THE EVENING STAR,
With Svnday Moraine Edition.
STOTOAY January 25, 1914
THEODOBE W. NOTES Editor
Tbm Urania* Star Vewspaper Company.
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Mr. Wilson and 1916.
Whenever Mr. Wilson refers to the
Baltimore platform as the inspiration of
his actions, somebody bobs up with a re
minder about the plank relating to a
second term in the White House, and
complains of Mr. Wilson's silence on the
subject. But invariably the plank is
misquoted. It does not commit Mr. Wil
son against a second term, and very
propc rlv he has not committed himself.
Why should he do so. when he has just
set out on his journey, and so much of
the road is before him?
The Baltimore platform was prepared
in haste, and by a rhetorician. Mr. Bryan,
between turns on the stage in the con
vention hall, presided over the commit
tee. and what he paid "went." lie had
made himself felt in town, and there
v as expectation that he would name the
candidate. Why not. therefore, permit
him to write the creed.
So he wrote the creed and nominated
the candidate. Later, he changed his
mind about the candidate, and nominated
Mr. Wilson instead of Mr. Clark. But
the creed would have answered in Mr.
Clark's case as it did in Mr. Wilson's.
As for the second term question, as
many republicans as democrats want the
Constitution changed to suit the one
term proposition. But until the Consti
tution is changed to forbid a second term,
either party will be at liberty to renomi
nate a man who has succeeded with his
As matters stand. Mr. Wilson is in a
comfortable, not to say commanding, po
sition. He has started in to redeem the
platform upon which he was elected: and
the task is a huge one. He cannot hope,
even with the best luck, to "do it all" at
this session of Congress, nor yet tlnish
up at the short session. Something must
go over until the next Congress.
Now, if the democrats control tiiat body
it will be on the record, and the record
will be Mr. Wilson's. Why, then, will he
not have his way with that body as he is
having it with the present one? And, if
he does, he will be in action as a joint
executive and legislative force at the
time of the holding of the next demo
cratic national convention. What else
would such a body do under such circum
stances but put its best foot foremost,
unless expressly forbidden to do so?
On the other hand, if by that time there
is strong indication of a change of pub
lic sentiment and a return of the repub
licans to power, what democrat of presi
dential size will not share in Mr. Wil
son's discomfiture? Mr. Marshall and Mr.
Bryan are members of the administra
tion, while Mr. Clark and Mr. underwood
are associating themselves with the con
gressional program which Mr. Wilson is
both preparing and putting through.
Win or lose meanwhile. Mr. Wilson will
be the most prominent man in his party
in 1010, and in either case the logical man
for its leadership that year.
Household Efficiency and Economy.
Last night's conference on the subject
of the cost of living in this city was in
spired by the belief*that if the consumers
and the producers of foodstuffs can be
brought closer together each will benefit.
There is a field here for constructive
work along lines of practical conserva
tion. The Housekeepers' Alliance, which
is heading the movement, is aiming to
promote efficiency in the household, and
the highest efficiency is gained through
co-operation. Just how far the plan for
direct dealings between the producers
and the consumers can go must be de
termined through experience, and the ex
periments w hich are proposed will be
watched with interest. If by cutting out
one profit the farmers can supply their
customers directly at lower prices than
have heretofore been paid, the advantage
v ill be almost entirely with the con
sumers. Tf the two factors get together
on the basis of :t splitting of the middle
man's profit, there will be some advan
tage to bolh. The Housekeepers' Alli
ance also has a profitable field of opera
tion in the teaching of economy in the i
kitchen and in the establishment of
proper principles of marketing. House
keeping is not the carefully studied work
it formerly was. So much is left to
servants' care and supervision that it has
become in a great many cases necessary
to train girls in domestic science in the
schools, for lack of opportunity, or desir?\
to give them home instruction. True
efflcicncy calls for the best utilization of
all the human agencies as well as the
most economical provisioning.
old-fashioned ideas about "busting
trusts" have been somewhat modified
owing to a realization of the risk in
nocent bystanders must take of being
hit by the flying debris.
The food expert who told how long to
chew a piece of steak has become
silent pending a satisfactory answer
to Inquiries as to how to get the steak.
A suspension of hostilities by Harry
Thaw and William T. Jerome will be a
sad blow to Evelyn Thaw's press
New Questions for Discussion.
It is suggested that the question of
government ownership of tejt-graph and
telephone lines and that of presidential
primaries go over to the short ses
sion, or even to the next Congress.
Both are certain to lead to much debate,
and neither is pressing. Both can wait
until questions that are pressing have
been disposed of. Upon the whole, an
Postponement will mean, of course,
that the two questions will enter into the
contest for control of the next House.
And that will be fair. The people have
never been called to pass upon either
question at the polls. Both have been
informally discussed, but not with any
great earnestness. They ought to be
made texts for direct campaign debate.
I>o, or do not, the voters want them?
The President favors presidential pri
maries. alTh^v ; '? * r* n*
selection .?'.i . . . i j ? .'.i.-, tlc,
he would have lost to Mr. Clark by a
more pronounced expression of party
opinion than Mr. Clark, through the de
fection of Mr. Bryan, lost to him at Bal
timore. While this Is a frank stand for
Mr. "Wilson to take, it is yet not suffi
cient in Itself to carry the proposition
through. So important a matter should
be submitted for an expression at the
polls before Congress takes action of any
As to government ownership of the
wires the President has not spoken. His
approval is assumed because the Post
master General was permitted to give his
approval to the proposition. Postmaster
General Hitchcock favored the project,
and wanted to submit it to Congress, but
as Mr. Taft did not approve it, rothing
came of it. Still, in a case so important,
and carrying if adopted an enormous
outlay of money, Mr. Wilson should, and
probably will if afford?-d time, say yes
Next fall's campaign will not lack for
issues. The tariff, the currency, the
trusts will enter into it and they alone
would be a-plenty. But the other things
with which Congress will (leal at this ses
sion will likewise be subjects for debate,
the republicans attacking, the democrats
defending, the record.
But the more issues the merrier?the
more work for spellbinders and brass
bands and other makers of music. We
have entered on a new line, and it should
be thoroughly explained to the voters,
not by piecemeal, but in its entirety.
