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Ow Embassy aft Paris Is a M@al Bwdtasa Uposa: ?w Amnilbassadl?r, Says Sft@irMmg H@iig Why America Should Own a Proper Man sion ? Palaces of the Great Powers?Where Germany Thought It Good Business to Fur nish a Yacht?Ambas sador Herrick and His Vast Personal Ex* penses. Speritl Correspondence of The Star. PARIS, August 1, 1914. MBASSADOR SHARP will, in a short time, come to Parte. At that time Ambassador Her rick, whose de parture was delay ed by the interna tional war, will leave, unless the United States gov ernment should de cide to retain hin? at a special representative. * * * Ambassador Sharp will face tiie experi ence of Ajnbassador Herrick. And every one in Paris knows the experience of Am bassador Herrick. He has spent more money than he feels that he can afford. Each new-coming ambassador, in peace or in war, will have the same problem to face?until the United States provides for a dignified embassy mansion and its fixed charges In Paris. The salary is $17,500. Ambassador Bacon, who preceded Her rick, was probably the wealthiest repre sentative that we have had in Paris for a long time. He certainly spent between $100,000 and $150,000 a year in keeping up the honor of the flag. Ambassador Herrick had the Bacon pace to follow. How much he spent in doing it we do not know, but it is said that he felt the expense and declared to Intimates that it was more than he would have been able to maintain for any con siderable length of time. Why should the American ambassador be forced to make such sacrifices? Some Americans think them quite un necessary. On the other hand, it costs Germany $100,000 a year to keep the German am bassador at Constantinople, where he is furnished summer residence, winter pal ace and a yacht; and Germany deems it good business. Evidently, there is another point of vlsw. Our American ambassadors have not. perhaps, spent their private fortunes merely to have a good time socially, but were forced into competition with the great powers to maintain their usefulness ?a competition highly to their honor. * * * It is a propitious moment, despite the Immediate war, to see clearly?now that we are establishing embassies in Chili and other South American countries. As an American of great experience said yes terday: "We ought not to establish em bassies If we are not prepared to sup port them." Such is certainly the viewvof every Eng lishman in Paris, who would laugh at the idea of any cheap substitute for the grandiose and permanent piece of old England which exists in the palace of the Charosts: and their great-great grandfathers chuckled over the Duke of Wellington's canny purchase of it. It was just after Waterloo. The Em peror of Russia and the Duke of Welling ton were camping in the Elysee?aban doned by the fleeing Napoleon. The allies were dictating terms, and the iron duke was glancing at neighboring properties. All were magnificent?the present private palaces of the Rothschilds. Foulds and Furtados, with their lilac-scented parks extending to the Champs Elysees; and one had been abandoned, like the Elysee. It had been laid hands on for her resi dence by Pauline Bonaparte, Princess Borghese. So Wellington said to the help less French: "We'll buy it for the British embassy." He fixed the price at $20,000, and explained to the British conscience that no lawful possessor was being }uncoed. "Pauline was a squatter," ran his argu ment. "The place had been confiscated in the revolution from the true owners, the Dukes of Charost." Today it is worth $8,000,000, perhaps ^1 ; ^Ot[HE.Rt Cfe^ytRAKDED I' I /JtESICANS IsSTORED I double, for building Kites. Only two such properties have been cut up; and each made a street. It is as certain the state would now enjoin the destruction of any of those vast gardens parallel with that of the EJysee as it is that the Brit ish would not sell their embassy tor untold gold. Its history, nature and sit uation give it overwhelming prestige. And the garden parties of the British em bassy are vastly more rich, scenic and awe-inspiring to Parisians than those of the neighboring palace of the president. ? ? * Now do you begin to see? All the ambassadors of the greater powers are able to impose on the Parisians with grandiose garden parties?except the American ambassador. These embapsy garden parties lend themselves admirably to the social mixing that is yearly becoming more and more imperative. Before the time of the late Lord Monson the British embassy had remained tight closed as a social center to even the richest British business men of Paris, on the ground that "trade" is not received at court What a howl set up among the dowagers, amaxons and honorable* living on their social pull in 'Paris when Sir Edmund broke the charm and asked "trade" to the sacred garden parties! Such park gardens in Paris cost into the millions^ of francs. Germany, after the Franco-Prussian war, saw that the palace of Prince Eugene was good in this respect. Germany named a purchase jprice, and France accepted I will not mention the figure?