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moderate and southeast winds. lE^k, jAnSy ! C /:( fl ????????? Temperature for the I i B^^B B^^^ ^B^^B I B^^B ^TB^^B J|T B ^\^BT fl'li Within the Hour" mmm? WIlv AllviUIlU jsiai? !' i: I y I J y j y Last Week's Sworn Net Circularise? CLOSING NEW YORK STOCKS PAGE 14. ^ ^ Dally Average. T34W: Sunday. 54?tW. No. 20,116. WASHINGTON, D. C., MONDAY, OCTOBER 25, 1915.-EIGHTEEN PAGES. * ONE CENT." BULGARS DEFEATED BY FRENCH TROOPS; SERBSLOSEUSKUP Progress of Austro-German Forces in Northern Serbia Reported Checked. ALLIES MAY SEND HUGE ARMY TO BALKAN ARENA Successes of Bulgars in Serbian; Macedonia Menaces All Railway Communication. DEDEAGAHATCH UNDER FIRE Ten Civilians and Over a Thousand Soldiers Reported to Have Beea Killed in Bulgarian Seaport. LONDON. October 25, 3 p.m.?French troops routed three divisions of Bulgarians on Saturday on the front of Gradek-V oolandovo-Rabrovo in southeastern Serbia, according to a dispatch filed at Saloniki, October 24, to the Havas News Agency. The Bulgarian forces, the dispatch adds, were decimated. BERLIN, October 25, by wireless to Sayville, N. Y.? 1 Further advances for the Austro-German troops on the Serbian front, including a successful forward move- 1 ment by the new force which has crossed the Danube near the Rumanian frontier, were announced today by the war office. The Bulgarians have advanced twelve miles north of Pirot, near the center of the Serbo-Bulgarian frontier. PARIS, October 25, 3 :io p.m.? A dispatch filed yesterday at Athens by the Havas correspond- i ent says the Austro-German offensive in Serbia has been brought ' 4<-> y-YM vUn I bu ? sLaiiu^kiii uii uic tiiuic nui uiern front, according to advices received at Athens from Nish. South of Pozarevac the Serbians ' retired a few miles to stronger positions. All Bulgarian attacks on the Timok and Pirot fronts are ;1 said to have been repulsed so ef-; ( fectively that the invaders were! compelled to fill in gaps in their ; ranks and reform their units. Buigars Suspend Efforts. The dispatch adds that on this north- < ern part of the front, which the Ser- ; Liana considered'invulnerable, the op- < erations of the Bulgarians have been suspended. The Bulgarians are now ; making their principal efforts in Ser- 1 bian Macedonia, where their impetus is ? said to have been checked by the combined movements of the French and Serbians. Bulgarian troops engaged with the ' French Friday were subjected to a decimating fire by the French artillery and suffered heavy losses, according to a , under Sunday's date. '1 he losses of the J French, the d spatch states, amount to but ten killed and a few score wounded. Loss of Uskup Admitted. i "According to information from an authorized source, the Bulgarians have taken Uskup." is the concluding sentence of an official statement issued by ! the Serbian war office and forwarded by the Havas News Agency. The statement, which outlines the situation as it , existed Friday, October 22, is as follows: "On the northwest front, after desperate fighting, Serbian troops retired on ' the left bank of the Mlava on a line running from Voliko-Orachie to the right bank of the Rassen.tza. Other ! troops retired to the right bank of the ' Koubrohnltza and to the right bank of i the Touria. "Near Vichegrad, in Herzegovina territory. the enemy succeeded In crossing the Drina river with three battalions, end strong groups have been observed massing near that point. "Bulgarian front: I'nder strong presrure by the enemy in the direction of Kniazevac the Serbians retired on the ? irect defensive positions of that town. The enemy succeeded in passing to the left bank of the Timok river in an advance toward Kralievo Selo. "There is no change in the neighborhood of Pirot. All enemy attacks on the kouthern Morava have been repulsed. "According to information from an ruthorized source the Bulgarians have taken Uskup." Brilliant French Success. French troops gained a brilliant success by effecting junction with the herbs at Krivolak, says a dispatch to tne Petit Parisien from Athens. The c;ispatch. dated Sunday, says: Bulgarian troops in force were attacking in three colqmns, when our troops, by daring maneuver, turned the Bulgarins' right flank, while the Serbs launched an energetic counter'attack all along the f.ont. At the end of the day the Bulgarians beat a retreat in the direction of p: rurnitsa, pursued by French troops and Ferbian cavalry. Bulbars Fail at Pirot. "Bulgaria opedations against Piot were fruitless, therefore they seem to intend to concentrate efforts on Vranya, and are tiyirig an utt:?