They ought to be advised as to just
where and how fast they are traveling,
so that if they want to complete the
journey, or turn into another course,
they can give the order. What they say
with their ballots "goes." If the ma
jority divides, the minority under the
Constitution takes charge and rules.
Sullivan and the Senate.
Roger Sullivan announces for the Sen
ate in terms that do credit to his heart,
whatever may be thought of his head.
Evidently the man has been touched by
the peace talk now so prevalent, and
desires to contribute his share, small
though it be, toward bringing about in
our domestic affairs an era of good
feeling. Shall he be encouraged? Or
shall we see the Illinois electorate turn
a deaf ear to his appeal for an oppor
tunity to make his deeds square with
Mr. Sullivan is a boss, and makes no
denial of the fact. He has been posted as
such by many prominent men. in his own
party, and by all the prominent men in
the opposition party. He knows, too,
that at present the cry against bosses
is unusually resonant. Still, he offers
for office, and appeals for the fair and
unexcited judgment of his fellow citizens.
Determined that the anti-bosses shall
not down his voice in the praise of tlje
President. Mr. Sullivan speaks up in
trumpet tones himself for the new lead
er in the White House. A close student
of history, he pronounces Mr. Wilson the
author of a program which is "clearer,
closer to the ground, and contains less
hair-splitting than that, conceived by any
body within tiftv years." That period
includes the program of Abraham Lin
coln: Could an Illinoisian go further than
to put the author of the New Freedom
above the great emancipator?
And yet another point. Mr. Bryan is
the premier of this administration, and
In supporting Mr. Wilson Mr. Sullivan
will be supporting him. Love # me, love
my premier. This calls for ro^ only light
but sweetness on Mr. Sullivan's part. For
only a few years a^o Mr. Bryan and
Mr. Sullivan were at daggers drawn, and
Mr. Bryan, drawing upor a vigorous and
picturesque vocabulary, characterized Mr.
Sullivan in a public speech as a "politi
cal highwayman." This evidently has
been forgiven. What Mr. Sullivan now
desires is an. opportunity to work in
official harness with Mr. Bryan in for
warding the policies Mr. Wilson has in
It i3 interesting to consider how much
attention Mr. Sullivan and Mr. Lewis
would command as colleagues in the
Senate. They contrast strikingly, but
might supplement each other most ad
vantageously for their constituents. To
Mr. Lewis might be allotted what is
called dress parade work. On field days,
when the orators were out and In full |
cry. Mr. T.ewis would be near the head
of the pack. For the quiet work, done in
committee and therefore too little valued
by the masses. Mr. Sullivan would serve,
and would get a good share for Illinois
in the distribution of favors. As a prac
tical politician he understands that sort
of thing thoroughly.
Shall the senatorial team be Sullivan
and T^ewis? Or shall we see the Wilson
ites and the Bryanites cold to the warm
overtures of Mr. Sullivan?
Every time a profit-sharing plan is
announced by a. great manufacturing
concern the face of the ultimate con
sumer assumes an expression of wist
The fear that radium treatment may
become unduly expensive may invite
attention to the high cost of getting
an ordinary prescription filled.
Some of the natural political antag
onists of Woodrow Wilson are com
pelled to confess that they admire him
as a man of nerve.
Dissolving a trust has heretofore had
the result of showing the management
how to run the business to greater ad
An aviator who dies a natural death
is pointed out as a man with an ex
Lone Distance Aviation.
A question of keen interest to scientists
and in some measure to the non-technical
is whether there will be any material
advancement during this present year in
point of practical or commercial aviation.
It Is a notable fact that despite the spec
tacular loops and flights of Pegoud and
some other exhibitors, which have thril'ed
multitudes abroad and only incidentally
indicated the development of more perfect
control over heavier-than-air machines,
no marked improvement in any form of
"flying machine" has been accomplished
The most notable llight of the year past
was perhaps that of Vedrines, who made
his way without mishap from Paris to
Cairo. Egypt, by way of Palestine. This
was a severe test of reliability. Now dis
cussion of the possibility of transatlantic
flights is revived, and the suggestion is
made that possibly 1014 will see an actual
start in this direction. By transatlantic fly
ing. however, does not mean necessarily
an attempt to cross the ocean straight
away by the usual steamer routes.
That would be a manifest impossibility in
the present state of the art. The fuel
problem is the main deterrent, however.
Confidence is felt In the stability of the
machine, but with the strongest and most
reliable apparatus it would be necessary
to provide at least two operators. A Rus
sian aviator named Sikorsky has been
making progress in a direction that prom
ises success In the line of transoceanic
flight, not by way of the steamship lines,
but with stops at Iceland and Greenland.
He has been working on the multiplica
tion of power units bavlng flown success
f" :'l v ri'h '*? ? .
miles an hour. By uniting his power he
is able to make a tremendous speed,
greater, it iB reported, than any yet offi
cially recorded. It is estimated that he,
with this machine, could make a con
tinuous flight of 900 miles, carrying two
passengers, and this would enable him
to cross the ocean with stops at Iceland
and Greenland, each flight consuming
about seven hours, which is at the rate
of about 127 miles an hour. This is only
slightly In excess of the fastest flight re
corded during the past year. The possi
bilities of such flying are at once ap
parent. With time for stops and repairs,
it would be possible, perhaps, to pass
from England to the North American
continent, say Newfoundland or Labra
dor, in perhaps two days, barring serious
breaks. Whether there is any practical
advantage in such a flight remains for
development, yet it cannot be denied
that a demonstration of the feasibility
of human transport from England to
America in forty-eight hours is potential
of great possibilities in the near future.
The stage of the large aeroplane seems
to be at hand, and when opce such a
machine, capable of carrying a number
of persons at high speed over long dis
tances, is evolved, the problem of human
flight may be said to have been definitely
The District Militia.
