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Jluttdmf' c: 1 WASHINGTON, D. C., SUNDAY MORNING. AUGUST 29, 191.5. BA PKOF. W II.LIAR I.RDV VRD CATIIC A RT. THE value of the destroyer in a modern fleet is as marked as is its absence in adequate strength from the I'nited States Navy. In these days, excluding vessels useful for coast defenfe and on inland waters only, there, are essentially but live classes of fighting ships?battleships, battle eruisers. scout cruisers, destroyers and submarines. The battleship, with its maximum power for cffense and in resistance, is lirst in value, as the backbone "f the flee t. Next in importance t<> it. for the general purposes ??f wai on the sea." the general board of the iiaw ranks the destroyer. The events of the. European war have given ample support to the board's Judgment. From the beginning de Btroyers hav? guaroeri imp t?ruiMi luetic M>et in rh North sea from surface an>i underwcter torpedo attack. They havp be-n the most effective weapons against the subj.iarir.es. Led by scout cruisers, their flotillas have been the only means < f maintaining- close blockade (.1" i:prm;iny's North sea ports. They protet ted about forty allied vessels bombarding the Belgian coast from the submarines hovering like "hungry sahks" about them. And. so far as is publicly known, they have been, as convoys, the chief . gents in the safe transport of British troops to France. "The sea does not exist for the Germans now." says the French minister of marine. And this is true, except for furtive submarine attack on merchantmen. While the fundamental cause of this quiescence of German surface Chips has been the guns of the British battle Meet, the immediate reason seems to be the incessant patrol of British destroyers and scouts, ever vigilant to detect a sortie and to call the waiting lreadnaughts. The destroyer, like the piratical craft ?? 11 . i ; : ' .' V : ' ? ... . L v , THE DESTROYER BE\H | BILL TC ? BY KING V ^SNWNVAWWWWWWVSXX fj\j? Y. CITY, August *JS.?Steve. ii\Io a bought they should ought was them I would try and lern s on business affairs and voicing and Gussy I would try and lern somethin .Mai he I told you all ready a b< here Babe that was vissiting us and me writeing Gussy a fake letter ant rode on acct. of I being lone some geting ready to go a way she woul where she bellongs. So I wrote tl Gussy got a hold of it last Mon. an well I and you have got to part fin got to join him on the rode and T half to pack up and go home so Ba showed it to her in Black and White from it. So Gussy says 1 will half t? packing and 1 will call up and see \ be we can go to the depot to gather So Gussy went to her rm. and ing up but Babe dident come a loi went out In the parler and says wl says she would wait and find out telephoned to the R. R. on the ph< train leaveing for grand Rabbits i 5 30 on!ly from diffrunt depots on 2 c fine busness and may be they coul she beg" gin to pertend like she was Babe dident start doing no packing so Gussy ast her again why she di wasent Gussy a scared to leave her Babe says would Gussy mind if Bat the rode with me. What do you t why who would cook your meals ai because I havent saw you do nothir dont worry about that I can do ev keep your flat clean for you and tt Steve Gussy should ought to have want her in the place no longer anc that she hemed and haud and Ba give up to her and says she could ernest when I ast Gussy to Join me ; till and all she left this here won then Gussy has to pack up her stuf 5 30 train and she got to Boston T waiting when we come in Wed. A. I there you couldent of knocked me d 1 says whats the matter with y I balled her out good but whats th been done and over and she b egg in i rest. A fine thing hey Steve to let like that and it will cost me about including her R. R. fair and where I don't know where its comeing f evry time she goes out of the Hot here Babe will be there still waiti F wont go home Steve and it will 1 the gutter some wheres beffore I g it out of there. There all a like St poppers ia the poor house. Respy. i of romance. is long and low. extremely fast arid mobile, and, with smokeless steaming-. Invisible in dim light at any great distance. Her weapons are the torpedo arid a battery of light, quickJiring guns of maximum rapidity of lire. 'n pursuit, in maneuvering and in gunfire she is the essence < !" speed. For example, take the Beiiham, one of our most recent destroyers. She if^ Ik mi feet long, about "?? feet broad, with a draft of '*lz feet ami a displacement of 1.03I1 tons. ITer relatively great speed. knots itnaximum) per hour. i~ due, first, to her shallow* draft and iiiie lines (breadth but one-tenth her length i. and. second, to her large horsepower. !??.sr?o, vvhi?