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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, March 21, 1915, Image 51

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Aviation Warfare Along Battle Lines in Poland
f?pe--ial Correspondence <>f The Star.
WARSAW, March 8.?Rattle, rattle,
rattle over Poland's plains go Zep
pelins. Grosses, Parsevals, Taubes and
other things, heavier and lighter than
air. which drop bombs and pamphlets.
The Poles crane their necks and stare,
discussing sibilantly which is which,
though Poland has not ten men who
can tell an airship from an aeroplane
When a pamphlet descends, promising
nil sorts of nice German things if rhe
I kaiser t.-ikes Poland, there is a ter
grow less and less. The Germans veil
their movements by burning wet straw.
This sends up smoke through which no
eye pierces. When there is no wind
the smoke veil lasts for days. The air
man. if he would see anything, must
cross the smoke veil and look down
onto the armies behind. When a Rus
sian airman crossed the German smoke
veil at Slupzy, on the frontier, he found
himself no better off.
Running east and west were trans
verse smoke screens. Sometimes the
Germans veil in smoke whole roads
The Russians have trouble in finding
Thiw dirigible. Ilu*?ia. Ik one of the fleet of the C*ar*? aircraft. The eaptaln*M bridge 1m on front above the engine
rific rush, and more j eople are injured
than if it were a bomb.
When a bomb falls! The bomb is a
black thing which looks like a work
man's pudding tied in a handkerchief.
The rag iy which it is tied is peaked on
lop and round underneath. When it
touches the street all the windows near
??rack with sympathetic emotion, and
when it hits a roof it makes disap
pointingly small holes.
Some airmen drop both bombs and
pamphlets. l'suall> they behave fair
1} drop the bomb first, and when they
have slain some Poles explain. via the
pamphlet, how nicely the survivors
would live if saved from Russian
tyranny. An airman at Lowitsch tirst
out whether troops are moving: alouu
the road or whether the Germans are
bluffing, with the pretense that the
troops are moving.
Fliers and spies report#!hat the Ger
man aeroplane parks are situated at
Thorn, at Wreschen, on the Posen
road, and at Czenstochowo. in Russian
Poland, which is now surrounded by a
chain of new forts. At Thorn, inside
the fortress, is a patch of land two
miles square, entirely covered with
airships and aeroplane sheds. All have
been built since the outbreak of war.
Close by is an aeroplanist's barracks.
A Russian air spy dropped a bomb
into a big Thorn shed which was sup
posed to contain an airship. He got
safely home.
Russia has an advantage over Ger
many, in that she can exploit the moral
Austria's besieged and strongest fort
ress. Little is known of the plight of
this town, which is Galicia's key. Gen.
Lieut. Kuzmanek is in command. He
spends his days making irritating sal
lies and trying to trap Radko "Dmitri
veff to assault his wire entanglements
and fougasse mines. Dmitriyeff replies
with aeroplane bombardments. Most of
Przemysl's civil population was cleared
out before the siege began. Aeroplane
shells do the concrete forts no harm.
The bombardment is directed against
the town, barracks and stores.
* *
Aeroplanist Lieut Driekoff one day
dropped fourteen bombs on the bar
racks behind the forts facing toward
Yaroslav. He destroyed altogether the
?) //A^V2 hrt/op sk foOp.
RAIMXi % ?;krma\ siiaai, balloon to watch movements of the rissian army.
chopped a pamphlet and then a bomb.
When the Lowits'hians were reading
the pamphlet, showing: bow nice it
would be to live under German tub*,
hiss' hiss' through the air ?a'ne the
hrimh. It f?-]l into a shell hole and
only kicked up dirt.