With nearly 134 per cent of the men
of enlistment age enrolled in the organised
militia the District stands at the head of
the list of the states In the matter of
maintaining its National Guard upon a
basis of efficiency. Gen. Mills- report,
showing this, has other points of local
interest, which appeals to congressional
consideration. The chief of the division
of militia affairs, pointing out the ad
mirable spirit shown here as manifested
by the large response to the call for
militia enlistments, notes particularly the
need of a suitable armory for this organi
zation. which is at present wretchedly
served in this respect. While this is true
to a large degree elsewhere, it does not
fo;low that Washington should be con
tinuously neglected in the matter of
armory provision. In another particular
the District militia is the subject of im
mediate consideration by Congress. The
House, in passing the District's appro
priation bill, cut off an allowance for pay
ing the members of th'e guard in accord
ance with the system of "efficiency"
ratinss which has enabled its officers to
maintain a hiyh standard of drill attend
ance throughout the year and to take
tn the annual camp a large percentage of
the total membership. If the bili passes
in its present form it will be impossible
to hold the enlisted men in line and the
attendance at the annual camp will be
unquestionably reduced by a very heavy
percentage. Last summer, as a result of
the workings of the "efficiency" rating
pay scale, there were over 1,800 men in
camp, not counting the field battery and
the nava' militia, both of which organi
zations had their own practical drill out
ings. This was a remarkable showing
and it unquestionably made for a mate
rial increase in the efficiency of the
guardsmen. T'nder the terms of the
House draft there will still remain the
federal pay equivalent to that of the reg
ular army, for the period during which the
guard is in camp, but this will not suffice
to compensate those of the militiamen
who are in private employ and who must
lose money if they go to camp.
The enormous radish sent to Secre
tary Bryan was raised by Japanese
gardt-ners in California. However, a
radish is neither an olive branch nor a
The extraordinary gifts for silence
displayed by John Lind must be dis
couraging to the lecture managers w ho
are always looking for new talent.
In a spirit of optimism it may bo
doubted whether Mr. Pindell will ever
create the discussion in Europe that he
has aroused in America.
? ?' 9
The previous challenges by Sir Thomas
Lipton leave very little that is new to
be said in the line of preliminary dis
cussion of the big race.
Being a lady, Mrs. Hetty Green has
not expressed herself at any great
length on the workings of the income
HV PHILANDER JOHNSON.
??This political pie " said the dis
appointed office seeker, sadly.
?'Well, what about it?"
"It isn't anything like the kind our
fathers used to make."
A man should think before he speaks,
Composure to be gaining.
And sometimes he should pause for weeks
And take athletic training.
Always a Consideration.
"Tou never lectured for compensation,
??1 won't say that," replied Senator
Sorghum. "Whenever I spoke in public
I expected my compensation in votes in
stead of cash."
"What a lovely completion Mrs. FUm
"That isn't a complexion," replied Miss
Cayenne. "That's a disguise."
Proud to Know Them.
"I suppose you set a good example to
"Indeed we do. I heard my oldest boy I
tell his sister that their parents are the
best tango dancers in \the village."
A Dissenting Voice.
There Is talk of women votln' down to j
Poliick on the Crick.
The-qien folks all got up an' spoke In
favor of it quick,
Exceptln' old Joe Struthers, who remark
ed that as fur him.
The benetlts of such a plan seemed all
remote an' slim.
lie always had the time when an election
day came 'round
To go to town an' tussle with the prob
lems so profound.
But as fur Mrs. Struthers, it was quite
a different case.
If she should quit, there wouldn't be no
one to run the place.
He said she took a day off once an' went
to see her kin.
Joe Jes' Ftood 'round not knowin' where
an' how he should begin
To do the chores an' follow out the regu
lar dally plan.
He couldn't git nohelp from questlonln'
the hired man.
The critters on the place, from chickens
to the Jersey cow.
Seemed all upset an' plnin' an' inclined |
to raise a row.
Joo says fur women's rights in principle |
he'll always stick,
? i' " migi'.ty hard to srare *c:n down
l to i ohi-.K on CricK.
WHAT THE GOVERNMENT IS DOING
The presence of smoke in the a!r
causes the loss of 25 per cent or more
of daylight In most of
Fighting the large cities of the
GtmnlrA United States. This Is
" one of the important
points in the summary of a study which
has just been concluded by L>r. Her
bert H. Kimball, professor of meteor
ology of the United States weather bu
reau, and in his report under the sub
ject of "Meteorological Aspect of the
Smoke Problem" he shows that in some
cities the loss of light because of the
presence of smoke Is considerably great
er, and that in Pittsburgh, where he con
ducted his study, the amount of light is
only about 00 per cent of what it is In
Sewickley, a small residential suburb.
Dr. Kimball's study was made in co
operation with the Mellon Institute of
Industrial Research of the University of
Pittsburgh, and his calculations on the
loss of light offer additional data, which
make it appear that Pittsburgh deserves
the name of the "Smoky city." Dr. Kim
ball also brings out the fact that in the
business section of Pittsburgh the pres
ence of smoke and fog reduces the dis
tance at which things may be seen to
about one-tenth of the limit in the open
"Conditions at Pittsburgh are of espe
cial interest," says Dr. Kimball. "Ac
cording to the statement of Mr. Henry
Pennywltt. in charge of the United
States weather bureau office at Pitts
burgh. previous to 1885. when soft coal
whs almost exclusively used for fuel for
both domestic and manufacturing pur
poses, the air was ordinarily filled with
smoke and soot and many dark days
were the result. About 1885 natural gas
became very plentiful and cheap, largely
supplanting soft coal as a fuel, and the
air became comparatively free from
smoke. The price of gas was increased
about 1805, and the use of soft coal was
again resorted to, with the result that
the air was again filled with smoke. In
the years 1905-1907 many days with dense
smoke were recorded, but. the panic of
1907-08 resulted in a diminished use of
coal in manufactories, and there has
been an improvement in domestic fur
naces and in methods of stoking, so that
the volume of smoke has again been
greatly diminished. However, the air in
the vicinity of Pittsburgh is never free
from smoke except after a rain or snow
storm, and with high westerly winds."
The people of Pittsburgh realize that
the smoke nuisance is bringing about a
great economic loss because of the less
ened amount of light which is afforded
them for work during the day, and also
because of the damage done by smoke
to both buildings and merchandise. The
Mellon Institute has been conducting a
series of studies of the smoke problem
for many months, and four other reports
similar to that which has just been writ
ten by Dr. Kimball have been issued.