-h is more than one-half that <?f the lll.ooO-ton. ill-knot dreadnaught PentisyHania. * * * The Benhani's high forecastle enables her to be driven against a heavy head sea. She can rise from moderate to maximum speed in a few minutes, since she has oil-fired, water-tube boilers and turbine engines. Her armament consists of four twin "is-inch torpedo tubes and four 4-inch rapid-tire guns. The radius of action and maneuvering qualities of these luilo vessels are remarkable. The Benham, with tons of fuel oil on hoard, can steam at licr maximum speed for 9N0 sea miles, and, at twelve knots per hour, she has a theoretical radius of action of about tf.000 miles. The turbine engines of many destroyers can be reversed, from "ahead" to "astern" or vice versa, in fifteen seconds or less. This swift change at high speed and the shallow draft give these vessels that extreme mobility which makes them the terror of submarines. While the gun lias been for centuries the primary naval weapon, the automobile torpedo, time anil again In re years, has seemed to threaten its supremacy. When the time element is considered the sun is vastly superior to the torpedo. The projectile leaves a fourteen-inch gun at a velocity more than fifty times greater than the thirty-knot speed of the Whitehead torpedo at its maximum range of 11,000 yards, and the torpedo will take i ' i : . ... 1: ' ^BbL $&&&, I AM, ONE OF UNCLE SAM'S NEWEST D STEVE j 1. LARDNER. p SWWWWNWWWWWN VVJWN-? Well Steve wommens allways holling to have sufferagre and vote but if I ome thing: beffore I tride to but in so 4th. If all of them is as smart is g if I was them. out our scheame for Reting rid of this the way we was to get rid of her was i tell her to come and join me on the and then when Babe seen Gussy was d half to leave her self and go home he letter wile we was in Phi 11 y and d when she read it she says to Babe ely because my husband insist that I got to sturt right a way so you will be says lets see the letter and Gussy and there i: was and no geting a way :> pack right up and you better beggin chat time both our trains go and may beggin to pertend like she was pack tig in there with her so finely Gussy ly wasent Babe packing up and Babe what time the trains went so Gussy ine and found out where they was a it 5 30 and 1 leaveing for Boston at iiffrunt Lines, so Gussy says that was d go down town to gather and then packing up some more close but still yet and it was 3 a clock in the P. M. dent beggin and pack and Babe says flat alone and Gussy says no and then >e stade in the flat wile Gussy was on hink of that Steve. And Gussy says nd wash the dishes and make the bed liar sence you been here. So Babe says ry thing nessary and I will stay and ley cant no body steal nothing. Well told her right there that she dident i quarled with her and in the stead of be kept coxing her and finely Gussy stay. Mind you Steve 1 wasent in and she knowed it was just a fake and iman put some thing over on her and f in ernest and go down and catch the ues. night and was there in the hotel J. Well Steve when I seen her setting own with a fether. ou and she told me the hole story and e use of balling them out when its all to cry and this inHhat till you couldent that womman get a way with a trick 1 hundred bucks haveing Gussy along the 1 hundred bucks is comeing from roin and Gussy buys some thing new il and the wojst part of it la that this ng for us yet when we get home but ern Gussy a lesson and I will sleep in o home untill this here womman beats eve and if brains was money theyd be BILL. I This Country Sa Ledyard Cathcart, Foi Member of American pert on. Matters Perta Futile Death Might F Shown the Destroyer Defense. more than ten minutes to traverse that ?distance. During this time the gun can discharge thirty shots, each with a muzzle energy of 73,000 foot-tons, .so that, before the torpedo reaches its mark, tlie gun could have hit that murk with an aggregate energy of about 2,190,000 foot-tons. When the torpedo scores, however', its blow is deadly oven to the dreadnaught. and, although its hits on warships have been relatively few, this deadliness and its invisibility, especially with the submarine, make it a very formidable weapon against a battle fleet. So, for years, naval men have given exhaustive stud\ to methods of attack by and defense aera'nst the torpedo. From 1S94 to 1S9S ti re were built for the I'nited States Navy twenty-one torpedo boats, ranging in displacement from 30 to 2S0 tons and in speed from fifteen to thirty knots. Kach boat carried two or three torpedo tubes and three or four one-pounder rapid-fire guns. They are serviceable for coast and harbor defense-only. Nineteen of them still survive. To capture or sink such boats foreign navies developed the "'torpedo gunboat." a sea-going vessel of about 800 tons, carrying torpedo tubes and 4.7* .. - i ? 