M M *T"m B B g w as
Peons and Those
Nursing Wrongs Swell
Their Ranks ? Plunder
Poor as Well as
Rich ? Extermination
of Brigandage a Tremendous
Task ? Diaz
Methods ? Famous
Bandit Chiefs and
Their Stories ? What
Will Be Done With
BY CHARLES M. PEPPER.
eperiai ' >r>rTP5ponnenrp of 17ie star.
CHIHUAHUA. Mexico. May 22. 1914.
will be so under Villa or a compromise
regime. It would be so under American
military Intervention or international
policing of the country. There
are topographical a9 well as sociological
reasons for the system.
Before considering some of the more
eminent personalities among the bandit
and semi-bandit chiefs the underlying
causes of the existence and the persistence
of the system should be understood.
Mexico is a wild country. The Sierra
Madres are terrific mountain fastnesses.
somewhat of a bar in themselves
to civilization. Outlawry among a
primitive mountain population is n?t
uncommon the world over.
The desert stretches of northern
Mexico, the country of cactus and
chapparal. if hospitable to nothing else.
are hospitable to brigandage. The
great ranches form the natural prey of
the brigands. Cattle stealing and
horse thieving become comparatively
The long international boundary and
particularly the Texas border with only
the shallow Rio Grande to cross offers
exceptional opportunities, sometimes
ti> smuggle stolen live stock into the
1'nited States, sometimes to make a
raid and drive cattle into Mexico. The
FOIR OF CASTILI
Texas rangers are a pretty effective
body of state border control, but the
necessity of maintaining their organization
is the evidence of the conditions
w hich favor lawlessness.
Recruits for the bandits come from all
classes. Some are the peons who take
to brigandage as a refuge from the hopeless
misery of their daily life. A feware
the victims of circumstances as with
Villa, who. after avenging a hideous
V'rsonal wrong, took to the hills and
carried on ms warmie hkhium aur??i>.
Ivlore arc criminals, fugitives from jusrce.
frequently murderers The majority
re brigands from natural inclination,
king the life with all its dangers and
>njoying its perilous fruits.
, ^ *
Bandit leaders are usually first heard
from as the heads of small bands num
M, PEPPEE ?
i ' " ' :i . . . 1 '
INTERIOR OF THE Cl'MBRE
bering about twenty-five men. Some of no
them prefer to keep at the bead of a thi
compact body of this size, but oftener. 1
as their exploits swell their reputation, po
the number of their followers grows, rel
and if they wish they can count on a of
hundred or more members operating in an
given territory. lat
Romance has little place in Mexican un
brigandage as a profession, though indi- ?a
vidua! bandits have some picturesque int
features. But in its general aspect it sui
has none of the glamour of brigandage in 1
Italy or the Balkans, or. formerly, in ow
In the days of Spanish rule in Cuba Bu
there was a famous bandit king named ica
Manuel Garcia, whose exploits in se- eit
questering rich sugar planters and hold- po
ing them .for ransom?sometimes murder- dh
ing them, too?made him the hero of gei
a lin au.
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K f':; ^r#V??f?^^^B Jp- ?llll soc
m B"'tflliSi'"' ^*!^^^B^BRl
B falfllliy^MBi bri
I W|H tfi
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B ''^? J^B^B crc
F^iaKBifiB $ *SHB 8tr
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igi ., x
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13 j ^ th*
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y%^m <* ^^BPPfMMB Gu
r?*P$18 ill .^Bfl^BH *a
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popular ballads. The ransom was al- ou
ways a part of Cuban brigandage. lo,
tu ^ -. ^ v- ~~ ; 1 ,..i-i t-Zl
-? "tic uo?c UCCJI u<-va.iiunui (-CICUI tticu
cases of this kind in Mexico, but they
have not been common. Blackmail on
ranchmen, mine owners and railway N
managers giving protection from raids bu
for a consideration, has been the most
usual way, and where payment was re- '
fused, savage attacks and destruction
of property followed. fol
The peon population generally is im- dr<
' ' ': \<
LO?S BAM)ITS l.MJKR GU ARD BY AMKKI
inuue, not because of any natural syra- yo
pathy with it, as might be inferred, but up
because it is too poor to be robbed. In Pr
a raid on a town to rob a bank, for example,
a wayside tienda or refreshment Qu
counter, the sole property of some poor
man. would be despoiled as heartily as
the big store. th
If there was to be murder, the peon had E
as little chance of being spared as had to
the village plutocrat. Outraging the worn- dir
en was the common incident of a raid. sPl
* * ba:
It may be asked why the rural com- pa
munities are not able to protect them- thi
selves, if necessary by vigilance commit- Mk
tees, as was done in the western section _~
of the United States in the early days, Qf
and la still done where l^w and order are Tfa
SRflBH^^^^^HB^jiPr jSr X. "..^ ^^j^H^^BjS
naaaia unairw nii_s u-nprifpn
t fully established. The answer is in .?