The Smoke and Dust Abatement League
of Pittsburgh has been formed, and its
literature will likely prove a model for
work along the same line which other
cities will carry on in the attempt to do
away with the smoke nuisance. In sum
marizing the need of meeting the smoke
problem now the Pittsburgh Smoke
Abatement League has issued the follow
"Smoke is not only a cause of expense
to the maker of it but a nuisance and
a cause of expense to every man. woman
and child in the community. We may
well speak of 'The High Cost of Smoke.*
"It is injurious to health: it destroys
vegetation; it Increases the density and
aids-in the persistence of fogs: it cuts off
sunlight: it increases the cost of living
through extra laundry and cleaning bills
and extra household expense, and it
causes the deterioration of buildings and
"There is nothing mysterious or im
possible about smokeless combustion. Of
course the prevention of black smoke is
not always easy?there ar?? conditions that
must be taken into consideration. How
ever, Pittsburgh engineers are a unit in
saying that in a great majority of cases i
smokeless combustion is possible, desir
able and economical."
The studies of the smoke problem
which have been made in Chicago. Cleve
land and Harrisburg, Pa., have all given |
much important data, of which use is
being made by those who are making a
study of the Pittsburgh smoke problem.
The government, through the I'nited
States bureau of mines, is also taking a
practical interest in smoke abatement
work by operating smokelessly its own
power plant, connected with its experi
ment station at Pittsburgh.
The intensive study which the Pitts- i
burgh people are now making of the'
smoke problem is likely to bring forth re
sults which will prove valuable to the
people in every city of the country where
there is the slightest amount of smoke,
according to government experts in both
the bureau of mines and the United
States weather bureau. They say that
cities are gradually awakening to the
realization that the presence of large
quantities of black smoke is not an indi
cation of manufacturing progress, but.
on the other hand, is an indication of
great economic loss through the continued
use of out-of-date plants, in which the
combustion of coal is imperfect and
smoke is thereby caused.
In the studies of the smoke problem
made in both Cleveland and Chicago con
servative business men estimate that the
actual cost of smoke to the people in
their cities amounted to more than the
taxes annually collected to run the cit
ies. The presence of any smoke what
ever in the air. engineers say, destroys
to a degree any beauties that the build
ings may possess, increases the cost of
cleaning of buildings, of carpets, furni
ture and clothes and brings about a great
loss in dry goods each year to the mer
chants because of the soiling received t
from the smoky atmosphere before the j
goods are sold.
That the present generation Is living
In a time which might well bo called the
"cement age" is Indicated
The Age of by a preliminary report
Cement cornP>ftted during the past
week by the United States
geological survey, which shows that ap
proximately 92,400,000 barrels of Port
land cement were produced by Ameri
can manufacturers in the year 1913, an
increase of nearly 10,000,000 barrels, or
12 per cent, over the production of 1912.
and the world's record for production by
any country during a single year.
These figures mean little to the aver
age person until he is told that this tre
mendous output of the product which
is today one of man's most useful build
ing and paving materials has increased
by leaps and bounds from less than
- In 1 Wfi" tr> nptirlv
1,000,000 barrels in ISO", to nearly 100
From the Concord Monitor.
However, President Wilson did not go
so far as to recommend the removal of
the "trust" legend from the dollar of
From the Brooklyn Kaffle.
The President mercifully did not inflict
22,000 words on the ticker.
From the New York Kvening Post.
President Wilson's opponents are re
duced to attacks upon his pronunciation.
This is the penalty we pay for having
e'ected a litery feller.
From the Chattanooga Times.
Dr. Wilson's trust medicine doesn't
taste so bad after all.
From the Charleston News anil Courier.
President Wilson's trust message holds
out the olive branch to the enemy?pro
vided the enemy surrenders.
From the Troy Itecord.
The President's anti-trust message
made no reference to interlocking jobs
like a cabinet position and a Chautau
qua lecture route. Doubtless he feels
that time will take full care of Buch de
partures from the straight and narrow
From the New York World.
President Wilson's advice against
"loading down" he anti-trust bills is ex
client. of course, but every anti-trust
I bid should be loaded." nevertheless.
times that amount In less than twenty
There are so many uses for cement to
day that it is almost impossible to list
thorn. The popularity of cement as a
building material continues to increase,
and for certain paving purposes it per
haps will always remain unrivaled, be
cause of its cheapness and durability.
Cement today enters into the manufac
ture of everything from buildings and
bridges to telegraph poles and sewer
pipes, and has come to be recognized as
a most sanitary and lasting material
which can be manufactured at a reason
Notwithstanding the rapid increase In
the demand for cement, as its uses hax'e
multiplied, this is the one material which
has played no part whatsoever in the
high-cost-of-living problem. As the
amount used in this country has been
doubled every few years, the cost had
been gradually dropping, and the con
sumer today is payijng approximately
half of the price per barrel which was
quoted for the same material in 1895.
Although the price of cement has been
cut in half during the last twenty years,
the quality is perhaps better than it has
Engineers hare developed the use of ce
ment in construction work to a point
where it "is now possible to erect a prac
tically indestructible skyscraper of this
material, and buildings of this type are
going up in large cities in all parts of the
country. Brick and stone pavements are
rapidly being displaced by those of ce
ment, because the latter pavement Is
sanitary, cheaper and more durable. Ex
periments are being made in various
parts of the country In the construction
of cement roads, and on the farm hun
dreds of uses have been found for this
The cements used by the government In
its various operations, including the con
struction of the Panama canal and the
large irrigation dams built by the United
States reclamation service In the west,
are all tested carefully by the United
States bureau of standards.
One of the most significant features
about the increase in the use of cement
during the last ten or twelve years is its
increased use in sanitary engineering.
From a public health standpoint cement
is one of the most important building
materials now in use. Not only does it
offer a surface which is sanitary and
practically waterproof, but it has come to
be one of the most valuable agents em
ployed by municipal authorities under
the direction of public health officers in
the work of ratprooflng cities.