5 30 ?! : : " : ."" * I? , ?; .* > . *' ' t' iT^ iitt^ *1 ||||$|^ e e ' s BO ATS OF THIS CLASS. ? inch pun?. While effective against cotemporary torpedo boats, these gunboats are far from being, fast enough tow, and so the torpedoboat destroyer n ?the "destroyer" of our time?was p evolved. _; The "destroyer of destroyers" has now. appeared in the British light r cruisers of the Arethusa.ami. Undaunted s class, which have done such noteworthv s service in . the.. North sea. They are j] thirty-knot vessels of 3.500 tons displacement, carrying two six-inch and " six four-inch guns and carrying four t -V. In ^n? t, action the Undaunted sank four Ger- s man destroyers. b J* v * * As was to be expected from its close \ patrol, the destroyer took part in the ? first sea fight between British and Ger- c man warships, August 28. 1914, off h Helgoland bight. A strong force of 11 British destroyers, acting as scouts and s headed by the light cruiser Arethusa, h rounded up and attacked eighteen or o twenty home-bound German cruisers e and destroyers. Later, when enemy re- e inforcements appeared, the British bat- r tie cruiser squadron also arrived. After t; some hours' lighting, three German cruisers and two destroyers were sunk t with ?00 officers and men. The British ? casualties were sixty-nine killed and c ~:*r,'' >'' K -' 1:1'. ' *v " V.".... , , / -: . - - J ~ " >t - * * S . . ...v'.. : 5" p t ?> v, * / - ':% ' >2 , > ' v~ ' - v ?'<>) ' * ' : v,,, . UI wounded. While their cruisers took s the principal part, the British official z report says: "The destroyers themselves did not hesitate t*<> engage the s enemy's cruisers, both with guns and t torpedoes." Had it not been for the t high speed of the Arethusa and her de- 1 stroyer flotilla, the German squadron would have escaped. $ Again, October 17, off the estuary of 1 the Ems, the light cruiser Undaunted i and four destroyers on patrol were at- < tacked by German destroyer flotillas, i At a range of five miles the cruiser opened Are with her six-inch guns, and < then she and the destroyers closed in i for a running flght. The destroyers 1 not only protected her from torpedo t attack, but one of them shot away one < of the funnels and the propeller of an i enemy ship, and throughout the short 1 ^ dly Lacking in Its Fore 'merlv of the United St; Society of Naval En gin lining to Naval Warfan (eadily Confront Unite Is Next in Importance j v ,r, _ v.5JI I < ' ' . v .: ?. > ' ' v.""' ' " > . , " ; ' ) s ... : . ' - ' - : / * * rv".' i<. r* | . & * I'MTKD STA'l nd fierce fight they completed the de- ' truction be?un by the Undaunted. Four i erman destroyers were sunk with 133 len. The British casualties were five i ounded. Destroyers also served conspicuously i the engagement of January 24 off he Dogger bank in the North sea, be-ween British and German battle cruisrs. A flotilla of patrolling British de- 1 troyers, headed by the light cruiser a urora, sighted and attacked the enely at 7:30 in the morning. The Gerlan force consisted of three battle ruisers, the armored cruiser Blucher, ix light cruisers and some destroyers, 'he Germans turned and the British estroyers pursued, followed by their attle cruisers. At a distance* of shout &n miles the battle cruiser Tiger opend fire and a running fight began, which nded in the sinking of the Blucher Mth 635 officers and men and the serius injury of two of the German battle ruisers. During the action the Gerlan destroyers emitted vast volumes f smoke from their funnels, in order o obscure the movement of their crulsrs. The British casualties were very light. One of their battle cruisers and ne destroyer were disabled and towed uto port. * * Count , von , Reventlow, the German aval critic, says, feelingly: "The toredo boat (destroyer) is the submaine's worst enemy." The count Is qhile Ight, for, so far as is publicly known, ubmarines have been sunk only by wlft light cruisers and destroyers durng this war. Indeed, if England had ad enough destroyers to patrol fully**" he North sea and her territorial waers Germany's submarine blockade, light, relatively, as its. results have een, would have been prevented .