< > en masse on fortifloax tjy> and positions occupied by the Serbs i . Viacena. The Bulgarians are stopped oil the ' while tiie Austro-Germans axe i.Concuiued on Second Page.) 10 Of GERMANS I HELD MITERS Robert Fay, W. L. Scholz and I Paul Daeche Charged With Conspiracy. TESTING OF EXPLOSIVES ( LEADS TO THEIR ARREST Bombs Designed to Delay Shipments i of Munitions to Allies Figure in Allegations. NEW YORK, October 25.? Robert Fay, who claims to be a lieutenant in the Germany army, c. ana his brother-in-law. Walter L. h Scholz. were arrested yesterday 1( while testing explosives near Grantwood. X. J., and were ar- " raigned today before a justice of i? the peace at Weehawken, N. J., on charges of conspiracy, and held si without bail for examination to11 morrow. ci The arraignment of the two men dis- n :losed the fact that a third man, Paul z; Daeche, had been arrested early today at his home in Jersey City after New si York and New Jersey police had searched the house. Daeche also was ar- f"1 raigned with Fay and Scholz and held " without bail. Detectives said they expected Daeche to prove a valuable witness, as he already j* had given them much important informaLion. Daeche said he was thirty-four years old, that he came to this country from Germany in 1912, and was a graduate of Cologne University. ^ Detective George Barnitz of the New York central office squad made the af- P' fidavit upon which the three men were it held on charges of conspiracy. U Declare Fay Made Confession. t] w Announcement was made at police head- r? quarters here today by Commissioner Woods that Fay, after an all-night ^ grilling, had made a confession. d, For more than twelve hours, it was ol stated. Fay stuck to his original story P that he was not connected with the German government. At 5:30 o'clock this ^ morning, according to the commissioner, pi m.v?c uunu ana etuimiicu mai ne was a lieutenant In the German army and ** came to this country two or three months al ago for the specific purpose of experi- al menting with a machine containing high explosives. This machine, the comm-s- C1 sioner said, contained works like a clock c< and was to be attached to the propeller n< or rudder of a ship. The machine was so constructed, he 7"' said, that the stirring of the water h< would cause a rod connected with one ta of the cogs to release a spring, resulting P* in an explosion, which would disable the ship and force her to enter to the nearest port. This was for the purpose of delaying shipments of munitions to tc the allies, ti was stated. Only ships r< carrying war munitions were to be thus &'> disabled, according to Fay's statement. 1X1 A number of detectives left headquarters U1 in automobiles early today, and It was said several arrests would be made today of men who were cognizant of Fay's in movements. Investigation Is Continued. Meanwhile the authorities continued ts an investigation to discover whether tl in arresting Fay and Scholz they had ti obtained the key to a long series of ex- e: plosions on steamships, fires on piers m and so-called accidents in various war bi munition plants. d< Fay was suspected by the police of P* being the director of their activities. Fay said he was a lieutenant in the m German army, had won the iron cross s< for bravery in the fighting in the n? Champagne district of France, and that e< he came to America last April. The police asserted that Fay admitted he tl came here to work out a plan to stop s< the shipment of war munitions to the aiiies. Iti M Explosive Found in Booms. f \* large quantity of explosives, in- iz eluding dynamite and various kinds of m add used in the making of explosives, ly was found in the rooms Fay and Scholz occupied in Weehawken or in a OJ storehouse in Hoboken. Among the de- V\ vices seized by the police were peculiar S1 bombs or mines believed to be designed for fastening to the rudders of steam- bi ships. ei st Fay Had Auto and Boat. A At a garage in Weehawken the police found a high-powered automobile li held in Fay's name, and at a boathouse on the Hudson river a swift motor boat which he was said to own. In the boathouse they also found four wooden ti boxes, each containing 120 pounds of a' chlorate of potash, one of the ingredi- R ents used in the manufacture of so- a! called sugar bombs, in which water 81 percolating into the receptacle melts n the sugar, releasing springs and caus- 8< ing an explosion. " ct Watched for Two Months. ic pi The two men had been watched by detectives of the New York police de- ai partment for two months. They were s* seen to pay frequent visits to an isolat- ^ ed spot in the woods of Grantwood, N. w J., on the palisades near Weehawken. is Saturday detectives hidden in a tree- ^ top watched the scene of their actlvities for eleven hours. They say they saw the two men come there late at night and teat an explo- r sive by blowing up a tree. t< Again yesterday the police watched In the woods and saw Fay and Scholz 81 burning a powder and testing an ex- P' plosive. When the test was completed at the detectives arrested them. Accord- h ing to the police Fay offered 11,000 to 11 be set free. 81 di DEMANDS HEAVY SENTENCE. ? ti Italian Prosecutor Denies Charlton Was Mentally Irresponsible. ^ COMO, Italy. October 25, via Paris. 