this District does not similarly protect Itself by insisting that foreign recruiting j agents shall stop their work here it will have a time of It In filling up the heavy quota allotted to It by the conscription." THE WANE OF WINTtR. THK OPTIMIST. The winter raunot now he h?njr, And soon the glad south wind will blow: The robin with its hopeful sons; Will <*heer us as we come ami co; The buds will soon begin to swell. Once more the valleys will be green. And they that shiver now will dwell Where early blossoms grace the scene. THE PESSIMIST. The spring may not be far awav The golfer presently will slice'; But we will soon be asked to pay ?All we have saved on coal for ice: ?re lonj? upon the corner lot The boys will ba? the ball and shoot: But, if the winter's mild or no*. The poaches wl!l !?;? frozen ? ui. ??'. E. Klwr, iu tli ? C.iinw H-i-mi-lleral.l. J * CHINESE PARLIAMENT ABOLISHED Yuan Shiii Kai was elected President of the Chinese republic October 6, 1913, and was inaugurated October Summary i?. a <iisp.it.-h from i>k l/r_? in* dated December >?' Measures. annm.?,-ed ,h!lt OI1 Ulat day "Yuan had perfected plans to abol-j ish parliament." Previous dispatches an nounced that Yuan had summarily dis missed several regiments of soldiers witht their officers without pay. A number of provincial governors were treated in the same manner, while several rebellious colonels and many disaffected persons were decapitated. A Peking dispatch dated December -?? furnishes some details of Yuan's drastic way of enforcing personal government: "On that das*," runs the dispatch, '"jm mutinous soldiers and their commander | were shot to death. As fast as one firing j squad had performed its task another' took its place. The men were executed | by order of President Yuan Shih Kai foi j thefr revolt against the government at ! Kiangyuan." Another dispatch announces the revolt of three regiments at Talifou. These I regiments, it was said, "had killed th*?ir i officers, looted the armories, killed the professors and inhabitants and declared j themselves independent in the name of j Sun Vat Sen." The mention of I>r. Sun Yat Sen's name! in that connection is to say the least | somewhat peculiar and leads one to sus- J pect that Yuan would cast reflection upon his too generous and trusting rival. It . will be recalled that following the revo lution of July I)r. Sun Yat Sen escaped | from China. Yuan when quite sure of ; Sun's departure offered rewards for a long : list of rebels. For one who headed the I list Yuan offered $.>>.?**>. For 1 >r. Sun's! head, whose name followed last on the , list. Yuan in apparent derision offered j the modest sum of $2.50! Are these reports of mutiny intended j a curtain behind which Yuan may ?vk to excuse his own revolution-reaction 1 against the constitution? Indeed, as far I | back as November l.'I a dispatch an j nounced Yuan's intention to summon an ! "administrative council." which, in addi tion to transacting state affairs, "would draft regulations governing the new par liament. The council, we were told, would number seventy-one members, con sisting of cabinet officers and others ap pointed by Yuan, including provincial governors." * * * Yuan considered the number of repre sentatives 459G) as excessive. He would reduce these to 300. The Changes powers of parliament pi j should be curtailed, the * senate to be merged into the administrative council, which, being non-elective, would be a permanent body. This was in November. As the appetite giows in the course of a repast. Yuan has decided that his administrative coun- ! cil may, in the interest of economy, and j Yuan, be considerably diminished. Al- j though it goes without saying that every one appointed to this administra tive council is a Yuan partisan. Among the members already named there are Sin Che Cheung, formerly of the grand council of the empire; Li Ching Chi, former president of the pro visional senate: Cha Liang, former di rector of the University of Peking. All these were mandarins under the empire. The members of the koumlngtang party, or "Young China," have resigned or have made haste to bolt from Peking, if not from China, lest they invite per secution and perhaps decapitation. When the republic was popular, or ap parently popular, the party of Young China was tolerated by the people, but the party was never entirely sympathetic with the peasant because it destroyed the cult of temples, the .