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An Average of Between 1,200 and 1,500 ' Valentines Pour Into the White House Each Year?This Season, It Is Expected, the Number Will Be Augmented D Decaube ui uic i i cedent's Marriage?How the Valentines Are Handled ? What Becomes of Them?Many Varieties of St. Valentine's Day Tokens Received?A Few Sam pies. HUNDREDS of valentines pour into the White House each year, the average being between twelve and fifteen hundred. But this season the number bids fair to be tripled, and those who know fav it is berausp so manv nennle rnn eider these sentimental little tokens peculiarly appropriate for the President and his bride. Already a number of them have arrived. Each year there is a wide variety to . the valentines received at the White House. Some are extremely elaborate and costly, all frills and fluted paper; others are complicated contrivances, arranged in sections so as to be extended or folded flat to suit the fancy; some are simple affairs, with scalloped edges and with but a picture and a verse on one side, while still others are merely post cards. But, costly or cheap, most of them have generously distributed over their surfaces vivid crimson hearts, entwined and pierced with arrows; fat, beaming-faced little Cupids with bags of darts slung over rounded shoulders, and all the other illustrations which are generally conceded to be the proper decorations for these dainty February 14 tokens. Quite a number of unique valentines have also been received, such as satin pincushions in the shape of hearts, flower-scented sachets in the same form, heart-shaped boxes of candy, homemade and otherwise, and various receptacles fashioned in the shape of a hps rf * > * * Many of the senders would be surprised could they observe the careful attention which is bestowed upon their remembrances. Could they happen along: some time near 11:30 o'clock in the morning or 2:30 o'clock in the afternoon, just before St. Valentine day. the time when the two principal mail Miss Dens | : Y\J\TH the Aid of * * Records the An How She AccomplisI Work, and Its Purpc 01 c r * i unieis ot an Indian American Rhapsody of the Sioux Sun Dan< GREAT strides are being taken in recording the events of 'a nation's life for its future citizens. It will be remembered that an official moving picture film was made under government auspices of the durbar ceremonies in India in honor of the accession of George V to th* fhrnn* t\t th*? KritUh a rn r>' r-This film was deposited In the British mun?um at London as the most authentic report of the ceremonies that could possibly be recorded in the nation's archives, which marked at that time the most modern departure made by any nation in compiling historical data. At the present the United States is able to score a point on Great Britain in this matter of recording history. By means of the phonograph and the ^ ^ mill A L DRAWING OF THE SIOFX 1 HAS AROHED MITH INfTI ^ (Photo by Buret I I I te [ ou ?. * toijnd io-"vfetnlfotjsi, Hah. QnIast Styalentji Vkc deliveries are made at the White House, and trail the mail pouch until its contents are dumped out on desks before the squad of executive office employes especially assigned to the care of their offerings, they would find out not only what happened to their valentines, but, incidentally, a whole lot about office efficiency. The valentines which bear personal and written inscriptions are destined to be preserved for some length of time?at least as long as President Wilson is in office, for they must be placed in the flleroom, along with all the other communications which are addressed to the President. The ones which bear only the customary printed, sentimental jingles need not be accorded the same careful attention, though many of them also find their way to the flleroom. In going over the paper-lace envelopes in which the valentines repose the "valentine squad," as a wit has dubbed the clerks, have found a great many addressed to the Tumulty children, whose father is the President's private secretary. These kiddies have made hundreds of friends since their arrival in Washington, and last year these friends did not forget, the jolly little youngsters on St. Valentine day. One of the important members of the "valentine squad" is Ira Smith, who opens the thousands of letters received every day at the White House, so he has had plenty of practice before February 14 in the way of slitting open envelopes addressed to the President. Undoubtedly you would think him quite presumptuous if you could see him nonchalantly rip open communications for Wood row Wilson, marked "Personal." "Strictly Private." "To Be Opened by the President Only" and similar injunctions. It isn't because he is careless, or because he has overlooked these underscored notations in the left-hand corner of the envelopes that he thus disregards them, but because he is simply obeying orders. No matter how important persons smore of 1 'i a Phonograph She cient Music of Tribes, les Her Remarkable )se?Consulting the Reservation ? First Based on the Music :e. i enterprising enthusiasm of a woman in the bureau of American ethnology? Miss Frances Densmore?one of the most striking elements In the civilization of the earliest race of Americans ?the music of the redskins?is able to be preserved for future generations. A set of reproductions as fine as the ingenuity of modern inventors can make them of the songs of the Indians, sung by ancient chiefs or crooned by aged Indian women, will form a valuable part of the collection of United States historical information * * * What other country can boast as much of Its own original music? Imagine asking the curators of the historical records of any country on the globe to give you a definite idea of the primitive music of their races. What would their answers be? Probably a long list of references to musty dis lUN DAKCEk THE ML'SIC OF WHICH CREST AMOXG COMPOSERS. u of i;tbi^0f7.) I II @<P\M < iicpw y^ji' WE"' HSI f|v I \ IraSMithTWho Qpm s Thous feel that their communications to the President may be, the fact remains that all White House mail must be handled through the regular channels; and that means that Ira Smith?who might well be called "official opener," as his job at the White House consists of opening letters, packages and