e totally different conditions. t
There is no such thing as a pioneer <
pulation in Mexico, made up of self- t
iant individuals, all having property *
their own, or the prospect of property, I
d all equally interested in maintaining 1
v and order. The big hacienda owners s
der their feudal system can organize ?
nd sometimes do organize?their peons *
o a defensive force when they have 8
ficient notice of a threatened attack. ?
'hx. ranch owners always have their
n vaqueros. though sometimes these *
vbovs themselves become the bandits. c,
t in Mexico, as in every Spanish-Amer- c
in country, authority as represented 6
her by a central power or by local 1
lice power takes the place of in.idual
initiative, uarticularly in emer- ?
icies, and the difficulties in the way of 1
complete control of brigandage by the 0
thorities are many. ?
'orflrio Diaz, in the early years of his J
tocratic sway, by establishing the 1
-ales, or mounted rural police, and
iking bandits officers of the law. to
rit down and exterminate other bandits,
much for the pacification of the counIt
was protecting life and property i
d keeping order without an overnice
:ard for the forms of civil authority,
ose of us who were wont to praise this
item are perhaps estopped from criti- |
ing what his successors may do.
'ault is found with Diaz because at the
1 of thirty years of absolutism
gandage still existed, and this is cited
evidence of the failure of his policy,
t the existence of the anti-horse thief
:iety in Oklahoma today might as well
cited as evidence of the failure of state
Tere is an example. Gen. Villa is tov
in complete military control of the
te of Chihuahua. Many former
gands who roamed through the dis- .
ct are held at Fort Wingate by the
lerican military authorities. They are
rt of Huerta's federal army, who
>ssed the Rio Grande as refugees after
? battle of Oginaga. Other brigands
> part of Villa's own troops and under
ict discipline. Consequently it would
:m that there now should be no bandits
Chihuahua. Yet two separate bandsit
of the Quevedo brothers and of
tierrez?are robbing ranches, driving
cattle, looting and burning property,
'his shows how difficult the exterminan
of brigandage is. Moreover, these i
nds also roam over New Mexico, so |
it authority on orfe side of the border ;
?ms no weaker than on the other side,
n the best days of the Diaz rule, not- j
thstanding the natural encouragement
brigandage, the rurales made most of
i country safe for travel. Some years I
o, before the railroad was completed I
>m the Pacific coast at Manzanilla to
; junction, with the extension from
T V\ Q trin AUOr t Vl
<iuaiajaia. i maut im. v.
p from Colima on horseback. It was
i main traveled route. There had been
x>rts of some trouble along the way,
t of a rather vague sort,
i. small party was going across and I
,s invited to wait and accompany them,
t this would have meant a delay of
0 or three days. On my explaining to
1 landlord of the hotel my desire to
sh forward he remarked: "You can go
me. The rurales will be on the lookt.
I'll send a muleteer with you to
ik after your baggage."
Ve left Colima early in the morning,
t the baggage mule went lame in the e
?at barranca or canyon of Beltran. and "
s muleteer, giving me the direction to v
low after getting out of the canyon, o
3pped behind. Crossing the mesa be
- ; r J
' v.- -> : f!
S , I a
- : : ' j<
fiki't i v
* ' 3 "
?*r J1 1
CAN SOI.DIEUS. J'
nd some hours later a horseman loomed
on the horizon and then another,
ettv soon they came galloping up.
\s we met. one of them, the elder, in- t
ired sharply: t
You ride alone. Senor Americano?" .