*y?u would smile. The garden parties of the Austrian embassy are more magnificent in mere display than even the British, and that splendid garden did not cost Austria a dollar. The Duchesse de Galliera gave to Austria her historic palace of the Matignons in the Rue de Varenne. It did not cost Austria-Hungary a cent. Thus far we see Russia to be the first great power to pay an honest purchase price for a noble old Paris mansion with an aristocratic garden. In the heart of the Faubourg St. Germain it was originally built for the d'Estrees family?descendants of the royal favorite Gabrielle. Italy is another. Until recently Italy had her embassy in the Rue d?j Pen thievre, a^ comparatively modern quar ter. It was not imposing enough for a first-class power. Do you realize? "Not imposing enough for* a first-class power." So Italy has bought the historic Hotel de Berwick, built by the illustrious French warrior, 'James Fitzjamee, son of James II of England. And so on. * * * Little has been known about these Paris embassies; and Dorchester House, occupied by Whitelaw Reid, in Lon don. has remained the grand type in the popular American idea. Everybody could see Dorchester House when driv ing past; yet it was a private resi dence, not nearly so well adapted to embassy uses as these palaces in Paris, so grand that the chancellerie, or offices, are lodged in them without be ing noticed. All my details of these matters are from high sources. For example, those concerning the German embassy at Constantinople come to me almost direct. "People talk about simplicity and all that," said the distinguished American already quoted, "if the othet power s had their ambassadors living the sim ple life in Paris, it would be lteal and charming. But; we cannot reform di plomacy all by ourselves; these usages have grown up for centuries." And again he said; "It is not a question of display. No American ambassadors have lived lav* ishly?compared with the other great powers. They have tried to do the, needful thing1. An embassy should be a dignified place, to fill its require ments." Tet Minister Morton, in his day, spent $100,000. White law Reid, also mere minister to France, paid $13,000 a year for the Grammont palace; and he told that his expenses were $80,000 the least year and $120,000 the great est. Ambassador Porter rented the Spitzer palace at $10,000, and enter tained to the tune of $?0,000 a year. This property * has since been pur chased for the Turkish embassy. Ambassador McCormick rented two floors of a palace on .the Quai de Billy from a regent of the Bank of France. They were vaet enough to entertain richly, having the use of the regent's entrances and exits for the equipages. And Ambassador White paid $12,000 a year for the Rfdgeway mansion. Ambassador Baoon took it over at the same rent. Ambassador Herrick followed suit. Congress could have bought the Ridge way mansion in. 1909 for $250,000. Am bassador White recommended it, and the embassy commission backed him up. To day it can no longer be rented or pur chased, and the newcomlng Ambassador Sharp will have to look for another house in any case. One of the heirs. Count Qerard de Oanay. has just bought in the. Rldgeway mansion for his own residence at the price of $400,000. Certain American congressmen, we will say, cannot understand why people spend this money; and, in a sense, they are right. But imagine one of them to be appointed ambassador. When he arrives in Paris or London and finds himself con fronted at once with forty or fifty invita tions, he is obliged to consider what he is going to do. They are from official peo ple. Shall he accept them and not repay them? Or shall he seem inexplicably dis courteous and refuse? "Now, each French cabinet minister lives in a palace," said my distinguished American. (He has seen everything that has happened in Paris these fifty years back.) "The French government ac cumulated these palaces from the revolu tion. They can seat in them anywhere from 00 to 250 guests, from the Elysee down. Presidents of the senate and cham ber have tremendous palaces. Accept ing dinners, etc., from them, is it not be fitting to his country that the American ambassador shall live in a mansion be fitting to return them?" In Paris, in times of peace, business Is done in entertaining. Stroll along the streets, the cafe terraces are crowded with men at tables?they are talking business. In the brasseries they talk business over lunches. High er, in the expensive restaurants, hun dreds of cabinets particuliers are oc 3alqk OFljiBAxrr " a t>?P* ed Itrro A refug-e.