Kield Marshal Hindenburg has eight
* rshlps end hundreds of aeroplanes
'or reconrioitering and bomb and pam
phlet throwing. Grand l>uke Nicholas
s?at least as regards aeroplanes no
worse off. He ban thirteen-passenger
biplanes of Sikorsk- and pamphlets b>
rhr millions, which air mostly droppe-i
on Galicians and illuminate the Sla\
? se. Russia also has intrepid ai;*
neti like Sergt. Vablonoff, who flew
*Tom the frontier to Konigsberg fort
ies?* and with a bullet in hi? leg: bone
?ew eight> miles back Also an officer
?vho sped from t he Russian ' enter at
ivolo to Frank furt-on-Oder, near Rer
and reported truly that a big: arm.
was on the road east. Which side flies
farthest no one knows A raptured
"JTriian assert? that be went from
i horn to Smolensk ami nearly the
whole wa' buck, and that, h* covered,
v* itho it a descent. 1,-00 miles
? hances for aeroplane re- onnoitermg
effect of aviation. The moral effect is
produced on her own peasant soldiers.
Her reservists and "opoltcheniye" men
have mostly never scon aeroplanes:
some have never heard of them, and
most of those who have heard of them
regard them as newspaper inventions.
\ Russian aeroplane sent up in ad
vance of an attacking force nerves the
soldiers as would a sign from heaven.
An aeroplane helped t<> foil the Ger
mans at the battle of the Vistula in
October. When the Siberians reached
the river the position was critical. The
Germans were sending across the
stream a terrific rifle, machine-gun and
shrapnel flre. In front of Wrgozin
two Russian monoplanes rose They
were the first air vessels of any kind
seen b> the Siberians. There was an
inspiring: cry of "Ptitchi," which means
"little birds." Under heav> fire the
Siberians crossed the pontoon bridge
and ' barged the German lines.
Gen. Radko Jhriitriyeff is carrying on
tremendous aeroplaning at Rrzemysl,
quarters of a thousand soldiers. Diie
koff had a narrow escape. Kngine
troubles began, and he had to descend
in front of an advanced trench outside
the line of forts. The Austria us poured
in rifle and machine-gun fire The aero
plane was riddled. iMiekoff kept his
head. He sat in the <a r while his me
chanic handled the motor, and then, in
a storm of bullets, arose. The mechanic
received a bullet in the ankle. Driekot?
escaped. .
Austrian aeropla nists excel German
in ruses. Once by an aeroplane ruse
the;. retook trench. (hiring the
fighting near Rozadow tin- Austrians
found and repaired an abandoned Rus
sian biplane. They sent this aero
plane aloft from a village in their rear,
out of sight of the Russians. It flew
north in a big: circle behind the Rus
sian lines, and then turned and flew
south, as if it were coming to the Rus
sian fighting lines from the Russian
The evening before the Russians had
captured an Austrian trench. Their
Held telephone was out of order. The
Austrian aeroplane which the\ Imag
ined was their own dropped a canister
with a message in good Russian pur
The Sunday Star's Special Correspondent Tells How the Flyers of the Grand Duke Nicholas Are
Proving a Match for the More Experienced and Better Equipped German Aviators ? Effect
of Aeroplane Attacks on Warsaw?Von Hindenburg's Eight Airships and Hundreds oi Aero
planes?Ruses for Defeating the Flyers?Burning Wet Straw to Hide Movements of Troops.
Thrilling Adventures of Aeronauts?Airmen Humorists.
porting: to be signed by the chief of the
staff of Gen. Ruzski. The message or
dered the Russian brigade commander
to abandon the captured trench. The
commander obeyed. The Austrians re
occupied the trench. Soon afterward
the Russians discovered the truth. Xext
day the aeroplanist tried a new ruse.
He was liit in the neck by a bullet,
and fell with his aeroplane over a Rus
sian trench.
The reports are compared with the
facts known to the staff. Later the
airman student is given bombs and is
allowed to drop them on the enemy's
fortifications. This is to steel his
nerves. Only when he is thoroughly
competent is he allowed to report on
the dispositions of the enemy.
"fake" trenches and partly concealed
gun positions.