*-tatues. the genii and the rest ground deeply in the soul of the common man. as. indeed, in the soul of the mandarin. For the populations of the provinces it was abominable sacri lege to overturn the temples, abandon tlie rites of the ancestors, which are the foundation of family and society in China. Yuan has said to a missionary that he will not restore Confucianism. Neverthe less. he has re-established the c ult of the temples, which means the cult of Con fucianism. And this is important, be cause in the end he may secure a sort of passive popularity with the people, who look back with regret to the old or- j der of things, and who cordially dislike the new. Yuan has been represented as a scholar and student. He is nothing of the sort, and in the days I knew him personally in Korea he had no such pre tensions. He was a voracious eater and drinker, a bon vivant. but neither philos opher nor poet. Simply soft clay in the hands of his secretary, who gave him all his inspiration, which was not much in those days. ? * * A dispatch from Peking announces that Yuan, having pacified the peasant, has j proceeded to drastic Alleged measures and has re- j Approval. ceiyed tr?m his mil"ary! * " and civil creatures a [ ?'round robin" indorsement for the aboli- j | tion of parliament. The round robin is reported to have j been sent out by Gen. Li Yuen Heng. and j is signed by all the provincial governors, I and suggests to Yuan the abolition of j parliament. The document says: "The Chinese parliament enacted no i important law in the seven months of its I existence, and will not do so if it be per- j mitted to continue for lt?> years. "Vice President Li Yuen Heng and other prominent citizens of the republic : cannot continue to remain silent while! the country goes to destruction. "The administrative council now con ened in 1'eking is a more useful body I than the old parliament. The council is ? similar to the convention formed by the i thirteen states which assisted George Washington in the revision of the Ameri- 1 can Constitution. j We and the whole of the Chinese peo ple disapprove of the conduct of the bad j members of parliament. Foreigners like- i wise disapprove of it. Therefore the I president of the republic need not hesi- ' tate." Doubtless there will be found foreigners in Peking who will tell Yuan all sorts of fantastic stories about George Washing ton, even perhaps that lie was an original Confucianist. Poor Arabi Pasha was given the idea that he was in a way the Washington of his country. Apropos to the foreigners in Peking it Is significant to note that Yuan had on | October oO. 191ft, appointed twenty-three ' foreign advisers. Of these five are Ger mans. four are Knglish, three are French, two arc Japanese, two are Italians, two are Danes, one Russian, one Hollander, one Belgian, one Swede and one Ameri can. 1 ti addition to these foreign advisers Sir Francis Piggott, late British chief justice at Hongkong, is retained as legal adviser, and he may, therefore, be said to be the chief of Yuan's foreign staff. Commander Harold Christian besides has been attached to the Chinese service by the British government as director of the new naval college which it is proposed to establish at Shanghai. By reason of the personal contact of these appointees with Yuan, whose social qualities render him more approachable MID-WINTE From tb** Boston lleruhi. Not the first snowstorm hereabouts, but the first real one?the kind that with | stands the warfare of the city's numerous | wheels and shovels. From the Pittsburgh Chronicle-Telegraph. Mobile. Ala., reports the appearance on | heads of the first straw hats of the 1914 season. But, alas! the walking to Mobile ? Is long, and it is bad in many places. From the Detroit Free I'ress. Winter, it appears, has revised her schedules downward. From the Syracuse Font-Standard. Fears are entertained for the ice crop. ' In some places it is said to be of un marketable thickness and in others of | indecent thinness. From the Topeka State Journal. I If winter weather does not put in an I appearance pretty soon a whole lot of car!> sprin?, flowers, shrubbery and fruit j trees are going to get sorely fooled. The financial *lt nation is alarn.lnc The fix hundred ami nrty millions of the _ . 's' loan contented ! financial the banks ..r the ?? Situation, liquidated and the question rmv arises where China may find other resources than thn tax on s?it. t - product of which served as .. guarantee for the flr?.t loan. Then. ton, there is much discussion over the sum realite.1 and tlie sum expected. The .llfTrrcnce i so treat as to appear Incredible. The wise shake their heads significantly an.! insinuate that there has bee,, a colosw! "rake-off." Since several months there has b?oTi r ? mention of Tan* shao Vi on.-., a farmli , heure, an important factor in fhin.se ? fairs iw.liliear rin.i ,c.I TaeK ? the faith:,,1 Achates of Yuan, the teot. Indeed, of the latter's fortune M j, , out lane. ^ 'lan could never have h<. ? ma.ie mandarin, much less preMdrtu lane was secretary to Yuan in the I. ginning ?f his c?wr. and t<. the know. ;"'f consulates Tnng ftirnlahed th. brains for the Chinese residuary. Tans w." .1 graduate of Harvard. Me accon. pan led Yuan to China. ?ho, after lus liasco with the Japanese in 1V.U, made mandarin and Tanc appointed ehrn ?, " T T 'h" ?-ii-?a-pu or for (Jen olflce. In l!Cis Tang was made ,-p. clal commissioner to the l'n;te,i Htate? f convey the emperor's recognition of the voluntary return to China of the surplus """ Boxer indenuiitv. one dav a ther..err 7???? " "Snatch announod till arrest Of lane, reported to have fl-,1 from 1-ekins The note was vague, ob scure, and since then, silence. What in. ,."an done to Tune" 1 will not belie. .? them separated. Witl, Tune. Yuan mai jet attain the throne of China. 'M :!: If tin- political horizon is overcast In China the economical situation in tin ^ matter of our export trad, economic Shows marked improve Situation. Ar'"r',lr'? <?