This work is most important for the
interests of all large cities, but more
especially the large ports such as New
York. San Francisco. Philadelphia. Bos
ton and other places. The infection of
the bubonic plague is known to be car
ried by rats, and the most effective fea
ture of a campaign against this dread
disease is the construction of ratproof
buildings of cement and other materials
in which the pests cannot live. Since the
fire of Hhk? most of the new buildings put
up in San Francisco have been construct
ed along plans which have made them
thoroughly ratproof, and cement has
perhaps played a more important part in
this work than any other material.
The fact that cement can be manufac
tured so cheaply is unfortunate in one
respect, because the cheapness of the
product often makes manufacturers so
careless that preventable waste often
bankrupts a plant. From 4 to 10 per cent
if the raw material, it is said, is wasted
in the form of flue dust in many of the
kilns in which cement roek is prepared
In a number of the European plants and
in some of those in this country this dust
is caught and saved, and thus the manu
facture of the product is made more prof
itable than it otherwise would be.
The tipures compiled by Ernest F.
Burchard of the geological survey show
that the leading cement-producing center
is in what is known as the I^ehigh dis
trict. which includes eastern Pennsylva
nia and western New Jersey, where last
year more than 27.000.000 barrels of the
product were manufactured. Illinois and
northwest Indiana produced more than
12,000,000 barrels: California and Wash
ington, on the Pacific coast, nearly O.O'KX
r*!0; Towa and Missouri. 8,500.000: Ohio
and western Pennsylvania, 7,700,000; the
great plains states, including Kansas.
Oklahoma and central Texas, more than
11.203,000: Xew York more than 5.200.0*hi,
and Michigan and northeast Indiana.
'..065.000 barrels. The remainder of the
cement supply comes from five or six
smaller producing centers.
Heavy losses from preventable diseases
in the cereal crops alone cost the people
of the country each year
Diseases of more than twice as much
p. i as it takes to run the whole
Departmerft of Agriculture.
This fact was brought out in hearings
before the House committee on Agricul
ture. when Carleton R. Ball, a govern
ment grain expert, told the members that
the office of cereal investigations of the
department had estimated the losses to
the grain crop from preventable diseases
each year to be approximately $33,000,000.
Representative Helgesen of North Da
kota added that in his state alone the
disease known as "black smut'' wiped
out from six to ten million dollars' worth
of the farmers' profits in two to three
weeks' time some years. The loss of
money by the farmers because of cereal
diseases Is much more than $35,000,000
each year, according to grain experts.
The sum named covers only the loss
from disease if the farmers will .make
use of the information which scientists
have already gathered in their various
The disease known as "smut" is a
peculiar fungus growth on the surface
of the grain, which either reduces its
value a great deal, or destroys it alto
gether. With the exception of corn, this
disease can be prevented in practically
all of the grain crops, according to gov
ernment cereal experts. The best method
is to use seed from a crop which is
ktiown to have had no smut !n it, and
the second method is to use hot water at
varying temperatures In a manner which
will kill the smut and yet leave the seed
uninjured. Great care must be taken in
following out the hot water method, be
cause if the water Is too low ip tem
perature the smut will not be killed, and
if it is too high the grain is injured, and
germination is prevented.
The government has an office in the
Agricultural Department, the principal
duty of whose grain experts is to advise
the farmers of the use of these methods
in preventing these diseases, and the
proper method to check the spreading of
smut through the wheat, oats and barley
crops. There are still some questions of
the smut problem which are yet unde
termined. and government scientists and
cereal experts under the direction of
Mark A. Carleton are working all the
time to devise methods by which prac
tically all of the troublesome diseases
may be prevented.
RAYMOND W. PUIXMAN.
From the Pittsburgh Gazette-Times.
In other words, as far as Mr. Wilson
is concerned, if the Money Devil insists
on eating it must eat out of his hand.
From the Rochester Post-Express.
The President has eased his mind of
a great load?that much must be con
Fmm the Jacksonville Times-Union.
We hereby remind those who think the
day of miracles has passed that President
Wilson'fe latest message pleased demo
crats and republicans alike.
From the Harri??burg Telegraph.
We pause in wonderment as to what
the colonel will say when he learns that
some of his followers in Congress have
approved President Wilson's trust mes
From the Wilmington (Del.) News.
When the President entered Congress
to read the message he was received
with a "vociferous salute." Had Mr.
Bryan appeared we presume it would
have been a Chautauqua salute.
From i !"? Baltimore Sun.
You can't expect Big Business to take
its medicine like it was vanilla soda
From the Chicago Evening Poit.
There is magic in the way President
Wilson makes a big stick look like an
Oiivt branch. I
FIFTY HEARS AGO
IN THE STAR
?Washington was suffering from an out
break of smallpox at this time fifty years
11 aBO* whlch some physicians
Smallpox had diagnosed as a mild
Outbreak attac^ of varloloid. It was
believed to have been due
in large measure to the incoming of nu
merous bodies of troops from all parts of
the north. Considerable alarm was ex
pressed in Congress regarding the matter,
and in The Star of January IS, 1JM14, is to
be found the fo lowing paragraph:
"We notice that it has been proposed
in Congress, as a precautionary measure
against the spread of smallpox, that the
public school children be vacclnat-d. and
the city authorities are recommended to
'take immediate action in this direction.'
Members of Congress do not seem to be
aware that for many years It has been a
requisite of admission Into our public
schools that the candidate shall have been
Apropos of the smallpox scare, the fol
lowing paragraph in The Star of January
20, 1S64, Is Of interest. Indicating the in- I
tense apprehension with which that dis
ease was regarded half a century ago. j
an apprehension which has not been alto
gether overcome by the later develop
ments of hygienic science:
"Dr. Xorthrup, who runs the Guardian
Society, also officiates in some capacity
(that of chaplain, perhaps) at Kalorama
(smallpox) Hospital, and fills out his
busy hours by newspapoalal labors In the
House reporters' gallery. He is a good
man. and mortifies the flesh by driving
a hard-trotting horse with short stirrups.