Field Marshal Hindenburg lately
tried his famous "concentration of fire"
from aeroplanes. Grand Duke Nicho
las' rear guard, during the retreat from
Lodz, dug itself into trenches on the
Miazza. After an artillery bombard
ment failed the Germans sent thirty
aeroplanes to bombard the trenches at
the same time. Two hundred bombs
it around on its axle and s*-tit it spin
ning to earth.
Grand Duke Nicholas' men have cap
tured some bold German airmen. Vol-'
unteer Lieut. Kulers, who is now 011
the way to Viatka. is one. Eulers
is a graduate of Cologne Commerecial
School. He was stationed with his
Taube at Lyck, in East Prussia. lie
flew over the Russian fortress of
(ronionds, fell into the marshes of the
Bobr and was captured. escaped in
a stolen Russian uniform. Nothing was
heard of him until the fighting round
Lodz at the. end of November. Then he
flew right over the graud duke's army,
and was shot down at Lipkow, near
* *
Tn order to avoid being coun-mar
tialed for his flight he gave the name
of von .Jessel. At Praga he recognized
his own Taube aeroplane, which, re
paired and without the black Iron
Cross which marks German machines,
was in use by Russians. He showed
his feelings so markedly that sus
picions were aroused, and he was
identified as the captive of Gonionds.
Eulers* escape was pardoned in view of
his courage.
Aeroplanists without special military
training prove to be of little use in
war. It is ten times easier to learn to
fly than it is to learn to carry out air
reconnoissances. Even officers used to
reconnolssances on land cannot, with
out special training, estimate from the
air the strength of troops and the na
ture of their movements. This is be
cause army movements seen from above
are deceptive, partly because special
measures are taken to deceive airmen.
"Fake" trenches are made, real
trenches are obscured or dug behind
rows of overhanging trees, sun posi
tions are carefully roofed with sods,
and when snow is on the ground are
roofed with planks covered with snow.
The best civilian airmen are deceived.
Russia has a vast number of civilian
airmen, and the preparing of these for
reconnoitering goes on with great
speed. r
Before being allowed to re'-o-nnoiter
the enemy, army airmen are sent to ny
over Russian fortresses, over Russian
lighting armies and over tracts of
country where large bodies of Russian
troops are on the march. They are re
quired to present reports as to the
number, positions and movements of
the troops, the proportion of each arm
and other noteworthy things, such as
Two months of dail> exercises a1 '**
needed bfeore a skilled flier ran re*
connoiter with* surety. The time is
shortened by giving: preliminary train
ing with the .new "bird's-eye flying
game." invented by an officer of engi
neers. A map about twenty feet square
is stretched on the floor of a shed with
a specially constructed roof. The map
shows the natural conditions and col
oring- of the theater of war. On it b>
movements of dummy corps along' slits
are shown the advance or retreat of in
fantry. cavalry, artillery. Battles are
fought. The rates of movements of the
dummy troops are in proportion to the
sixe of the map.
In the ceiling above is u small moving
wimlowlet. through which peers the air
reconnoissance student. The eyelet al
lows the student to see Only so much
of the map as represents the area of
the theater of war visible to an air
man. The eyelet further moves across
the ceiling at the relative rate of mo
tion of an aeroplane. Looking through
the eyelet the student sees in minia
ture exactly what he would see from
a swiftly moving aeroplane, ile com
piles a report of the strength of the
dummy troops and their movements,
and later he compares it with the au
tomatically kept records of the actual
Grand Duke Nicholas' aeroplane serv
ice works well. This in spite of the
fact that many of Russia's airmen and
mechanics when war broke out were
Germans and Frenchmen, who are now
done without. The loss of flyers is small.
Herman airmen have met strange
deaths when flying over the Russian
army. Touring the fight at Lip no, in
North Poland, in November, a German
airman who was casting bombs on an
advancing Russian battalion fell with
his cargo of bombs headlong. He blew
himself, his machine and about a dozen
Russians to bits.