1:45 p.m. ? The crown prosecutor. Bignor Mellini. delivered his argument to the Jury today in the case of Porter Charlton, the American who is on trial ?' for the murder of his wife. Signor n Mellini denied that Charlton was men- a tally irresponsible, even momentarily, at the time the deed was committed. d The prosecutor denied Charlton had t< had provocation for killing his wife, and insinuated he married her for her c< savings and that he had appropriated a her Jewels after killing her. He ended tl his address with a demand for a heavy f< sentence. e LEADERS DISCUSS PARTYOUTLOOK Democrats Will Combat Re- < publican Plans for Control of the House. I DUTLINfNG THE PROGRAM FOR CAMPAIGN OF 1916 attitude *of the German-Americans Toward President Wilson Is Giving Concern. BY N. 0. MESSENGER. NEW YORK, October 25.?Chairman oremus of the democratic national angressional campaign committee and red B. Lynch, democratic national ommitteeman from Minnesota, held a >ng conference here yesterday on the emocratic political outlook. Mr. Lynch ho has been in the east practically 11 the summer and fall is one of the jading spirits in the national demoratic management, although he peristently seeks to avoid notoriety as Lich. He is "gun shy" of publicity, although i inside democratic circles he is disjssed as the possible next democratic ational chairman in case of reorganiltion of the national committee. Chairman Doremus of the congresonal campaign committee and represntative of the Detroit district in the ouse of Representatives is concerning imself mainly with undertaking the ext campaign for the election of a emocratic majority in the house, the round work of which will be laid at te coming session of Congress. Republican Plan of Attack. Word has come to the democratic lanagers that the republicans are lanning to strike their hardest blows i the congressional campaign next ill; that in a spirit of "saving someling from the wreck" the republicans ill bend every energy to electing a publican House, especially if Presi?nt WilsAO's popularity continues at igh tide for a: other year. According > the information received by the ?mocrati$ managers the more astute F the republican leaders realize that resident* Wilson, in event of the connuation of the war and his personal Dpularity, will be hard to defeat for 11 j-election, but feel certain that a re ublican House can be elected. ? They differentiate. It Is said, between le personal following of the President 11 id support of the democratic party. 11 id believe that this can be demon- U rated in tne wiping out or tne aemo atic majority of twenty-nine that >ntrols the House v/hich assembles ext December. The democratic managers are not illing to concede this differentiation, jwever, and will not let it be suslined by default of action on their irt, at any rate. While they believe A lat a landslide which would return resident Wilson to the White House 1916 might naturally be expected sweep in a democratic House, they ;alize that the reuniting of the proressive and regular republican vote i'ght swing into the republican col- ] mn many districts now represented by y, ;mocrats as the result of republican ictional fights in 1912 and continued i 1914. tr M Considering the German Vote. ta The democratic managers are also fa Lking cognizance of the attitude of w le German vote in its increasing hos- Ai lity to President Wilson, threatening In ctension to the whole national ad- m; inlstration. Chairman Doremus In rought to the eastern managers full kr stails of the extent of the German opasition in the west. It may be reilled that The Star's dispatches from ichigan early in September told of a ar leeting of German societies at Jack- Mi >n, Mich., which not only bitterly de- be ounced President Wilson, but contend- w 1 for the "extension of German ideals" h#1 i the United States and teaching of le ^erman language In the public ?