-holly. There are several reasons for the efectiveness of destroyers working toether in .close patrol over specified tretches of sea. A submarine must xpose its periscope in order to sight ts target and take-aim. This instrulent is essentially a revolving, rightngled telescope, which views but a ection of the horizon at one time. It as many forms, but in most if not all f them the enemy vessel is first "pickd up" by a magnifying lens on the yepiece, and then .with the magnifier ernoved, the speed and course of the arget are estimated by normal vision. .11 of this takes a brief but appreciable ime, during which an alert destroyer, lghting the periscope from its bridge, ...? AiOiAi- luan t r? tlto cnnt an/1 ram fhn V- j 'ISPi ?">-&*r:*'??*'s>l~-' '* ^ ***> --; f j X' 5 HTED STATES DESTROYER AYLWI iubmarine or else shoot its periscope tway. Again, for submerged running, the iubmarine must charge its storage bateries by operating its oil engines on he surface for six or eight hours, rhese engines, like those used in the ?arly automobiles, are still imperfect ind exceedingly noisy. Sounds carry rar on a still night at sea, and the acket made by her machinery will lraw destroyers to the submarine like noths to an arc light. Whert the war began Germany was iredited officially with thirty-one subnarines. Despite a year of feverish building night and day, she is now said :o have only about seventy in commlslion. She has lost fully a score. If not many more, by destroyer? and engine breakdowns. The latter would explain e of Seagoing Destroyei ates Navy and Gradual teers and Society of N ?.Warns That With C d States Fleet in Warto the Battleship?Vit . : \ ' V " .. \ . ' J- V' - ' . ' :" : V" .y " . : " ' '"'ii ' ' ' ::r'' : * r- v. tPES DESTROYER Dl'XCAN UNDER the intermittent way in which the sub marine blockade has been pressed. The investment of Santiago by Admiral Sampson's fleet was probably th< last instance of battleships being uset in close blockade. As soon as th< present war started, the late Admira Mahan predicted that the blockad< proper would be maintained by numer ous light cruisers and destroyers. Foi t time, the British also employed the - I 4 Vk0, - -,t *. ^ -,v- . [y.VV - ' - " V : ' . .; . * ?," . - < KSV ."( ' ' V - V ;: .? v> J''/:' y>iX". t heavier, out-of-date vessel? of wha they call the "Forlorn Hope" sectioi of their fleet, but the bitter lesson o the lose of the Aboukir "and" her con sorts showed them that high speed wa the only protection against submarln attack. Since then, Mahan's prescrip tion, with added battle cruisers alway within call, has been followed. Unti N. Italy entered the war, Prance also use* sixty destroyers and submarines in th close blockade of the Austrian fleet ii the Adriatic, although she sorely need ed light cruisers of the British Un daunted class to lead her flotillas. A daylight attack on a battle fleet b; destroyer flotillas, except in the mele of a general action, would be futile since it would be repulsed s&vagel; both by guarding destroyers and by i great volume of Are from tl\e second ary batteries of the battleships. Ii this battery and for this purpoe the dreadnaught Pennsylvania carrie twenty-two five-inch rapld-flre gunc which could wreck a destroyer at ; range of 9,000 yards. In fleet attacks, daylight favors th battleship and darkness the destroyei In night attack, a massed force of th 4 I I] rs, Says Prof. William ! r ie of Naval Academy, aval Architects ? Exr )ur Inadequate Force " -Events of War Have ii al Factor in National I I r I * I 11 a "" i i i in . ... , , f . a * ' n a l > " ' i: : : A : - ; f f " j . T ' Q " ' - : ^ J - ..v.- ^ ' III1 I pri.l speed. i - latter is led by light cruisers to their 1 prey, whose probable location is known ' - from prior scouting. In close forma- 1 s tion, at high speed, and with all lights 1 ? the destroyers endeavor to get within ; 1 successful torpedo range. ; The battleship's guard is assumed t<> 1 - be her own screening destroyers and 1 r her searchlights sweeping the horizon. but the value of the latter is open to < '?''i**,' ' ' : s. ' . ' ' - . " UNITED STATES DESTROYER CASSIN. t question, since it reveals her location, i While the beam cannot dazzle the torf pedo tube crews on the destroyer if - they use tinted glasses, it can be kept s steadily on the advancing craft to aid e the aim of the battleship's gunners. - For lack of actual war experience in s this mode of night attack, its value is 1 still debateable. Intermittently, and especially since the outbreak of this war, naval inventors have advocated replacing the