There have been some exciting fights
between aeroplanes, but little harm has
come of them. As a rule the swifter
and stronger aeroplane mounts above
the weaker and drops a bomb which
seldom hits. Rtissia's aviator, Grigori
eff, flew over a German airman who
was traveling at low elevation and
dropped a bomb. The bomb hit the
ground ahead of the German and ex
ploded. The rush of gas struck one
wing of the German machine, turned
of the frequent classical
\V Jj references which men make
Is to the labors of Hercules,"
said a Washington man. who reads a
great deal about the things which
occured many thousand years ago. *'T
have always felt." he continued, "that
Hercules has had an unfair measure of
notoriety and publicity. His press
agent, and the ancient heroes seem to
have had such things, even though they
called them by other names In the
long, long ago. was probably a very
active fellow. The point 1 want to
make, but perhaps am a little slow
in coming to. is that Hercules was not
in it with a person called Theseus.
"I will grant you that Hercules per
formed some unusual jobs which call
for the exercise of strength, patience
and nerve, and I ani perfectly willing
to admit that Hercules was no weak
ling and that nobody really and truly
Uelievinj? in fair play could justly ap
ply to Hercules the epithet of molly
coddle. He was not that. But Theseus
did some jobs of a clean-up. knock-down
and uplift character which entitles
him to consideration even in this age
when nearly everybody is trying 10
reform everybody else. 1 want to be
absolutely fair and say that in my
opinion there is nothing that Theseus
did which Hercules might not have
done if the gods had commanded him
to do it and then Insisted on it being
"Hut Theseus performed more public
services, especially in the lino of kill
ing monsters, than Hercules did. And
if you will critically and fairly ex
amine the record of the two men. Her
cules and Theseus, I am sure that you
will hand the palm, the laurel and the
rake to Theseus.
* *
"Hercules, alias Heracles, or Heracles
alias Hercules, had various advantages
over the ordinary athletes of the pres
ent. He was the son of Zeus, or Jupi-.
tcr, and in those days being the son of
.lupiter was no little help to a young
man. Of course, the matter of birth
and inherited riches helps a young
man nowadays, as you have probably
found out in jour lone: con tart with
the world. Another advantage of Her
cules was that he had several of 1 he
most distinguished instructors, one of
thorn being the centaur Cheiron, who
was also the physical instructor of
some of the best athletes ever de
scended from the gods.
If you will look at the labors of Her
cules whi?'h after he journeyed to My
cenae he performed at the bidding of
Kurystheus you will find that they
were the killing of a lion which rav
aged the country near Mycenae, the de
struction of Lernaean hydra, with
which everybody in Washington is per
fectly acquainted; rapturing alive and
unhurt tlo- stag which was famous for
its incredible swiftness, its golden
horns and its brazen feet; capturing
alive a wild boar which ravaged the
neiHhborhood of Krymanthus: cleaning
the stables of Augeas, where three
thousand oxen had been confined for a
great many years; killing the birds
which ravaged the country near the
lake StyniphaluH in Arcadia and ate
human flesh; bringing alive into Pelo
ponnesus a prodigious wild bull which
laid waste the Island of Crete; obtain
ing the mares of Diomedes which fed
on human flesh; obtaining from the
Queen of the Amazons a girdle which
she had received from Ares or Mars;
killing the monster Geryon. King of
Gades, and bringing to Argos his nu
merous flocks which fed on human
flesh; obtaining apples from the gar
den of the Hesperides; and bringing
up from the infernal regions the three
headed dog Cerberus.
"Any man will admit that this was a
pretty clever athletic record, but Her
cules' labors mostly had to do with
the lower animals that ate human
flesh. There were the lion, the hydra,
the stag, the wild boar, the stable of
the oxen, the birds, the wild bull, the
man-eating mares of Diomedes and the
watchdog of Hades. Hercule* in his In
fancy showed a predilection to slaying
creatures of the lower orders by
suau^lifc^lko- two #oakeg wtaieb
or Juno had sent to eat him alive. But
in all the labors of Hercules T find that
he attacked only one monster, Geryon,
and that was the tenth labor, showing
that Hercules had had plenty of exer
cise before taking on Gervon.