Well, it got whispered about among the
reporters the other morning that Brother
Xorthrup, then and there present, was
fresh from his visitation to the smallpox
hospital, with pestilence doubtless dis
tilling: from every thread of his clothing
and ilineament of his beaming coun
tenance. There was, of course, a hubbub
and scatteration among the press gang
each and every member of which fancied
lie felt the cold chill premonitorv of small
pox running down his bark. Thcv held
their noses and requested Brother Xorth
rup to leave. Brother X. couldn't see it
and stoutly maintained with Councilman
Kaub that the smallpox travels in the air
The reporters sent oft in hot haste to see
speaker Colfax about it. Brother Xorth
ruP.- ground. Up came a missive
notifying Brother X. that his room was
considerably better than his company.
Brother N. fell back in good order upon
the ante-room, grasping his avenging gil.
lot in one hand and a handful of station
ery In the other. When last heard from
was folding his own against heavy
odds and writing a many-paged protest
to the Speaker."
With the advent of winter crime in
Washington increased and some of the
T) ri.* misappropriators of the
.uayllgnt property of others became
Robbery. unusua"y bold. In The
Star of January 20, 1804,
is the following account of a daylight
robbery which startled the city:
"Friday afternoon, about 3 o'clock (the
news was not published until five days
later) as Mr. John S. Anderson, a mes
senger of the banking house of U John
son & Co., was passing the corner of
!'th street, on the Avenue, having in his
possession J1.015.30. which he had just
received from the Bank of Washington,
two men approached liim hurriedly, one
on each side. The one on his right
asked where the Oth street cars ran to
and from, Mr. Anderson turned to
answer him, but. feeling some one rub
against him roughly, he turned in the
other direction to see who it was. The
man who questioned him then remarked,
*We go the same way. no matter which.'
and both started and ran. Mr. Anderson
Immediately saw that he had been rob
bed of his wallet and money, and. rais
ing the cry of 'Stop, thief!' pursued
them. They ran over the Avenue to the
wagon stand and got among the wagons,
but Mr. Anderson overtook and arrested
one, who did not have the money, and
the other escaped. Mr. Anderson turned
his prisoner over to Detectives McDevitt
and Olarvoe and Patrolman Brewer of
I the third ward, who were soon on the
j spot. The prisoner gave his naine as
George Payne, and was confined in the
| station house for a hearing. Sunday he
was taken out for an examination before
Justice Clayton, hut the examination was
Postponed until Monday, when the prose
cuting witnesses were notilied by the
justice that the case was further* post
poned till Wednesday, at 4 o'clock p.m."
In The Star of the next duv a brief
paragraph noting that when the case
was called the prosecuting witnesses did
not appear and the justice dismissed the
case, the presumption being that the
money hjid been recovered.
| * *
Another daring robbery is reported in
The Star or January 22, 1SG4. The cellar
[ of a grocer at the corner of
Grocery 13th and L streets w as found
Looted l,roke" open and four fir
kins of butter, ".VI pounds of
cheese, nearly 400 pounds of pork, six
dozen tumblers, several kits of mackerel.
river 200 pounds of sugar, a sack or two
of flour and a quantity of liquor, the loot
altogether being valued at over ?r.no, had
been, taken away. Xot only had the
thieves taken all this plunder, but they
opened a stable across the street and
stolo a liorsc and wagon to remove the
groceries. Several robberies of this kind
had occurred In the same neighborhood
within a few weeks, and the double crime
Just described brought tht> residents of
the second ward to the point of consider
ing the establishment of a patrol for their
For some time during the winter of
18C3-4 Washington was the scene of a
remarkable industry, con
Kidnaping slsting Of no less than the
Recruits vlrtual kidnaping of negro
recruits for shipment
north, where they commanded higher
prices than In Washington. In The Star
of January 23. 18U4, Is the following par
"The pertinacity with which the bro
kers in recruits hold to their business
here of spiriting away negro recruits from
the District Is accounted for by the fact
that in some of the states?Connecticut
for instance?the colored recruit counts
for as much to the broker as the white
recruit, and the pay for such recruits
amounts to the snug sum of STOit each.
I or thereabouts, in township, county, state
and United States bounties. An outcry is
made by the broker-recruiting agents
that their business of picking up
recruits here has been stopped. But
they do not publish the fact that
in their own states an interdict has been
put by the state authorities upon any re
cruiting from abroad In the territory.
If this District does not similarly protect
Itself by insisting that foreign recruiting j
agents shall stop their work here it will
have a time of It In filling up the heavy
quota allotted to It by the conscription."
THE WANE OF WINTtR.
The winter raunot now he h?njr,
And soon the glad south wind will blow:
The robin with its hopeful sons;
Will <*heer us as we come ami co;
The buds will soon begin to swell.
Once more the valleys will be green.
And they that shiver now will dwell
Where early blossoms grace the scene.
The spring may not be far awav
The golfer presently will slice';
But we will soon be asked to pay
?All we have saved on coal for ice:
?re lonj? upon the corner lot
The boys will ba? the ball and shoot:
But, if the winter's mild or no*.
The poaches wl!l !?;? frozen ? ui.
??'. E. Klwr, iu tli ? C.iinw H-i-mi-lleral.l. J
CHINESE PARLIAMENT ABOLISHED
Yuan Shiii Kai was elected President of
the Chinese republic October 6, 1913, and
was inaugurated October
Summary i?. a <iisp.it.-h from i>k
l/r_? in* dated December >?'
Measures. annm.?,-ed ,h!lt OI1 Ulat
day "Yuan had perfected plans to abol-j
ish parliament." Previous dispatches an
nounced that Yuan had summarily dis
missed several regiments of soldiers witht
their officers without pay. A number of
provincial governors were treated in the
same manner, while several rebellious
colonels and many disaffected persons
A Peking dispatch dated December -??
furnishes some details of Yuan's drastic
way of enforcing personal government:
"On that das*," runs the dispatch, '"jm
mutinous soldiers and their commander |
were shot to death. As fast as one firing j
squad had performed its task another'
took its place. The men were executed |
by order of President Yuan Shih Kai foi j
thefr revolt against the government at !
Another dispatch announces the revolt
of three regiments at Talifou. These I
regiments, it was said, "had killed th*?ir i
officers, looted the armories, killed the
professors and inhabitants and declared j
themselves independent in the name of j
Sun Vat Sen."