-ror jatcehiqaics cupied with bourse men and mer chants "arranging: an affair," as they say, over a little luncheon. Still high er, among great manufacturers and wholesalers, dinners are given to bring interests together, launch affairs and conclude deals. And at the apex, in the world of diplomacy, it is the same and more so. Under the guise of a dinner or reception the interests of one's country and the prestige of the flag may be at stake. * * * Without a grand embassy for the purpose our ambassador is at a dis advantage. For example, there are Americans coming- to Paris officially, who want things from the French government? people like the Panama-Pacific com missioners; the American surgeons (of whom 160 were entertained by the Paris faculty of medicine); the agricultural commission of last year (more than 100); -the International Chambers of Commerce commissions, and many, many others. If you can have these people meet at the embassy the French people with whom they come to get into re lations you at once start the move ment It gives them dignity. Our country fares better, and what the commissioners, etc., accomplish is much greater. Otherwise, these important Americans on mission are, as it were, lost in Paris. We think that every one knows about America and her great ness; and it is true, in a way, but Americans arriving in Paris, on the most important errands are judged by appearances. Are they sustained by their embassy? Is the embassy in a position to sustain them?to make en tertainments for them and bring them into advantageous relations? Quite apart from the idle absentee colony, there Is now a great body of American men in Paris, earnestly en gaged in business and professional life, furthering American trade and other interests in a great and active way. It is the class to which the British embassy recently threw open its 'gar den parties. Surely the American em bassy should be in a position to show honor to them at all times. Important American people come to Paris, and if the ambassador is of a social and friendly nature he will have to entertain many such. It is different from private life. It may be designated as the ambassador's pleasure, although there are instances In which It is a ne cessity. Ex-Presidents, governors, senators, wp resentatlves. cabinet ministers, stc.. at home, send many people with letters? and often come themselves. The letters contain a request that the ambassado show them some attention. It means more than to say: "Qood morning. 1 hope you are well." and that the ambas sador should exert himself to makt things agreeable for such representative home people. If he has French friends in government and society, he oan ir vite the Americans to meet them. "Such presentation of repreeentstiv#> fellow citlsens," says my distinguished! old friend, "are becoming more and mor. an embassy duty with the other grea? powers?in the interest of good interna tional understanding." A similar reason why a grand embassy is necessary is that there are numerous French societies?like the Bcole Politique France-Amerique Autour du Monde, etc. whom It is becoming the duty of the am bassador to receive at times. Of course he is accredited to the French govern ment: and, strictly, he can confine his activities to the government: but of late years?as has been shown by Hngland? the ambassador's mission has corns to include, in a large degree, the stimulat ing of better relations and mutual un derstanding: and if he can attend the functions of these important French so cieties. and invite them, in his turn, to the embassy, it is far reaching in its ef fects. In these and other ways a grand em bassy gives opportunities to the ambas sador and his country. Here, for example, is an extremely im portant detail, which I. Sterling Heillg; recently heard discussed. It is that French people of importsnce who never, ordinarily, meet each other, can meet at the American embassy as on neutral ground. The parties are very distinct and our ambassador may. in a discreet way, give them the precious ad vantage of getting into touch without committing themselves, and It all en hances the Influence of America. I can give a recent example. Tou Hnow how the Paris newspapers, at the beginning of the Mexican im?