"Now lei us come to Theseus. The
first thing he did after declaring to
himself that he would do such deeds
to win honor and renown that even
Aegeus should love him was to walk
right up into the Spider mountains,
which hang over Epidaurus and the
sea. and pick a fight with Periphetos,
the son of Hephaistos and Antfcleia,
the mountain nymph, and whom fear
stricken men had long called Corynetes,
the club-bearer. Theseus was a mere
youth and Periphetos was an old of
fender and had terrorized the nymphs
and the shepherds for miles around.
But Theseus 'got him.'
"Theseus' victory over Periphetos had
scarcely grown cold when the nymphs
and shepherds told him of Sinis, the
robber, whom men called Pituocamptes,
the pine-bender, because he bent down
two pine trees, bound travelers hand
and foot between them and then let the
trees spring hack, tearing his victims
asunder. Well, Theseus met the ter
rible pine-bender and left him hanging
to the trees. Next, on a cliff-side with
a rock barrier on one hand and the
dreadful drop to the sea on the other,
did Theseus, still a mere youth, meet
Sciron, the notorious robber, whose
famous trick was to make men stop
to wash their feet and while they were
doing this he would kick them off the
cliff into the sea to the great tortoise
that lived below and fed off the bodies
of the dead. But Theseus took on
Sciron and got him, too.
"Every one of my friends in Wash
ington knows that it was Theseus who
outwrestled and then slew the monster
Kerkuon, who ruled brutally in Eleu
sis, who was a terror to all mortals
except Theseus, and who had mur
dered his own daughter, Alope, in
"Did not Theseus get the better of
the dread Procrustes, who, in his hos
pitable way, gave men and women a
bed in iiis palace and then, if they were
too tall lor the bed, he would chop off
their feet, and if they were too short
lie would stretch their limbs until they
died? -
* *
"To my mind the best and cleverest
thing that Theseus ever did, and there
is nothing in Hercules' record compa
rable with it, was in slaying the mino
taur in the labyrinth in Crete and in
getting out of the labyrinth, which no
body had ever done before. Of course,
in this he had the assistance of the
beautiful Ariadne, the daughter of
ruthless King Minos, and every time 1
hear of the clues which the police have
to this crime arid that crime, I think oi
Theseus, Ariadne, the minotaur and the
labyrinth. For did not Ariadne say to
Theseus, according to report, 'Fair
youth, you are too bold, but 1 can help
you, weak as i am. I will give you a
sword and with that, perhaps, you may
slay the beast, and a clue of thread,
and by that, perhaps, you may find
your way out again*?
"When Theseus went into the doleful
gulf, or the labyrinth,.he. tied one end
of his clue of thread to a stone and
let it unroll out of his hand as he went
along. Then, after he had killed the
minotaur, whose body was a man's,
whose head was that of a bull and
whose teeth were those of a lion, The
seus found his way back out of the
labyrinth by the clue of thread which
he had unwound, and in this way origi
nated the usual significance of the
word 'clue.'
"I feel that you will agree with me
that, as a man of action, as a doer of
big deeds and as a man capable of
handling other men. Theseus was a
bigger success than Hercules, yet the
fame of Hercules is much wider than
that of Theseus."
were thrown. Only a dozen Russians
were killed.
* *
Poles who have arrived from Ger
many report that the enemy is organ
izing a vast corps of airman bomb
throwers who will bombard Warsaw
if It comes to a siege. The aim is to
create panic and to produce congestion
and confusion in the movements of
troops and stores along the congested
roads. This is a favorite game. The
airman flies to the head of an artillery
or supply train ami casts a couple of
bombs, which destroy guns or carts
and block the road.
Airman bomb-throwers also interrupt
railroad traffic. A bomb dropped be
tween tracks always tears up the rails.
Russian airmen have twice managed to
destroy the railroad between Brom
berg and Thorn. When the bomb fs
dropped on a bridge the damage ta?\.e?
long to repair Kxperiments show that
a bridge cannot l?e destroyed b> a
bomb, however big. dropped from
above. A small shell fired into <i bridge
pillar underneath the rondwa} doe*
twice the damage.