* :hools. Cholrmon rir.romna in tka nr.n~n iK papers today dispatches from < lassachusetts telling of anti-Wilson fa seling in the Bay state, where at fi Worcester yesterday forty-six organations of German-Americans, with a ra icmbership of 20,000, adopted reso- tr itions to "unitedly discuss the ques- bi on of gubernatorial candidates" and t Iso declared themselves as "firmly pposed to the re-election of Woodrow nison as President of the United tates. The meeting was called by John Al- , recht Walz, professor of German lit-ature at Harvard University and ate chairman of the National German " lliance. The purpose was said to be induce Americans of German descent aT > take a more active interest in po- ,rtl tical affairs. ln Republicans Aiding Suffragists. tjj Several republican politicians of na- tii onal note are also ln town or here- cv bouts. Senator Borah of Idaho and .epresentative Mondell of Wyoming re in the state to help the woman iftragists. They spoke here Saturday q, ight and are now up state. Repreintatlve Campbell of Kansas, ln his ight to help the McCall gubernatorial . impaign in Massachusetts, paused >ng enough to picture glowing re- gri ublican prospects in Kansas. B? Dennis Flynn of Oklahoma is here nd said that Senator Weeks made a :rong impression in that state on his Isit a fortnight ago, and that the oh /eeks presidential boom is taking b< en. ?e aoaea, however, that there a strong demand for Elihu Root, inIcating, to his mind, that the sentilent In the middle west is for a reublican candidate of conservative A) 'Pe. gr James B. Reynolds, secretary of the ar 'publican national committee, got back co ? town yesterday from a long western pc ip. The Star's correspondent, who la truck Mr. Reynolds' trail at several w; oints In the west at that time, underlood that "Jimmy was passing the at." Delicacy forbade inquiry upon lis point today, but as Mr. Reynolds larted this morning down to 56 Mai- T en lane, to call on National Chairman harles D. Hilles of the republican ommittee he wore the look of the cat lat had swallowed the canary; so, J laybe, it's true. T1 _ * * ha JEW ORDER IN COUNCIL HITS NEUTRAL SHIPPING ? th LONDON, October 25, 1:05 p.m.?An in rder in council was gazetted today ab- of ^gating from Wednesday last observ- 12 nee of article 57 of the declaration of ar ondon, which provides that the neu- ca *al or enemy character of a vessel is T1 etermined by the flag she is entitled ov > fly. ca In lieu of this article British prize ' ourts henceforth will aply the rules be nd principles formerly observed by M hem. The reason, given in the order L< ar this change is that "it is no longer cl xpedient to adopt said article." ft 4 I "1 II * r ^ V"'' I " I rLjj^ | 4 News N'ote: Reports say tlia' omination next year. Timor , AND BANDITS FIGHT ttack Made on Detachment of 4th Infantry Worth of Brownsville. One Private Killed. BROWNSVILLE, Tex., October 25 ? irtually the entire strength of the nited States border patrol in this disic spent last night in a search for exican bandits who attacked a dechment of the 4th United States Inntry at the spot north of Brownsville here a train was wrecked and three mericans killed one week ago today. the fighting last night Private Heran E. Moore of French Lick Springs, d., was fatally wounded. So far as lown none of the Mexicans was hit. rhe scene of the fighting and the ctics employed by the Mexicans led my officers today to assert that the exicans engaged probably were mem;rs of the band sruiltv of the train recking and which is said to have en led by Luis De La Rosa, fomenter the so-called "Texas revolution." Planned to Surround Americans. Sergt. Arthur Estridge of the 4th Inntry reported to Fort Brown* that re Mexicans were seen to cross the ilroad tracks near where the infany was stationed. A moment later th sides opened fire; then the real rength of the Mexicans appeared, robably sixteen of them engaged in e fighting, and it is believed they Ld planned to surround the small merlcan detachment and annihilate it. Surprised in their maneuvers, the exicans fought for about five mines and then made off just in time escape two companies of infantry id two troops of cavalry, which were ished to the scene from Fort Brown commandeered automobiles. Every river station was warned and e soldiers began a systematic hunt r the outlaws, in the belief that this me their escape into Mexico h^d been it off. NO DISCUSSION OF PEACE. (ficial Denial of Correspondence Between Pope and Belgian King. PARIS, October 25.?Official denial is ven In a statement issued by the >lgrian government at Havre, says a spatch to the Havas News Agency, the report that letters had been exanged between King