>rogtlo be gan to side against the United States? It was very strong. And you know how suddenly it stopped? * Well, at the residence of an ambassa* dor, after dinner, there happened to be smoking together in a corner a group of men which included a French cabinet minister and one of the most powerful newspaper magnates of Paris. And it was said there, pretty generally, that things were drifting toward bad feeling between France and the United States, on account of these criticisms of the Mex ican affair, and that it should be checked. All right. Out of that conversation grew the de parture, within two days, of the foreign editor of a great Paris daily for Wash' ington, to get at the exact situation and send back cables about it. At the same time there resulted?always from this embassy conversation?several pro-Amer ican articles by leading Frenchmen In important publications of diverse political partiee, and within two weeks' time evety sign of criticism against the United States had died out What will it cost Congress? I have taken careful, well advised opin ions. The United States should not think of buying an embassy property in Paria costing less than $500,000 as a minimum, if we would correspond with other na? tions less important than ourselves. To really equal our peers Congress ought to spend more; but $500,000 would support our dignity, without ostentation or ex travagance. There Is also the important item of fur niture. And there are fixed charges. The new coming ambassador may not' be a riflh roan. On arriving he ought to find th# embassy residence all installed, with ex perienced servants, flunkeys, etc., in their places. Entertainments, diners, etc.. cost, sajr. >20,000 per year. Two automobiles (or his wife will have to go in taxis), say, $5,060. The ambassador's wife receives once a week: and "it is astonishing how she It criticised if she does not do it weli enough," say. $1,500. Charities, 'say, $2,000. Fourth of July reception to all Americans, $1,000. The ambassador whe. omits this item, with its lavish refresh' ments, will be subject to a buzz of celt icism. So that when the ambassador gets all these things done, he finds that he has a monthly payroll of $5,000 or $6,000 or more. Ought he pay it out of his $17,500 sal ary? "Otherwise let Congress reduce our em bassies to ministries again." says my dis tinguished old American. "If we are to have embassies, let them be real ones." STERLING HEILJG. "HOME IS A WONDROUS INSTITUTION/8 SAYS MRS. REED SMOOT, WIFE OF THE SENATOR FROM UTAH ?1-~ ~~~"?*~~?''?""c?r?M1??c?*?c<?cxK?reiMC?tt^SSOtSSS8tSX?S?S^ and sunshine contribute to one'B happi Is V a Good House keeper and the Mother of Seven Children. Talks With Pride of Her Native State. Defends Mormonism. ness more than wealth and pomp." * * aces the happiness and prosperity of the people today/* said Mrs. Reed Smoot. wife of Senator Smoot of Utah. "And woman, as executive head of the home," she continued, "has it in her Mrs. Smoot puts a high valuation upon the home, but.she is no mere visionary. Every idea that she sets forth is built upon the rock of her own personal ex perience. She has been married thirty years, has seven splendid children and two beautiful homes- Furthermore, she prides herself upon being a good cook, an interested housekeeper and fond of sweeping and cleaning. "Women," she declared, "say that they want to get out in the world and do some of the world's work?find an outlet for their business ability, as they put it. Show me a well managed home and I will tell you that the mother in that home has as good business ability as tlon of almost any woman who goes downtovrn to work every civic and so- every day. Housekeeping is test of rial problem whose business efflciency anil gives scope for ? ? the application of a woman a artistic and adjustment men- practical tastes as no other single pro fession in the world does." In Washington, the Smoot home Is sit uated in one of the city's most beautiful residential sections?the vicinity of Rock Creek bridge. The interior of the house, at this summer season, presents a most inviting appearance. The floor plan of the house admits of an open space on the HE home, as a cen ter of culture and comfort, with little children and healthy fun as its chief enlivenments, is to me the solu power to exert a more tremendous influ- entire first floor, since the rooms can be ence on the future of this country through thrown almost into one by the opening this one medium than ever before in his- ?