Airmen are the humorists "f Russia *
army and of Germany's. They ar**
mostly not professional soldiers, thev
enjoy ;;rcat freedom and are not ?ojb
ject to any specific army discipline
This keeps them lively. Russia has sn
aeroplanist who. in addition t <? his
store of real bombs. alwa> s <-arrie*
light fake bombs made of rags t1e?*
around a wire rage. w?th a stone it -
side to make them descend. If** ha*
caused panic l?> dropping tlics** into
the 'enemy's columns on t It* march
German airmen lii;*- t-> drop letters, de
mands to surrender and jokes. A new
map of Europe, showing Russia mark
ed as I'russ-Uand. was dropped \v\<?
Warsaw last week
? . 191 ?"?, hr Rnown ? 1
One of the first photon from Warsaw since the Germans began their siege. The air seont is attempting to locate
the Russian line of fortification*.
ALTHOUGH the Koran is opposed to
anything like monastic-ism, in the
Mohammedan religion there are some fu
rious orders of a religious nature. Of
these the best known are the three
kinds of dervishes, or holy men. For
each order there is a head, or sheik,
and the office descends in the family
from father to son.
The first order, known as the 'J'ur
lakis, wear no clothing. When follow -
ing the strict rule of their order they
not only go nude, but eat no meat, ex
isting entirely on herbs. Sometimes a
few of this sect are seen wandering
about the streets of a city, where they
are venerated as the most sanctified,
crowds of men and women following
them to kiss their hands. This order
is rapidly dying out.
Perhaps the most interesting of these
religions is the order of whirling or
dancing dervishes. This performance
by these men is gone through every
Tuesday and Friday in Constantinople .
Dressed in robes belted at the waist,
and with long hats like waste baskets
on their heads, these devotees meet in
their chapel, and to the sound of many
instruments begin their performance,
which consists of spinning around on
their toes, revolving in a circle around
the room. This motion may be cor
rectly compared to the two motions of
the earth on its axis and around the
* *
After a while the dancers begiit a
< hant in praise of the prophet, and at
last fall prostrate, evidently in reli
gious fervor, but really because of the
physical exhaustion which the con
stant whirl has given their bodies.
N'o more curious sight is ever seen
than the floor full of these spuming
figures, their full robes . floating out
straight from their waists as they
whirl about in a way that makes an
American's "head swim."
The "howling dervish" <an be seen
every Thursday at Scutari. The head
man of this sect seats himself on a
carpet, the members standing before
hi in as they repeat verses of The
Koran. These men bend forward at
one syllable, rise on the second an*l
bend backward at the third, no that a*
long: as the performance continues 4he
odd spectacle is presented of a row of
men howlinpr in unison and keeping
time with every syllable by rocking to
and fro. Cymbals and tambourine*
keep up a continual clashing, and th?
dervishes bawl out. in the most wolfiili
manner, the cry of "Allah Akbar, >*a
Allah, ya hu!"
As the song rises and the music grows
louder and quicker the dervishes chant the
ninety-nine titles of God, the head man
all the while counting the prayer by
his ehaplet of beads. The ceremonv
ends by the dervishes plaring theih
hands on each other's shoulders, then
swinging a bom until ' hey fall swoon
The Topographic Compass.
A SIM PLi: form of this instrument
is that inveaited by Xlphonse Ber
get, and this is the favorite of ex
plorers in the polar regions.
Tt comprises a small' eompass card,
and above it a little eopper box eon
raining a mirror perforated with a
peep-hole. The observer. looking
through the peep-hole, sees at tiie same
time an image of the eompass card.
This enables him to determine with
aceuracy. by a simple reading of th**
index round the card, the magnet ie
bearing of thf ohjeet at which he is
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any tailor in this city.
W e bought the fabrics way below value
on account of canceled orders from the
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ing is believing. Conie in and get samples.
Make vour own comparisons.
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mf 8th and F Sts. N.W.

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