'Why not? They told me at Colima
at the rurales were here." r
loth smiled and we Jogged on together h
the hamlet of Platanor. where they ^
ected me to a meson, or small inn. A .
lendid gray stallion was hitched outle.
Its owner was the landlord of the s
l. a heavy-set. black-bearded, genuine a
ndit-looking sort of an individual. He y
llenly told the Indian women to prere
me some tortillus and then, bolting *
rough the door, mounted and road off 0
e mad. 8
Pwo hours later I was awakened from F
r siesta on the mud floor by the return f
the landlord. The horse was foaming, t
is rider dismounted, came in quietly, v
'- V*. ' / >I i
i~- a- # i; ' ?i
L.^ ' i
BY CASTILLO'S BANDITS.
sat down beside me. and. in marked conxast
to his previous behavior, civilly injuired
after my comfort. Later I learned
hat he was an ex-bandit of some note,
vho, constrained by an order from su)erior
authority and the presence of the
urales to follow the peaceful calling of
l country innkeeper, worked off his sur>lus
energies by daily exercise on the
>ack of his prized stallion. The chances
ire that he evened up with authority by
foing into the Madero revolution.
Diaz's practice was to hold the local auhorities
to a strict accountability for
rder and the safety of travelers in banlit
territory. This began with the governors.
and the governors passed it down
o their subordinates.
Some years ago an American mining
ngineer with two or three assistants had
o make the journey through the state
if Oaxaca to Acapulco. This is one
if the wildest sections of the Sierras.
Phe American was given a letter of in*Vom
Gen. Diaz to the gov aig
?:*J? $M ' ''-*' i*
*' 'H -~w '
*%y?- <. *
CASTILLO, IX CIVILIAN GARB, TAI
rnor of the state. It was very brief,
aerely saying that the engineer was to
lake the trip and that the governor
ould be held responsible for the safety
f the party.
Long before they reached their real
tarting point they were met by an esort
of. rurales, some of whom were
ure-blood Indians. They were delivered
rom escort to escort in this manner and
i the wildest mountain trails were never
lone more than a few hours. The govrnor
simply passed the word that the
>fe politico, or head of the civil autiority
in each district, would be held
esponsible, and the jefe politico passed
he word down the line to his suborinates.
Where there were no regular rurales
pecial local guards of Indians were proided.
The party got to Acapulco withut
seeing or hearing of a bandit,
hough ihey were Known 10 ue pienty.
One of the problems of reconstructing
lexico under any regime that may" be
stabllshed is going to be the disposition
o be made of a number of bandit chiefs
r chiefs on the borderland of briganage.
Many of them are generals.
Some wrho are identified with the sucessful
cause undoubtedly will occupy
esponsible positions and will fulfill useul
and necessary functions in restoring
aw and order and in keeping down
rigandage. Some who cast their lot
irith the losers wilL be killed if they are
aught. Some at this time are so strongy
intrenched that tl^ey are in a position
o treat as independent powers.
Zapata in the south, with his unparaleled
record of barbaric ferocity, has
naintained his mastery of a whole state
-Morelos?as few bandit chiefs have
[one. He has educated enough lieutenints
in his bloody business to terrorize
ill southern Mexico for years unless they
an be exterminated In a swift and reentless
Among: the groups of bandits?some of
hem good bandits and some of them bad
>andits?who ranged themselves under
dadero's banner when he started the
evolution against Diaz, those of Chituahua
filled a large figure in subsequent
ilstory. Pascual Orozco was one of these,
le was, I think, a native of the city, a
ort of a popular man about town with
i personal following. A former saloon
teeper in El Paso told me that in times
vhen there was little brigandage, but
>nly an occasional robbery, Orozco would
nmotimiiB a nnpnr unexneetedlv with his
lockets full of money, which he spent
reely. He was concerned In the revolulonary
movements in Juarez in 1910, mad
ras in the field against Diaz before Ma
dero. but his military talents did not hav
a chance to develop till the revolutio
was in full tide and he became one <
the important commanders.
After that came the short peacefi
period under Madero, and the unusuall
peaceful night in Juarez when the call
was broken in a flash, the town was sh<
up, the stores pillaged, and the ne:
morning everybody knew that Orozco
revolution against Madero was In fu
Its later history is not of consequenc
now. . Its leader joined Huerta in Mexic
City. The Maderistos and Villaistos war
to get Pascual Orozco and kill him.