Albert and Pope nedict concerning peace. X Rome dispatch October 21, said >pe Benedict, had received from King i bert a reply to the pontiff's auto aph letter urging the Belgian monch to initiate steps looking to the nclusion of peace. The king Is rented to have declared he never would y down his sword while his country as "in slavery." BIG CARGO FOB RUSSIA. ipanese Steamer Carries Locomotives, Bails and Barbed Wire. ['HIUA.DEL.PHIA, Pa.. October 26 ? \e Japanese stearfiship Senju Maru ls sailed from this port for Vladivosk with a cargo of locomotives, railr>?. m'otorlal arid harhad ?rUo u jssian government. This was the ird consignment of the order placed this city and vicinity and consisted | eight locomotives and tenders, ,432 steel rails, 2.000 kegs of staples id 10.800 reels of barbed wire. The rgo is valued at more than $216,000. ie Senju Maru will sail via Cape Horn ving to the closing of the Panama inalrhe fourth shipment of the order will s sent on the Japanese steamer Indu aru, which is on its way here from mdon. This consignment will Inude ten locomotives. 6,000 tons of eel rails and 700 tons of barbed wire. t Iliram Johnson will be California' ARMY PMJIUI flFTAIlCH nnmi i iiuuiiniii UL.iniLU 11 APPROVED BY PRESIDENT Chairman Hay of House Committee Ji Confident Congress Will Adopt Flans. Chairman Hay of the House military ! committee, went over the details of the pa army program with President Wilson th today and announced that it would of have his hearty support. St Chairman Hay said that he considered as the program very conservative, and saw ne no reason why there should be difficulty an in getting Congress to adopt it. He Gt added that he would secure as speedy T1 action in the House as was possible. pr Would Increase Pay of Militia. In addition to the plans prepared by fe< Secretary Garrison, Chairman Hay said ^ he would make efforts to strengthen or the National Guard. He said he favored re increasing the pay of the organized by militia. p* Because the House committees are yet to be organized, there will be no (jc hearings on the army bill before Con- va gress convenes, but afterward hear- St ings probably will last for a month or J six weeks. Mr. Hav saw no necessity - - - JJU for a bond issue. ch Chairman Chamberlain of the Senate pa military committee will confer with the President next week. He also favors the program. FRENCH GAINAVICTORY I IN CHAMPAGNE DISTRICT s lo\ sti PARIS, October 25, 2:35 p.m.?An important success by the French troops in a.n the Champagne district is announced by of the French war office this afternoon. In spite of a fierce resistance, French troops, following a preparatory artillery fire, occupied an important position I* known as "La Courtine." The losses of the Germans are described as serious Pt and the French took 200 prisoners. The eighth German attack in five days on the strong intrenched positions in the 1 wood of Givenchy, north of Arras, was Go renulsed Saturdav. with saneuinarv lnnnos in* according to the French war department. ^is BERLIN. October 25.?Today's official ca statement by the German war office P? says, concerning the western front, *ic that after a heavy preparatory artillery f?J bombardment the French attacked near 1 Tahure and north of La Mesnil, and reJ were repulsed with heavy losses. c^' * wc DIRECTOR OF LABORATORY. ,c!s ln( Surgeon General Blue Appoints Surgeon McCoy to Important Post. ter Surgeon General Blue of the public p?, health service today announced the na appointment of Surgeon George W. Mc- po Coy as director of the hygienic laboratory here, succeeding Dr. John F. An- gV( derson, who recently resigned to ao- be. cept private employment. Dr. McCoy now is in charge of the leprosy investigation at the hospital at Molokai, Hawaii, and comes here to accept what the public health service bel consiucrs cue iiiwsi unpuriani laDora- qu> tory work in the United States. He is ma accredited with being authority on lep- on< rosy, bubonic plague and dengue. th< ? ?be< Druyfus' Nephew Falls in Battle. PARIS, October 26.?Sub-Lient Emile Dreyfus, nephew of Alfred Dreyfus, has I been killed in action with his regiment, an< the 32d Artillery. Although only twen- ha ty-four years of age, IJeut. Dreyfus had Be won the military cross of the Legion of ag< Honor* ' * ?ej fc a k< u' * -J, ( ,?,;M" s candidate tor the republican OLDS PART OF CLAIMS^ BILL UNCONSTITUTIONAL istice Gould Says Congress Cannol Cut Attorneys' Fees to 20 Per Cent of Amount. Section 4 of the omnibus claims bill issed March 4, 1915, which prohibit e payment of more than 20 per cenl certain claims against the Unitei ates recovered