destroyer by a vessel capable not only of performing its duty on the surface, but "of submerged running and attack as well. Such a destroyer submersible would have great military value for attack on fleets and fortifications, but practical difficulties seem likely to prevent its realization. * * * It Is possible, of course, to construct a submarine cruiser of any reasonable } size, although increase of displacement both lessens invisibility under water and makes the boat slower in diving. When, however, such a submersible is required to be as efficient on the surface as the destroyer, submarine designers advance strong and apparently valid objections to the proposed combination. In the first place, the destroyer is speed incarnate, and everything else is sacrificed to this one quality. She has a long, lean, shallow hull of the finest possible lines, built as lightly as seaworthiness will permit. Her engines, the acme of lightness and strength, are, for her size, of enormous power, weighing 33 per cent of her displacement, as compared with 8 per cent for the dreadnaught. Her propellers are machined all over for accuracy and are then polished like iewftlrv. It. is evident that, for a ves Isel to be as effective as the destroyer, these conditions must be met in their entirety. Now, the conventional submarine hull ?circular in cross-section to resist ex- J ternal pressure?is unsuitable for driv3 ing at high speed on the surface. The e destroyer submersible would therefore ' n require a double hull, ship-shaped ' . without and circular within. Such a - hull, substantially built to withstand pressure, would be necessarily much y heavier than that of the destroyer, thus e reducing the weight available for en- ^ 5, gine power and speed. To this excess , y weight must be added that of the storel age batteries and motors for sub merged running. Finally, a propeller a has Its maximum efficiency only at 1 e the fixed resistance assumed in its de- j s sign. The destroyer submersible, on i, the contrary, would have two wholly a different resistances?that in surface running and that when submerged, e since, in the latter case, the body to i \ be driven through the water not only ] e differs in shape, but is greater in vol- 1 ;&? Uo s mp. Apparently, both the destroyer ml the submarine must keep to the istinot fields which they fill so efectively now. Admiral Mahan was quick to predict lie primary valu^ of the destroyer in lose blockade. Count von Heventlow eluctantly admits that it is the suhlarine's worst foe. The United Service Gazette of London says: "Submarine successes have shown that if itr pre-war provision of destroyers ad been six times what it was wo hould not possess one vessel too many n that type for the patrol duty that nemv submarines have driven us to." >lscussing the torpedoing of the batieship Formidable in the channel, Adniral Lord Charles Vleresford notes the bsence of destroyers, "the natural deense against the submarine," and rids: "It is unpardonable that officers nd men should he thus gratuitously xposed to conditions under which they re sent to the bottom without a shot teing fired." And yet. with our gravey inadequate force of destroyers, these onditions of unnecessary sacrifice and utile death might readily confront our i\vn fi.ee t in war with an effective nemv today. We "have forty-four batileships of the irst and second lines, built, building md authorized The general board of he navy states that, for every bat IOH1MNY APPLES CHARACTER OI a S the country matures, its history lengthens and the pioneer days recede, general interest in pioicer history grows stronger and more tnd more persons develop an interest ii the pioneers, the men who explored, settled and began the building up of jarticular parts of the country. One evidence of this spirit is a movenent which is going on through a arge part of the middle west to erect memorial to a pioneer of quaint, unjsual and charming character, and vhom thousands of the early settlers n Indiana, Ohio and in other parts of he Ohio valley came to think of fondy." That man is best known to the peo)le of the middle west as Johnny Apileseed. and it is not clear that during he many years Johnny Appleseed was -nguged in his peculiar philanthropy the people he came incontact with on lis long travels knew him by ai^' other lame, though persons whtv-feave delved into the subject have learned that the name of this strange man was Jonathan Chapman. j Johnny Appleseed planted apple seeds, developed little apple nurseries and . - made public distribution of the trees throughout