Orozco had a lieutenant known as Ch<
Che Campo, who made a reputation a
the prince of pillagers. Some sections <
Coahuila yet bear witness to his destru<
tiveness. If he raided a hacienda an
failed to complete ine rum 01 me ounc
ings, it was because his attention wa
drawn off to some fresh object of plllag<
No one appears to know what has b?
come of Che-Che Campo.
One of the Chihuahua group wh
achieved prominence in the Madero revc
lution was Jose Inez Salazar. It is claim
ed on his behalf that he was not a band
leader, but a real military chief of irreg
Salazar Is what is known as a "Ne\
Mexican Mexican"?that is. he lived fc
a while on the American side of the bor
der among the population which neve
has become Americanized, either as t
language or as to citizenship. He wa
operating with his own band in Chihua
hua when the armed Insurrection begar
He took part in the battle of Casa
Grandes, which was one of the first tha
was fought. It was at Casas Grande
that Madero was wounded.
Salazar kept his followers in line durin
the revolution and for a time was 1
high favor with the Madero government
But he became what is known as a "re
flagger," and under Huerta he was on
of the leading federal commanders in th
north. After the defeat of the federal
at Ojinaga he and - his soldiers crosse
the Rio Grande and were taken in charg
by the American troops and interned a
His own followers were much incense
at him. and Salazar claimed that the
were plotting to murder him. He wa
accordingly* removed from the stockad
in which the refugee federals were kei)
and was put under special guard. Th
same precaution is maintained at For
Wingate since the Mexicans were re
moved to that fort.
Most typical of all the bandits is Max!
mo Castillo. He is also typical of th
disappointed office seeker as a bandit, o
of the bandit as a disappointed offic
seeker, for he was a bandit before h
sought to become a government function
Castillo is a Chihuhuan, one of th
class whom everybody seems to kno*
without knowing much about. He roam
ed through the Chihuahua hills with hi
V > ' |
' ^ M
tmr. EXERCISE UNDER GUARD OF
followers, stealing cattle and robbing in
discriminately. He was with Madero a
Casas Grandes and his band was said t<
have done effective bushwhacking. Hi
became one of Madero's bodyguard.
When the revolutionary leader was ii
El Paso Castillo was always at his side
Some of the delicate negotiations whicl
were conducted on the American side o
the border were said to be intrusted t<
Revolution won. It bore Madero tri
umphantly to Mexico City to be inaugu
rated as president. With him went man:
faithful followers who expected to be re
warded with office; more of them thar
offices could possibly be provided for
Others waited a while, expecting tha
j Sy ?S
i i. V''"
**?#?* ^ - r -** '/ : ^ X r,
PASCUAL OROZCO, THE BANHIT
d MAXIMO CASTIM,0. THE
e they would be taken care of without hav- w
s ing to make the journey to the capital, gn
d When no appointments came they,"too, pi
'? went on to see about it. b<
t Among these was Maximo Castillo. In tl
the fighting in the north he never had tr
o trouble getting to see Madero, the revo- tl
y lutionary leader. Seeing President Ma- o1
s dero in the national palace was different.
e Hundreds of others were also waiting to
see him. Castillo was several days in
? obtaining an audience, and then the pres- w
ident was unable to provide his old friend
* and supporter with the position wanted. 01
The same thing has happened with Pres- l>(
idents in Washington. er
e Castillo returned to Chihuahua soured. fr
r disappointed and complaining bitterly of
e the ingratitude of the new adnjinistra- \
e tion. After a time he took some of his 1
- old followers to the hills and resumed the
life of brigandage. He did not side with
e Huerta or join the federal troops. His
v band was simply a free lance bandit
- band. He did not come in conflict with
s the constitutionalist troops. It is still
said that he had too many followers in
Chihuahua for that to happen, and that
there was a tacit understanding that he
was to be allowed to roam over a definite
One of Castillo's exploits was to seize
100 horses belonging to the transportation
company in Juarez and run them
off to the hills. This varied the cattle
stealing and other free lancing.