* large doorways between. tory chairs and divans are covered The with flowered cretonnes, after the fashion of English country houses. With a few antique colonial tables holding great ^ vases of fresh, odorous flowers, the entire home, brings her children Into" the world, cffect is charmingly cool and restful. Mrs. Smoot s boudoir is also trans formed by cretonne furniture covers into a bower of springlike beauty. The walls "The woman who builds up a happy them with love and tenderness and gkrm to the world noble women and ooarmgeous men to carry on Its work are hung with photographs of the J3moot hma done the greatest work a human be iag oould do. Growing with one's chil dren?making companions and friends of them?Instilling In them a love of the *"Jd JSffi.1. e.V"y family. The children are singularly handsome?large-eyed and strong. Mrs. Smoot asked the interviewer If It was any wonder that she should be wholesomeness of homo?these are re other woman to taste of similar joys. Here, with the breeies of Rock Creek quirsments that a mother must live up Park blowing through the windows, Mrs. to, Smoot talked of her state, <Ttah, and its "It la not enough that she feed and clothe her children. Life and happiness mean more than that. There Is a sweet claims to eminence. * * "We are principally an agricultural sympathy mothers may awake in their and mining country," she said, settling chUdfen that continues an ennobling in- down into one of the spacious rose fluance all through their lives. To culti- covered chairs, "and much , of our riches vate this Is to render the state a serf- remains undeveloped. We have many tea. mines that have never been worked. On today, is such a wondrous in- my last trip home the peach blossoms Never did we have at oar were out. I passed miles and miles of rmnnisfl so many attractions to adorn orchards with trees and blossoms rahg and beautify It. Sanitary appliances and ing in color from deep to faintest ptnk. modern conveniences make housekeeping You can Imagine what a sight that was! a joy. Beautiful fabrics, furniture, col- An(j we hav? accomplished all of this by on, mar ha bought for the smallest sums, irrigation. It la no strain upon a woman's patience "When the pioneers went to Otah. they to keep bouse these days. It Is rather a found a dry. sandy desert. On* of the privilege to livs In this age. when air first things they did was to start a J) MRS. REED SMOOT, Wife of Sntln scheme of Irrigation. It wae in the fall ?September?that our family went to this state. My mother Is living now upon the farm that my grandfather cleared and cultivated. Utah, at the preeent time, etande equal with any : ?f CUfc. ? other state In thewest. u far aa prog ress and aecorapllahment go, though we as a people hare been much misunder stood. ? "Our people own their homes. We have no poor to Utah. By that, yon under mmvw+w** stand. I mean we have no slumB. We have a wonderful system of schools and & ? fine state collet*, beautifully situated overlooking Salt take, with new build Ins* being added constantly. *1 said that we were misunderstood. It Is our religion that makes people mis understand us. People take Mormonlsm to be synonymous with polygany. This, of course, is not true. Only the people who are ignorant of the teachings of our religion today could ever say that. Bone early members of the church practiced and believed In polygamy. But they were sincere in their belief and found the example for their practice in the Old Testa ment of the Bible, in Abraham and the other patriarchs. Today polygamy is no longer condoned in our church. We live by faith and preach morality. W? have a basis of science, because we advocate progression of the human race by , abstinence from liquors and tobacoo. *? *.* ? "When ltils said that Mormonlsm Is a detriment to our progress, I have only to think of the country and people as I know them to realise how false Is such a statement. I think of the happy little homes scattered about the state; the love of music, in which even the poorest fami lies indulge; the upright students which represent us in colleges all over the world, and the successful business men of which'our cities can boast. These are the evidences of success and progress, and of such Utah has her full share.". It was as a lioness lighting for her cubs that Mrs. Smoot spoke. She was touch ing upon the most delicate point of a human being's Ufe?his religion?and from her words, her estimate of Mormonlsm. her own tod her family's religion, could never be mistaken. To watch any woman uphold that which she claims for her own is a lesson in sincerity and alle giance. Mrs. SnKjot possesses both of these qualities to a marked degree. Her