most of the Ohio river valley and appendant country. His labor was inspired purely by love of his fellow-raan and the apple tree. He asked no other reward than the approbation of his conscience and the appreciation of those persons whom he sought to benefit, and in many thousands of in stances did benefit. He entered upon this strange but valuable work when settlers were beginning to set up their rude huts in the Indian -wilderness along the Ohio river and the other rivers trlbutory to it. He died while still engaged in his apple propaganda? free distribution of seeds and trees, ind free instruction in the care and culture of the trees. His death came in the spring of 1847, when he was seventy-two years old, and at that time there was no better knowrMnan than he In the wide region over which he traveled, which was nearly always on toot. * * All the old families In Indiana and Ohio hold this old man in loving* remembrance and most of the newcomers Into those parts have learned to respect his memory. In that country tliere are countless tales and legends conoerning Johnny kppleseed and it is said that large nnmhoro of fho troog nr* at laant a crood many of the trees which he grew from seed, and then budded, are still bearing. He was seventy-two years old when his life work ended, and he had 3een spreading the gospel of the apple since he was a young man. It is not known, or seems not to be known, ivhen Johnny Appleseed took up this work, but it was certainly not later than the year 1800, and it may have been begun ten years earlier. At any rate he conceived it to be his duty to carry apple trees to the homes of the settlers at about the time emigration from the older states of the east began to set into the northwest territory. There have been a good many romances told and written about Johnny Appleseed, but hard facta concerning the birth, youth and bringing up of this strange man are few. As Ohio, Indiana, Michigan and Illinois began to All with settlers they all knew Johnny Appleseed, but then his hair was beginning to whiten and his shoulders to stoop, and they did not learn very much about the youth of the man. He distributed seed to those whom he believed would know how to take care of the seedlings and tha trees; he took care of seedlings himself, establishing nurseries at little settlements in the wilds, and later actually set out or superintended the setting out of orchards for the settlers. But Jors^hy Appleseed did not talk much about his past. It was not that be had anything to conceal, but to him he past had served its purpose and was t tleship built, four destroyers si.<?,j <1 be provided. On this basis, vw s . iilil have now building or authorized I 7 seagoing destroyers, tit to aecompnny a fleet. Instead, we have a p.i? > strength" of only sixty-eight built ai d building and six more authorize.! ! the last Congress, and of this to.a! only twentv-six are modern vessels of 1,086 to 1,150 tons displacement and twenty-nine to thirty knots spe?d. There are twenty-six of TOO t ? 740 tons and the remainder are small vessels of 420 tons, which can operate only from a nearby naval base. In the most optimistic view the navy 1s therefore short by at least 102 destroyers. If only those fit to attend a fleet on the high seas are considered, the shortage is much greater. The cost of a destroyer is about JSOO.OOO. exclusive of armament, and the time required to build it is about twenty-two mouths. The vital importance of the destroyer to a modern fleet can be realized if w/? assume that the British had had none during this war. Their force of light cruisers is far too limited for full blockade or patrol Tn order to routnln flit. C.<?rmnn fleet and to con voy troops to Kran^, they would have had to keep their heavy vessels ??ff the roast and in the channel, and, by this time German submarines would probably have taken a heavy toll In ships and lives. In its efficiency as :< clos?