Officials of the Northwestern railway
received a demand from Castillo for
money under penalty of having their
property destroyed. Possibly. relying on
the effective protection which Gen. Villa's
troops had been giving them, the demand
Horror and atrocities had been too
common in the anarchical warfare of the
last three years for an ordinary atrocity
to excite much attention along the border.
Castillo perpetrated an extraordinary one.
One day the news came that a passenger
train had been burned in the
Cumbre tunnel near Madera, a station
between Juarez and Chihuahua. A
freight train had been wrecked and
burned in the tunnel and the passenger
train had been allowed to run into it.
Fifty persons, including seven Americans,
were roasted to death. The fiendish
wrecking was declared to be the
work of Castillo's band.
A fortnight later it wras known that
Castillo and some stragglers from his
band, which, had divided, had crossed
the Rio Grande. They were captured
by the American patrol troops and taken
to Fort Bliss with evidences of popular
execution which made them thankful
for the protection of the military escort.
Question was at once raised as to what
to do with Castillo. One. suggestion was
to take him to the middle of the International
bridge between El Paso and
Juarez and deport him as an undesirable
alien, although this would have been
t?lll L/tXl I blOQlIlg IV lilt WIICIIIUIIUIIUIICIO.
The military authorities, however, did wi
not undertake to pronounce off hand on re
his guilt and Castillo and his bandit JJq
comrades were guarded like the federal <
refugees, but not in the same stockade s<
with them. I^ater they were removed to
Fort Wlngate in New Mexico.
It is understood that the military ^
authorities have gathered authentic in- y
formation concerning the destruction of R
the tunnel Castillo, of course, disclaims g
responsibility for the loss of life, al- g
- though one story is that some members g
t of the band, not being hopeless fiends, g
3 begged him to send back and flag the p
e passenger train and he refused. It
cannot be claimed that the firing of the
. tunnel was a war act. since Castillo's ^
band was not operating as part of either
the Huertlfeta or the Villaista troops*
J When the L'nited States recognizes any
' government in Mexico, Castillo will be hi
0 turned over to the Mexican authorities. Pi
since the crime was committed in Mex- ^
"lean territory. Should he ever be tried .
by ordinary court process, it is stated, A
- somewhat significantly, that he still has W!
- a following in Chihuahua. In the mean- ex
v time he remains the problem and the
prisoner of the American military au- .
1 Physically Castillo Is said to be the m
. most magnifiicent specimen of Mexican m
t manhood that can be seen. When he he
i i mi ii i ne
LBiDBR OF TWO REVOLUTIONS. 1st]
? WHY T1
mlb , ? *%
u &Mv>v3 "Cv . *tK"*P fl
V v-'^K$ 'Vf'liSv^vo\v< > -. Mmr '^^1
I |gl . flU^M
Life <$3?p*- ^kM
* V> - - IHpiMfl
BANDIT t'HtKF, \S A rOMMINDE
as a rebel officer and Madera's bodyjard,
in his picturesque national trapngs.
sombrero, gold braid, cartridge
^lt. spurs, and all that goes to make up
le costume, he was the center of abaction
wherever he appeared, although
lere were other splendid looking bandit
That some of the bandits who served
ith the rebels, and possibly even some
those who were with the federals, will
i absorbed into useful functionaries excising
police power against brigandage
Hows from what has been said about
exican conditions. A yet unsettled
Jest ion. how ever, is what certain mili ?$&%?&>
CASTILLO \VHK\ FIR
ry leaders of their character who.
bile nominally acting as part of the
volutionary army, have built up indendent
commands for themselves, will
Some of them have established themslves
in a small way as military feudal
| MEXICAN PEA
rHAT part of Mexico which lies between
the Gulf of California and
the Pacific, Baja California, is
ghly interesting and little known. La
iz. on the ocean side, is the chief pearlihing
center of the Pacific coast of
merica. ranking third on the globe,
ith $2,000,000 as the value of the annual
The population is principally Mexican,
it there are soldiers of fortune and
en of great commercial interests from
any countries. The mollusks found
re are not to be eaten, and they are
ver seen in beds, like the edible oyster,
it must be sought singly by divers,
le shells are often fifteen inches across,
id these produce mother-of-pearl.