blue eyes flush, tod.' her entire expression, facial tod physical, becomes charged with force. She is a large -woman, strong ot pbyskme and trenchant of person ality; so, the force which she can sum mon 16(0 action is not to be withstood " "For*th5*<i>ayt,'? she said, lapsing into aa attitude .of -repose again, "the value of the whole west is underestimated by easterners. It is said that we are crude lacking in culture. But let me say that white easterners were reading and study ing. writing and painting, western pio neers were building roads and houses and making farms for the generations to come. The culture came rapidly and in due time. " . - ' The women vote in Utah, and Mrs. Smot bu voted with them. She has been president of the Woman's Republi can Club of tk* state?* political club for the study of state and national politic* and is a member of the relief society of her church. It is to the efforts of this society that the absence of poverty in Utah is partly due. Branches are main tained in different wards of the city and church funds provide the necessities of life to the needy poor who live or tem porarily reside in these districts. But Mrs. Smoot is not a clubwoman She belongs to the Congressional Club in Washington and was prominent in the literary activities of the political club during the years between elections. Yet this is the extent of her club life. She is against what she calls "a butterfly life in women." When she was asked what her hobbies were she replied that after her home she loved young people and flowers. But she added that she did not like to get out in the garden and dig. "I make it a rule," she said, "to have young people around me always. I want to grow old gracefully and retain my youthful point of view. Then I shan't mind the gray hairs or the wrinkles. I shall have an inner happiriess, and there is no plan so effective for increasing this fund of inner happ'ess than to associate with young boys and girls." With Mrs. Smoot such an ardent advo cate of the worth of the home and its in fluence and also a voter, the interviewer could not suppress aquery as to her plan for compromising the two things, which so frequently lead in opposite paths. It was found that Mrs. Smoot. after all, was more the wife and mother than the club woman. EilFfe WMeh Soldfeirs Us? Sim Ew?p?M War THE rifles with which the present war is being fought are the longest shooting, stralghtest shooting and fastest shooting guns that ordnance genius has created. Rifles of the same type were used by Turks, Greeks, Bulgars, Serbs and Montene gralns in their late wars, and the in fantry, cavalry and engineer troops of all modern forces are armed with this character of weapon?the best maga zine rifle. The rifle of the United States Army is the highest type of this gun; it is believed to. be the best rifle in the world, and all Americans hope it is, but the differences between it and the rifles in the hands of French, Germans, Aus trians, British, Russians, Belgians, Dutch, Swiss and Serbs are so non essential that a description of the American gun will approximate a de scription of the European rifles and will give the general reader a conception of the power of the gun which is mak ing a new and bloody chapter in the world's history. ' In the latest revision at hand of the official "Description and Rules for the Management of the United States Magazine Rifle" it iB written that twenty-three aimed shots have* been fired in one minute with this rifle used as a single loader, and twenty-five shots in the same time using magazine fire, and that firing from the hip with out aim twenty-seven shots have been fired in one??ninute using the rifle as a single loader and thirty-five shots in one minute using magazine lire. The maximum range of the rifle, giv ing it an elevation of 45 degrees, is 5,465 yards, or considerably over three miles. The time of the flight of the bullet over that space is 31.36 seconds and the powder pressure in the cham ber of the rifle is about 49,000 pounds per square Inch. The bullet from this rifle will pene trate, 800 yards from the gun, 24.8 inch es of white pine butts made of one-inch boards placed one inch apart, or 13.4 inches Of moist sand, or 9.2 inches of dry sand, or 18.8 inches of loam practically free from sand. One thousand yards from the gun the bullet will penetrate 12.8 Inches of one-inch boards, 12.