The mention of I>r. Sun Yat Sen's name!
in that connection is to say the least |
somewhat peculiar and leads one to sus- J
pect that Yuan would cast reflection upon
his too generous and trusting rival. It .
will be recalled that following the revo
lution of July I)r. Sun Yat Sen escaped |
from China. Yuan when quite sure of ;
Sun's departure offered rewards for a long :
list of rebels. For one who headed the I
list Yuan offered $.>>.?**>. For 1 >r. Sun's!
head, whose name followed last on the ,
list. Yuan in apparent derision offered j
the modest sum of $2.50!
Are these reports of mutiny intended j
a curtain behind which Yuan may ?vk
to excuse his own revolution-reaction 1
against the constitution? Indeed, as far I
| back as November l.'I a dispatch an
j nounced Yuan's intention to summon an
! "administrative council." which, in addi
tion to transacting state affairs, "would
draft regulations governing the new par
liament. The council, we were told,
would number seventy-one members, con
sisting of cabinet officers and others ap
pointed by Yuan, including provincial
Yuan considered the number of repre
sentatives 459G) as excessive. He would
reduce these to 300. The
Changes powers of parliament
pi j should be curtailed, the
* senate to be merged into
the administrative council, which, being
non-elective, would be a permanent body.
This was in November. As the appetite
giows in the course of a repast. Yuan
has decided that his administrative coun- !
cil may, in the interest of economy, and j
Yuan, be considerably diminished. Al- j
though it goes without saying that
every one appointed to this administra
tive council is a Yuan partisan.
Among the members already named
there are Sin Che Cheung, formerly of
the grand council of the empire; Li
Ching Chi, former president of the pro
visional senate: Cha Liang, former di
rector of the University of Peking. All
these were mandarins under the empire.
The members of the koumlngtang
party, or "Young China," have resigned
or have made haste to bolt from Peking,
if not from China, lest they invite per
secution and perhaps decapitation.
When the republic was popular, or ap
parently popular, the party of Young
China was tolerated by the people, but
the party was never entirely sympathetic
with the peasant because it destroyed the
cult of temples, the .*-tatues. the genii and
the rest ground deeply in the soul of the
common man. as. indeed, in the soul of
the mandarin. For the populations of
the provinces it was abominable sacri
lege to overturn the temples, abandon tlie
rites of the ancestors, which are the
foundation of family and society in China.
Yuan has said to a missionary that he
will not restore Confucianism. Neverthe
less. he has re-established the c ult of the
temples, which means the cult of Con
fucianism. And this is important, be
cause in the end he may secure a sort
of passive popularity with the people,
who look back with regret to the old or- j
der of things, and who cordially dislike
the new. Yuan has been represented as a
scholar and student. He is nothing of
the sort, and in the days I knew him
personally in Korea he had no such pre
tensions. He was a voracious eater and
drinker, a bon vivant. but neither philos
opher nor poet. Simply soft clay in the
hands of his secretary, who gave him all
his inspiration, which was not much in
A dispatch from Peking announces that
Yuan, having pacified the peasant, has j
proceeded to drastic
Alleged measures and has re- j
Approval. ceiyed tr?m his mil"ary!
* " and civil creatures a [
?'round robin" indorsement for the aboli- j
| tion of parliament.
The round robin is reported to have j
been sent out by Gen. Li Yuen Heng. and j
is signed by all the provincial governors, I
and suggests to Yuan the abolition of j
parliament. The document says:
"The Chinese parliament enacted no i
important law in the seven months of its I
existence, and will not do so if it be per- j
mitted to continue for lt?> years.
"Vice President Li Yuen Heng and
other prominent citizens of the republic :
cannot continue to remain silent while!
the country goes to destruction.
"The administrative council now con
ened in 1'eking is a more useful body I
than the old parliament. The council is ?
similar to the convention formed by the i
thirteen states which assisted George
Washington in the revision of the Ameri- 1
j We and the whole of the Chinese peo
ple disapprove of the conduct of the bad j
members of parliament. Foreigners like- i
wise disapprove of it. Therefore the I
president of the republic need not hesi- '
Doubtless there will be found foreigners
in Peking who will tell Yuan all sorts of
fantastic stories about George Washing
ton, even perhaps that lie was an original
Confucianist. Poor Arabi Pasha was
given the idea that he was in a way the
Washington of his country.
Apropos to the foreigners in Peking it
Is significant to note that Yuan had on |
October oO. 191ft, appointed twenty-three '
foreign advisers. Of these five are Ger
mans. four are Knglish, three are French,
two arc Japanese, two are Italians, two
are Danes, one Russian, one Hollander,
one Belgian, one Swede and one Ameri
1 ti addition to these foreign advisers
Sir Francis Piggott, late British chief
justice at Hongkong, is retained as legal
adviser, and he may, therefore, be said
to be the chief of Yuan's foreign staff.
Commander Harold Christian besides has
been attached to the Chinese service by
the British government as director of the
new naval college which it is proposed
to establish at Shanghai.
By reason of the personal contact of
these appointees with Yuan, whose social
qualities render him more approachable
From tb** Boston lleruhi.
Not the first snowstorm hereabouts, but
the first real one?the kind that with
| stands the warfare of the city's numerous
| wheels and shovels.
From the Pittsburgh Chronicle-Telegraph.
Mobile. Ala., reports the appearance on
| heads of the first straw hats of the 1914
season. But, alas! the walking to Mobile ?
Is long, and it is bad in many places.
From the Detroit Free I'ress.
Winter, it appears, has revised her
From the Syracuse Font-Standard.
Fears are entertained for the ice crop.
' In some places it is said to be of un
marketable thickness and in others of
| indecent thinness.
From the Topeka State Journal.
I If winter weather does not put in an
I appearance pretty soon a whole lot of
car!> sprin?, flowers, shrubbery and fruit
j trees are going to get sorely fooled.
The financial *lt nation is alarn.lnc
The fix hundred ami nrty millions of the
_ . 's' loan contented !
financial the banks ..r the ??
and the question rmv
arises where China may find other
resources than thn tax on s?it. t -
product of which served as .. guarantee
for the flr?.t loan. Then. ton, there is
much discussion over the sum realite.1
and tlie sum expected. The .llfTrrcnce i
so treat as to appear Incredible. The
wise shake their heads significantly an.!
insinuate that there has bee,, a colosw!