As an occ upation, pearl fishing is slow
licide, bcit nearly all of the O.Ono inibitants
of La Paz are engaged in it,
r there is little else to do. One Ameran
company alone employs more than
0 men and six schooners.
Wearing diving suits, the fishermen
n remain fathoms deep in the sea for
Up in the Air.
EN. Fl'NSTON"." said a war corre
w spondent just back from tlie front,
fas admiring one day in Vera Cruz the
lendid flying of one of our army air;n.
"No uncertainty about that chap." the
nera 1 said. "He's not like a flier I
ard about recently.
4A millionaire paid this flier $1<X> to be
<en up in his monoplane. Up they rose,
t the dipping, the zigzagging and the
ieslipping were terrible.
' 'Easy. man. easy!" the millionaire
a.red above the shriek of the wind and
e thunder of the motor. 'Easy! This
only my second trip, remember.'
* 'It's my first.' said the pilot."
Cutting and Polishing.
'HE REV. HOLM AN BLACK was cpn- I
gratulatod in Denver by a reporter,
ter an eloquent sermon, on his mastery
'What is your secret, sir?" the reporter
Well," was Dr. Black's smiling an
er, "a preacher should always rememr
that while there are sermons in
>nes, the more precious a stone is, the 4
tre carefully it must be cut and polled."
r "i? m
m ? n mi ? mi ? ?l
. _ |
' w- ?
(||^ps^b^fc ? * .
. s ? - *" -
:h of kkbri. troops.
lords in place of the dispossessed feudal
landlords against whom the revolution
was directed. Their following is personal
and has become habituated to pillaging
under the guise of war.
Peaceful conditions, the physical reconstruction
of the country, will not appeal
to them. The tendency of these bandit
chiefs and their followers will be to ignore
civil authority and continue to lead
the free life of roaming pillage, scattering.
but maintaining a certain coherence.
Gen. Villa, as his military successes
have multiplied, has brought some of
these rebel generals to time and they
have submitted themselves to army disci
!'"?? . rnjiiH-. who w inif iiuiiiiiiHn> accept.inn
Villa's authority, are still stubborn,
Hut when war as war ends and politlST
cal peace is re-established there will still
be brigandage in Mexico, and under Villa
bandit leaders will be hunted down by
their old commander just as bandit leaders
were hunted down under Diaz.
(Copyrighted, 1914, by <3iarlet* M. Pepper.)
ML FISHERIES ?
more than an hour, but the life of a
diver, here as elsewhere, is short. Deafness
is the earliest sign of the wear and
tear, then nervous prostration, and in
less than five years most of the men who
hazard their lives securing pearls are
mere wrecks of men, sitting helpless
along the shore. The only labor open to
them is that of hunting the pearls in the
suspected shells. This work is carried
on in long, open sheds near the water's
edge, under the eyes of a watchful inspector.
A peculiar kind of parasite
which bores its way through the shell
of the big oyster creates the finest
The price of a good Mexican pearl
ranges from $100 to $1,000. Some of the
iitiful ever produced were sent
from I^a Paz to Madrid by the Spanish
conquerors in the early days of Baja California.
It is said that most of the pearls
possessed by the European dynasties today
came from the little coast town of
La Paz. Fabulous sums have been received
for rarely tinted pearls taken
from the waters of the Pacific in this
vicinity. Paris finally possessing most
The Middle Course.
SENATOR ROOT, at a reception, was
discussing the Mexican situation.
"Steer a middle course." he said to an
extremist. "These extreme ideas are always
"Thus, at a tea, one young girl asked
" 'And where are you going this summer.
" 'From the way mother talks,' was the
reply, 'you'd think we were going to Newport.
From the way father talks you'd
think we were going to starve. But I
suppose we'll steer a middle course, as
usual, and put in a fortnight at a twelvedollar
Atlantic City boarding-house.' "
Late in the Day.
ORVILLE WRIGHT, apropos of his
new safety appliance for aeroplanes.
said at a dinner in Dayton:
"In a short time, now, there wili be no
more aeroplane accidents. In a short
time there will be no more aeroplane
"I heard a new Joke yesterday. A
sroung woman rushed- Into an insurance
office and cried:
" 'One life policy, quick! My husband's
Biplane's fallingf "
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