> > Journal or the American Asiatic Association for January, the total exports to China, including Ilonskont. for ten months ending In October amount ed to *:l,l<?i.4!ts, against *Lt!,S.'.lM.-c for the corresponding period of last year. Im ports have advanced so far tills \ ear to a little over J35.00o.U00. against *31.000.0. o for the first ten months of 1M12. Foreign residents in China incurred oi ies ti th<* ,oou,se Of the revolution In .', ? Their claims bring up questions of International law cxtrenielv interesting and which may be briefly resumed thus. . j! . *'le. Chinese government; is it judicially obliged to repair damages re sulting from the civil war? Second, is interest due eventually on th# sum of the indemnities awarded? Third, in supposing that the Chinese may be held responsible for "damages re sulting directly from the revolution. do* m the obligation extend to damages result lng indirectly from the same cause? It should be remarked that the great Asiatic powers are today subjects of the law of nations, since they arc delegates to the court ?>f arbitration erected at The Hague in l&Kf. Recently the principal state? of the society of nations recognized the Chine*, republic. It results, therefore, that China has a.11 the obligations falling upon all the states of the international societv and she has also all the rights. The quasi-unanlmity of authors pro nounce the irresponsibility of states in tlie matter of damaites or losses incurred by foreigners because of troubles, revolts or civil wars. The states do not recognize on the?e heads any right to indemnity for theii subjects, as foreigners cannot pretend in this matter to any privilege. In going into a country foreigners for a fact pla? ? themselves under the laws of that country. In fact, a state may grant Indemnity, but only as an act of courtesy, r.o for. im - ers who have suffered prejudice i it cause of a revolt or a civil war. I!ut ai: states have not obeyed this sentiment o generosity and international courtesy Nevertheless the Chinese government, a though it does not feel itself held un.i. r the law as responsible for the ewms ot 1011. voluntarily offers indemnitv to foreigners, victims of the revolution. On the occasion of Yuan S ih K., * election to the presidency Preside nt \\ I son addressed him October 0. 10i:i. a con gratulatory telegram in which he said: "It is my hope and expectation that, guided by the principles of right and justice and the high Greetings ? deals of republican "From TT ^ government, your ex XTOlIi U. O. cellency's administration will be so conducted as to assure the ad vancement of China and conduce to the peace, happiness and prosperity of I ei people." lleplying October i:;. Yuan said in part "Happy in the performance of my duties I always have the luminous < xample "i the I'nited States to guide and help un it. cannot be said that the pea lis in President Wilson's telegram to Yuan have been appreciated at their just value. For barely two months later Yuan al?c! ished parliament and by the establish ment of an administrative council vio lated the constitution and substituted the republic a dictatorship, all of which is a subversion of the high ideals of thai government which President Wlbou hoped and expected Yuan to emulate. A word in conclusion of the vice presi dent of China, Gen. LI Yuan-hung. When general in command of the rebels he was remarked for his frequent proclamations. As vice president he continues to attract attention. La's latest effort Is in the form of a message addressed to President Yuan, the, tutuhs and chief admlnlstra tors. As tlie vice pi, sldent has a tena cious spirit his acts an not to b- nrnorcd and he is affecting to be the speci.-i friend of the people. His message con sists of suggestions, and one of th---e merits special mention: "There are many students and -.ins in the country who simply attained t' e fame by empty talk and have no practi cal experience. You may draw a pudding on a piece of paper which looks edibl. . but it can never satisfy the stomach The employment of such inexperienced arid incapable mm in government oilice will surely result in failure." Inasmuch as the President of China has abolished parliament the vice presi dent may be expected to abolish some thing also. What will it be or who will It be? CI I. CH AILEK-LAJNO R NOTES. From the Newark Eveuiuc .Star. There is cheer in the thought that the winter is now a day more than one-third over. l>"ui the Toronto Star. In order that a .lanuaiy thaw may b? a success it must have something to work on. Fr??in the Ism Auffples Evening Herald. Midwinter in southern California. Enough of lain fallen already in the tirst half of winter to assure bountiful crops in spring. Ore.cn hills and flowering plains make us to rejoice. From thr Albany Evening Journal. That favorite outdoor sport, the seeing of the lirst robin, will soon begin, even though there are no robins to be seen. From the Newark Star. According to the Coal Trade Journal "hard coal is more active." and. noticing the activity it displays in gettinir out of Hie bin any householder will concur.