Since several months there has b?oTi r ?
mention of Tan* shao Vi on.-., a farmli ,
heure, an important factor in fhin.se ?
fairs iw.liliear rin.i ,c.I TaeK ?
the faith:,,1 Achates of Yuan, the
teot. Indeed, of the latter's fortune M j, ,
out lane. ^ 'lan could never have h<. ?
ma.ie mandarin, much less preMdrtu
lane was secretary to Yuan in the I.
ginning ?f his c?wr. and t<. the know.
;"'f consulates Tnng ftirnlahed th.
brains for the Chinese residuary. Tans
w." .1 graduate of Harvard. Me accon.
pan led Yuan to China. ?ho, after lus
liasco with the Japanese in 1V.U,
made mandarin and Tanc appointed
ehrn ?, " T T 'h" ?-ii-?a-pu or for
(Jen olflce. In l!Cis Tang was made ,-p.
clal commissioner to the l'n;te,i Htate? f
convey the emperor's recognition of the
voluntary return to China of the surplus
""" Boxer indenuiitv. one dav a
ther..err 7???? " "Snatch announod
till arrest Of lane, reported to have fl-,1
from 1-ekins The note was vague, ob
scure, and since then, silence. What in.
,."an done to Tune" 1 will not belie. .?
them separated. Witl, Tune. Yuan mai
jet attain the throne of China.
If tin- political horizon is overcast In
China the economical situation in tin
^ matter of our export trad,
economic Shows marked improve
Situation. Ar'"r',lr'? <?> >
Journal or the American
Asiatic Association for January, the total
exports to China, including Ilonskont.
for ten months ending In October amount
ed to *:l,l<?i.4!ts, against *Lt!,S.'.lM.-c for the
corresponding period of last year. Im
ports have advanced so far tills \ ear to
a little over J35.00o.U00. against *31.000.0. o
for the first ten months of 1M12.
Foreign residents in China incurred
oi ies ti th<* ,oou,se Of the revolution In
.', ? Their claims bring up questions of
International law cxtrenielv interesting
and which may be briefly resumed thus.
. j! . *'le. Chinese government; is it
judicially obliged to repair damages re
sulting from the civil war?
Second, is interest due eventually on th#
sum of the indemnities awarded?
Third, in supposing that the Chinese
may be held responsible for "damages re
sulting directly from the revolution. do* m
the obligation extend to damages result
lng indirectly from the same cause?
It should be remarked that the great
Asiatic powers are today subjects of the
law of nations, since they arc delegates
to the court ?>f arbitration erected at
The Hague in l&Kf.
Recently the principal state? of the
society of nations recognized the Chine*,
republic. It results, therefore, that China
has a.11 the obligations falling upon all
the states of the international societv
and she has also all the rights.
The quasi-unanlmity of authors pro
nounce the irresponsibility of states in
tlie matter of damaites or losses incurred
by foreigners because of troubles, revolts
or civil wars.
The states do not recognize on the?e
heads any right to indemnity for theii
subjects, as foreigners cannot pretend in
this matter to any privilege. In going
into a country foreigners for a fact pla? ?
themselves under the laws of that
In fact, a state may grant Indemnity,
but only as an act of courtesy, r.o for. im -
ers who have suffered prejudice i it
cause of a revolt or a civil war. I!ut ai:
states have not obeyed this sentiment o
generosity and international courtesy
Nevertheless the Chinese government, a
though it does not feel itself held un.i. r
the law as responsible for the ewms
ot 1011. voluntarily offers indemnitv to
foreigners, victims of the revolution.
On the occasion of Yuan S ih K., *
election to the presidency Preside nt \\ I
son addressed him October 0. 10i:i. a con
gratulatory telegram in which he said:
"It is my hope and expectation that,
guided by the principles of right and
justice and the high
Greetings ? deals of republican
"From TT ^ government, your ex
XTOlIi U. O. cellency's administration
will be so conducted as to assure the ad
vancement of China and conduce to the
peace, happiness and prosperity of I ei
lleplying October i:;. Yuan said in part
"Happy in the performance of my duties
I always have the luminous < xample "i
the I'nited States to guide and help un
it. cannot be said that the pea lis in
President Wilson's telegram to Yuan
have been appreciated at their just value.
For barely two months later Yuan al?c!
ished parliament and by the establish
ment of an administrative council vio
lated the constitution and substituted
the republic a dictatorship, all of which
is a subversion of the high ideals of thai
government which President Wlbou
hoped and expected Yuan to emulate.
A word in conclusion of the vice presi
dent of China, Gen. LI Yuan-hung. When
general in command of the rebels he was
remarked for his frequent proclamations.
As vice president he continues to attract
attention. La's latest effort Is in the form
of a message addressed to President
Yuan, the, tutuhs and chief admlnlstra
tors. As tlie vice pi, sldent has a tena
cious spirit his acts an not to b- nrnorcd
and he is affecting to be the speci.-i
friend of the people. His message con
sists of suggestions, and one of th---e
merits special mention:
"There are many students and -.ins
in the country who simply attained t' e
fame by empty talk and have no practi
cal experience. You may draw a pudding
on a piece of paper which looks edibl. .
but it can never satisfy the stomach
The employment of such inexperienced
arid incapable mm in government oilice
will surely result in failure."
Inasmuch as the President of China
has abolished parliament the vice presi
dent may be expected to abolish some
thing also. What will it be or who will
It be? CI I. CH AILEK-LAJNO
From the Newark Eveuiuc .Star.
There is cheer in the thought that the
winter is now a day more than one-third
l>"ui the Toronto Star.
In order that a .lanuaiy thaw may b?
a success it must have something to
Fr??in the Ism Auffples Evening Herald.
Midwinter in southern California.
Enough of lain fallen already in the tirst
half of winter to assure bountiful crops
in spring. Ore.cn hills and flowering
plains make us to rejoice.
From thr Albany Evening Journal.
That favorite outdoor sport, the seeing
of the lirst robin, will soon begin, even
though there are no robins to be seen.
From the Newark Star.
According to the Coal Trade Journal
"hard coal is more active." and. noticing
the activity it displays in gettinir out of
Hie bin any householder will concur.
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