in the Court of Claims compensation for services to attorys, is unconstitutional, according tc i opinion rendered today by Justice >uld of the District Supreme Court le opinion holds that the section deives the attorney of a property righi ithout due process of law. naii-ana-nun pian. x*x* ratttwi muu replied that undoubtedly individual opinions existed within and without these organizations, as in the case of Mr. Shannon, but that .as a whole the organizations favored the retention of the halfand-half plan. All of the members of the joint select conynittee, of which Senator Chilton of West Virginia is chairman, were present when the hearing began today. It was determined by the committee that I after the representatives of the joint citizens' committee had been heard, .Herbert. J. Browne, who is opposing the half-and-half plan, would be given three hours to state his views. He is expected to be heard tomorrow afternoon or Wednesday morning. He will be followed by representatives of the Tax Reform Association, headed by 1 W. D. Mackenzie. The other representatives of that association will be . C. S. Davis and James Hugh Keelev. Hearing1 Attracts Large Crowd. The committee room in the Senate office building was crowded with in- 1 terested listeners when the hearing opened, and the arguments were fol- < lowed with close attention. ' Mr. Rainey, after reading his sug- ' gested plan for meeting the expenses of the government, asked Mr. Macfar- j land how the citizens' joint committee J would feel about it. Mr. Macfarland replied that the citi- ] zens' joint committee would be op- j posed to it. , "We expect to show," he said,'"that the citizens of the District are now j paying just taxes?as high as those t of citizens In other similar cities in i this country. Such a plan as you suggest, Mr. Rainey, was existing ir. es- j sefceo prior to 1S78, when the organio t ff luam c uuuia iihuh mat tne lawyers e agreement, which in the case at bai is one-third of the claim, not onlj ojated no express or implied . law policy of Congress, but was one ofter, cognized, not only by Congress, bul the Supreme Court of the Unitec ates. He also points out that in makg the appropriation to pay the claimit the compensation provided by the institution for the judicially ascertained lue of his property taken by the United ates, Congress did not bestow upor m a bounty, but paid a judgment debt, lere was, therefore, he declares, nc wer in Congress to direct how the limant should spend the money thus id. Disposes of Similar Cases. The decision of the court will dispose a number of similar cases where unsel have refused to be satisfied with 20 per cent fee when their contracts lied for a larger proportion. The estion was raised by Attorneys Moys & Consaul, who brought suit at law ainst Thomas Fahey to recover $245.33, e difference between 20 per cent alved by the bill and the 33 1-3 per cent pulated in the contract, former Senator Joseph W. Bailey and torneys Brandenburg & Brandenburg d C. F. Consaul represented the firm lawyers, who brought the suit to test e validity of the act. Attorney Frank Smith represented the defendant. BENCH CABINET CRITICISED. iris Temps Calls oil Premier Viviani to Use a Firm Hand. 'ARIS, October 25.?"The Duty of the ivernment" is the heading of a lead? article printed in the Temps which icusses the situation confronting the binet brought on by the Balkan licy and aggravated by the resignain of Theophile Delcasse from the reign ministry. The Temps says the hour for manly solutions has struck. It admits a ange in the ministry at this time >uld be a grave eventuality, but deires that, a feeling of uneasiness be? apparent, it would be better frankly remedy it, and that it would be erile to deny its existence. ?remier "Viviani, the newspaper con ias, must assume sumcient authority relieve the cabinet of recognized imJiments and to harmonize the combition in the ministry. In view ot the litical situation in the Balkans, ilch, the Temps says, is full of traps, is necessary to foresee ail possible ntualitles, disagreeable as they may Sunday Rest for War Prisoners. tOME, via Paris. October 25.?All the lligerent powers have granted the reest of Pope Benedict that Sunday be Lde a day of absolute repose for prisers of war. Several of the countries in iir replies said that they already had ?n observing this rule. Zinc Money for Luxemburg. .UXEMBURO, October 25, via Berlin J London.?The Luxemburg authorities ve decided to follow the German and lgian examples and have ordered eoine of 200,000 francs In five and ten itime pieces of zinc, IJ01NT COMMI PLEA FOR HA i *1 ; Arguments in Behi Civic Organizatic by H. B. F. I Senator Works1 Submits R Abolishment of the Distric Establishing a New Fori The argument of the joint cit: civic organizations of Washington half plan of appropriating for the i his was begun today before the i appointed to investigate the fisc States and the District of Columbi for the joint citizens' committee. W. Xoyes and A. S. Worthington Senator John D. Works of California, | a member of the congressional commit- j tee, submitted for the consideration of j the committee and also of the witnesses who are to appear before the committee, a resolution providing for a new form of government in the District. Briefly, it would have the District of Columbia as a municipality go out of existence, the United States taking title to all the property of the Dis- , trict and assuming all its debts and | obligations. It would have the federal j government oa.v all the expenses of the I District, which hereafter would be known as the city of Washington. It would have the citizens living in Washington pay taxes similar to- those paid by residents of other American cities l of the same size, these taxes to be paid into the federal Treasury. The appropriations for the District would be . made by Congress without reference to ' taxes paid by the citizens of the District. Plan Offered by Mr. Bainey. Representative Rainey of Illinois, also a member of the congressional committee, during Mr. Macfarland's dis, cussion of the half-and-half plan, suggested a plan which he had Jotted down in a note book as the hearing [ proceeded. Mr. Rainey's plan would re' tain the present municipal government, but would have the taxes collected in the District paid directly into the federal Treasury; property in the District would be assessed at its true value; taxes here would be similar to those , in other cities of the same size; the . development of the city would be con, tinued on the same scale as at present. Senator Works, in laying his resolu1 tion before the committee, said it was prepared after considerable study of . the situation. "The fundamental error which exists in the relations between the United - States and the District of Columbia," said Senator Works, "lies in the fact that the District is considered the . principal in the existing arrangement between them, arrd the United States is considered merely as a contxibutor. ? As a matter of fact, the United States should be the principal, and should ' carry on, the government of its own Na' tional Capital." i Senator Saulsbury of the investigat. ing committee suggested that to give i consideration to the plan outlined by Senator Works would be beyond the powers of the congressional committee i which was appointed to report to ConI gress merely what proportion of the I expenses of the District government i should be borne by the federal government. "In creating the committee," said t Senator Saulsbury, "Congress assumed i that the District of Columbia would re noin na 1 nistrint " Admits Congress Should Decide. i Senator Works admitted that the whole t matter would have to go to Congress for : settlerhent, but said he thought the comi mittee should give it consideration. He added, however, that he was not even sure that the resolution as offered by him today would ever be introduced in the Senate, intimating that after hearing all the arguments he might change his mind. Senator Works also had read by the secretary of the committee. Representative Rainey. a letter written by William E. Shannon to President Brandenburg of the Board of Trade, in which Mr. Shannon argued against the retention of the half-and-half plan, and advocated a plan very similar to that offered in Senator Works' resolution. "I had framed that resolution, however," said Senator Works, "long before I saw the letter written by Mr. Shannon." He asked Mr. Macfarland if all the members of the organizations represented by the joint citizens' commiti tee were of one mind in regard to the ' ? < * a _i _i j 1TTEE HEARS LF AND HALF ilf of the District ins Begun Today Macfarland. esolution Providing for the t as a Municipality and for ii of Local Government. izens' committee representing the for the retention of the halt-and?xpenses of the District of Colnmoinf select committee of Congress al relations between the United a. Henry B. F. Macfarland began He will be followed by Theodore act of the ' District became the law. Such a system did not work in those daj's, and it' is only since the half-andhalf plan was adopted in 1878 that there has been systematic development of the District. If the development of the capital is