* hlockader and as a constant menace to submarines, the destroyer has been the key to the complex problem which confronts the British in the North sea tCopyrijrbt 10L"?. by ib* Wheeler In* .) EED AN ODD ? PIONEEK DAYS nothing but the past. With a t :.i of J a his temperament it was the present and A the future that counted. This man, 4^ even in his advanced years, lived in the present?his present?bud kept his gaze on the future. There were stories to the effect that the pood and kindly old man was not quite "right" in the head, hut as he was very different from the general run of men it was easy for such stories to start. It. indeed, was curious that a man would mark out a line of conduct for himself ami devote himself exclusively to promoting the benefit of other people without thought of gain for himself. It was reasonable to assume that such a man was slightly "touched" in the head. Then, Johnny Appleseed was a man with a single idea and a single purpose. His tniss mi was to give to other men the benefits of apple trees. Tt is quite likely that a man with a single idea and a single purpose should appear "queer" to other persons if. indeed, he did not actually become "queer." * * * When the important chapter in th*life of Johnny Appleseed opens he had an orcnara in tne who nut crowing town of Pittsburgh, and the site of that orchard was long. long ago built over. Immigrants from eastern Pennsylvania, from Maryland and Virginia, crossing the Alleghenies, destined for the section then called far west, which is often now classed as in the effete east, came to Pittsburgh to take passage on the rough boats that were poled down the Ohio river, which was usually in the spring at the times of high water. The blooming orchard of Jonathan Chapman attracted many of these travelers and filled them with thoughts of the homes they had left behind them. There was a famous spring on Chapman's little farm and a great many persons went there to drink. Loving his own apple trees and seeing so many men and women leaving the east behind them for the then little known west, he conceived the plan of taking apple trees to them. He collected the pomace from the cider mills in the east, carefully washed out the apple sec! and with a bag of them would stwrt into the wilderness at the first suggestion of spring. It was his mission to promote orchards. To some persons he would give seed, and it is related that he gave some to Isaac Stadden, a German farmer, who had settled near the mouth of Lickir.g river, and that the nursery established there was the first in the new northwest territory. Johnny Appleseed planted a bed of seed on the farm of Commodore Whip pie, near where stands Marietta, and from that nursery distributed trees throughout the region. He also put in nurseries at various places along tinrivers Sciota and Miami very early in the settlement of those regions. H.was a frifend of the great Indian chief Logan and because of acts of kindness maintained friendly relations with le Indians. He was also a friend of the Blenn^rhassetts, who bought the Tsle le Beau in the Ohio river, and which is now called Blennerhassett Island, on which fragments of the Blennerhassei t house were visible a few years ago and probably still are. Harmon BLennerhassett was born in Hampshire, England, in 1764. H? was of Irish blood. He came to this country in 1796 and bought the Island, which is close to the town of Marietta. His wife was the granddaughter of Gen. Agnew of the British army. Aaron Burr visited at the Blennerhaasett honuj and Blennerhassett was involved in the Burr conspiracy and his house was destroyed, though he himself was discharged of the accusation of treason in 1807. Later he became a cotton planter near Port Gibson, La., and failing, began the practice of law In Montreal. He died in England In 1831 and his widow came to this country to press upon Congress the Blennerhassett claim for redress. She died In New York In 1841. The Blennerhassetts knew Johnny Appleseed well and were often with him on his tours through that part of the country. But, then, all the old or early settlers in tha Ohio river country knew Johnny Appleseed. Getting Round It. JOHN I. SULLIVAN said at an Atlantic City dinner party: -Ton can't cheat the booze. The boor.' ??r? Vnu na n't ovt ronml the pen&noe of the booze like Dennis. "Dennis and Shamus were walking up a steep hill with their ?hoes full of peas?a penance put on them-by Father John. " *Dennts,* shouted Shamus. 'wait for me! Sure, Dennis, and how Is it you can walk so fast without limpin', while I can hardly get on at all. at all?' " "Why, Shamus,' says Dennis, surprised like. 'I biled my peas afore I put 'em in my shoes. Didn't you?' " An Extremist. DISCUSSING the law against ai^nttes with a group of actresses in NewYork, Douglas Fairbanks said: "1 agree with you. When the aigrettes are extracted painlessly from the living bird?which, you say. Is the newmethod?then this law against them becomes absurd. "It is like the girl at the shore who was a great bird'lover. A man said to her: " 'A great bird lover, but she carries the thing too far. She refused to take a moonlight row with me the other night because some one told her that I feathered my oars.'' ?