& inches of moist sand. inches of dry sand or 18.6 Inches of loam practically free from sand. At 100 yards from the gun the bullet will pass through a flve-inch brick wall, or through 33.6 inches of thorough ly seasoned oak, or through steel plate nearly half an Inch thick. Fired pointblank by a soldier standing, no man between the gun and a point in prolongation of the axis of the bore 718 yards away would escape. Fired by a soldier kneeling the pointblank danger space would be 020 yards, and if fired by a soldier lying down the pointblank danger space would be 580 yards. The trajectory of the bullet is so nearly flat or so much nearer fiat than was obtained from older types of guns and ammunition that when the weapon Is sighted for a range of 500 yards the summit of the trajectory, the highest point above the line of sight touched by the flying bullet, it only a small frac tion of an inch above two feet, sighted for 000 yards the summit is slightly over three feet, sighted for 70D yards it is close to five feet, sighted for SCO yards it goes nearly seven feet high, sighted for S00 yards it goes about ten and a half feet high and sighted for 1,000 yards the bullet touches at a point 580 yards from the gun the height of fourteen feet. If the gun were elevated so as to give it the extreme range of 5,465 yards the bullet at a point 3.482 yards from the gun would be 6,844 feet above the line of sight. The rifle is .30 caliber?that is, the diameter of the bore is thirty one-hun dreths of an inch. There is another way of using the word caliber which often confuses persons. It is a .30 caliber rifle, but if you should say that a gun is .90 caliber you would be understood to mean that the bore is thirty times longer than its diameter. But when you speak of a .30 caliber rifle you meen that the bore has a diameter of thirty one hundredths of an inch. The length of the barrel is a trifle over twenty-four inches and the rifling, the grooves which give the projectile Its rotary motion, consists of four plain grooves, four one-thousandths of an inch deep and three times the width of the lands?the ungrooved surface of the bore. The length of the gun complete is slightly over forty-three inches and Its weight without the bayonet is 8.60 pounds, and with ths bayonet Is 0.68 pounds. The cartridge consists of the case, the primer, the charge of smokeless powder and the bullet. The esse is, of brass. The primer consists of ths cup, the per cussion composition, a disc of shellacked paper to protect the percussion composi tion from moisture and to prevent eleo trolytic action, and a device called an. "anvil." The composition which fires the charge is of terrfulphlde of antimony, po tassium chlorate, sulphur and ground glass. The charge is from forty-eight to fifty grains, varying with the lot of pow der used, of pyrocellulose powder. The bullet has a core of lead and tin compo sition inclosed in a jacket of cuprp nickel. It weighs 150 grains, and it is long and sharp pointed. With that charge of powder It starts away from the rifle at the rate of 2,7tM) feet a second, which is called its initial velocity, meaning its speed at the be ginning of its flight. It will start a little faster If the ammunition has been warm ed up by the sun or If the cartridge Is put into a hot gun, for raising the tem perature of powder causes it to burn a little faster and generate the propelling gas a little quicker than the normal. This rifle is without that striking de vice which, on the old single-shot Spring field, Remington, Winchester and all other guns before the invention of the bolt principle, was called the "hammer." Everybody knows how a man with his hand and fingers around the "small" of the gun and the trigger-guard would "cock" the gun by raising the hammer with his thumb. There was half-cock for safety and full-cock when you were ready to take aim and to fire. In the modern military rifle there Is a firing pin, which consists of the firing pin rod and cocking piece. At the outer end of the cocking piece is a small knob, and you may make the gun ready for firing by pulling this out with your thumb and a finger, but when you throw over the bolt which ejects the old shell and throw it back, which movement puts in a fresh, cartridge, the cocking piece Is forced back and stands ready for firing. You can use the rifle as a single shot that is, you put in a cartridge by hand, fire It, eject it and put in another bjr hand, etc., or you can put In five cart ridges at once, all bound together by a little brats device called a "clip." Yon can fire these five as fast as you can work the bolt and pull the trigger, or with the five cartridges in the magaslne you can operate the gun on the single shot basis. Thla rifle Is the best in the world, but It la a fair specimen of the rifle which la In the hands of every European soldi* today.