left to whatever tax money can be raised in the District, and to spasmodic appropriations made from the federal Treasury for the District by Congress, there could not t>e the continuance of the progress which we all desire. A definite proportion of the expenses of the District which should be paid by the federal government should be fixed if there is to be progress." Senator Works asked Mr. Macfarland what function the District government now performs could not be performed just as well by the United States government in its capital. "There are many which I might cite," said Mr. Macfarland, "but one important matter is that the District government now gives the people here a certain measure of self-government and representation before Congress which they would not have if the United States government took the nlflPP Of t Di otrl nt Query by Senator Works. "Then one of the objects of your committee," said Senator Works, "is tc force the government to continue making appropriations for its own capital, as it has done since 1S78." "We are only recommending that the government continue this plan," replied Mr. Macfarland, "and that the government should be regular and not spasmodic in its appropriations for the District. We are ready and willing to pay our taxes. But a feeling exists among some members of Congress today that the government is paying too much' *ach year for the District of Columbia, that same feeling might continue to exist if the proposed. Indeterminate plan should be adopted, and it might prevent needed appropriations by tl ; government for the District in the :j :ure." Senator Works said that personal!} tie was in favor of very liberal t?-en:ment of the National Capital by tha government. "Perhaps the government might :o appropriate more than a sun: equal :o *he taxes collected in the District." ie said. Mr. .Macfarland replied that the citizens of the District were satisfied tv.th i contribution by the sovarnmoni an1 "Agent of TJ. S. Government," I Senator Works asked what function the government of the District of CoI lumbia performed: "It is the agent of the United States government," replied Mr. Macfarland. "It also gives the people of the city a representation, of a kind, before Congress." Further on. Senator Works asked if "it is important that the United States owns the streets as long as the streets are dedicated to the public use. Mr. Macfarland replfed that he spoke of this ownership merely to show the absolute control of the United States in its property here. "The United States," he said, "has the right to close streets or to use them for any purpose whatsoever." Mr. Macfarland gave the committee legal references, the principal one being the old Van Ness case. Senator Saulsbury asked to whom title reverted in case of property abandoned by the United States. "To the original owner," was the reply. Former Senator Blackburn Quoted. While Mr. Macfarland was quoting from an argument made by former nia?l/K.im in fotrn. /.f fho and-half plan when he was a member of the House and the matter was* before that body, Representative Gard of Ohio interrupted to ask if Mr. Blackburn had not expressed another view in recent months. "We know that Senator Blackburn has recently advocated the indeterminate plan of appropriating for the District." replied Mr. Macfarland, "by which the taxes collected in the District would be paid into the federal Treasury and the expenditures of the District would be made from the federal Treasury. But we believe that Senator Blackburn's arguments, made In 1878, are conclusive and are correct. He was a representative at that time, with all the facts in the case before him." Senator Works suggested that it would be wise if the committee would request Senator Blackburn and members of Congress who have opinions upon the questions before the committee to appear and discuss these questions. He asked Mr. Macfarland what objection there was to fixing a fair rate of taxation for the District and then having the government pay all the expenditures for the National Capital. "We believe that it is necessary to have a fixed proportion of the expenses of the District paid by the federal government if the capital is to make progress," said Mr. Macfarland. "We have in mind the experience of seventy-eight years before the adoption of the halfand-half plan in which such a plan as you suggest existed. Some years the federal government made no appropriations whatever for the District. Of course, we know that the government would make appropriations now each year, but we fear that it would appropriate in an irregular and spasmodic manner."