all other things addressed there?reads them first. So, during the valentine season, he never blinks an eyelash or feels that he is doing anything out of the ordinary when he opens and scans the valentine missives intended for the President. It's all in the day's work. He draws his salary for doing Just little things like that. Senders of valentines to the President or to members of his family also receive valentines in return, so to speak. For several days after St. Valentine's day delighted residents in various sections throughout the United States proudly display important-looking envelopes bearing the White House gold crest and, perhaps, Riirpan nl sertations on the music of the ancients or a recommendation to hear some of the modern composers' arrangements of folksongs taken from the festivals of the peasants. Such would be the reward of your interest. It could not be otherwise. But to hear the saga of a viking as it might have been wafted across the berg-flecked seas of the far northland ?a saga which, with the addition of the ages, doubtless forms the foundation for the penetrating Scandinavian and Russian music popular, today?or to hear any other of the elemental songs of either north or south lands as they were formulated originally from the soul of the first seed of Europe?this, alas, is a boon too great for even the muse of history herself IO Bra.iii. . Yet, at some future day, when students, interested in the music of early America, as it reveals the temperament and civilization of the aborigines, will ask for some of the primordial tunes, they will not only have advantage of hearing the notes of these songs, but will also hear them sung by the native singers of the tribes, who in the not distant future will all have passed away. * * * And, as has been said, a woman deserves the credit for amassing this material and putting it in a definite form on a definite basis for the government record. Miss Densmore is exclusively responsible for what her bureau chief, Mr. F. W. Hodge, terms "most remarkable results." Miss Densmore has brought as preparation for her interesting researches the musical temperament of a professional artiste. The fine subtleties of trained musical appreciation are hers, and it is perhaps chiefly because of her broad musical viewpoint and professional ardor that she has been able to accomplish so much. The mere purpose of assembling Indian songs together as one might collect miscellaneous sea shells has never been hers; instead, the artistic value and the psycholo'gical significance of the work have exerted their claims to her appeal. Miss Densmore is a pupil of Leopold Godowsky, the celebrated pianist, and of the late Carl Behrman of Boston. Her training in musical theory was gainea unaer jonn jk.. j'ayne of Harvard University. She first became attracted by the novelty of Indian music. The published work of Miss Alice C. Fletcher of the Peabody Institute on the subject attracted her attention. At the first opportunity she began her contact with the Indians at the world's fair in Chicago. Her work with the bureau of ethnology marks the last step in the sequence of the developing factors of her interest. Her summers are now spent on the reservations with the tribes?those that are most quickly passing out of existence. She has made observations among the Chippewa, Sioux. Ute, Mandan and Qros Ventres tribes. Two volumes of the Chippewa music?bulletins of the bureau?have already appeared over her signature, and a third, a study of the Sioux music, is about to be published. "While on an Indian reservation," said Miss Densmore, replying to the interviewer's query about her method of procedure in her work, "I usually stay at the agency or at one of the government substations. In this way I keep in touch with the Indian agent, who extends to me every courtesy, for si&? 11 K^H t li^MolJ^ f j THE.HAIt ROOH.' AT THiTVferi^lfoTJsi.. wEfr-'M . y J lftwds Or Letters At ask their less fortunate friends and neighbors : "Did you see my valentine from the President?" Then they display the courteously phrased acknowledgments of their valentines, composed, dictated, written and mailed by White House office attaches, 'tis true, but, just the same, by authority of the President. By his instructions have they been informed that their Valentine greetings were received and appreciated, or words to that effect. And. understand, these pleased recipients of White House communications derive a great deal of satisfaction from the mere fact of knowing that their offerings were accorded due amount of consideration. * * * Most of the valentines received are from women and children, and this seems quite natural. Many come from mothers of kiddies named after the President. ' America = > yi a lis . K9 *2L m J^f' Ifl JOHN GRASS, SIOUX CHIEF, WHO I DEN SHORE'S WORK (Photo by Burea the Indian office has alway.s been interested. * * * "My first task is to find a reliable Interpreter who has an English education, enabling him to understand the purpose of my work, and is also acquainted with the older Indians, and has their confidence. An interpreter with a feeling of contempt for the old customs would be useless to me. It is necessary that he look upon the work from my standpoint. This is not easy, but I have been fortunate in my interpreters. -X then arrange to meet some of the principal members of the tribe. They smoke awhile and I tell them what I want to do for them and that through my work their children will be able to learn about the old ways. They look at the books containing the songs of the other tribes, and I tell them that their children, who have been to school, can sing the songs when they look at the notes. "Perhaps I play phonograph records * |S>j^ MHHNiW'vHi"' ^SS8m' Hk^KSH' pHnS^^9| fli ITEXOUSL' THtTTAUCA They are frequently photographs of the little "Woodrow" Browns or "Woodrow i Wilson" Jones, or whatever the family names happen to be. One of thgpe, showing a plump, pudgy-faced-r babe, not yet old enough for one to determine whether his nose is going to be Roman or just i plain pug. was accompanied by a note from his fond mamma, which read: "Mr. President, this little valentine was named after you. My husband has ; always been an ardent Wilson man. and we had always known that If ever , we had a boy we would name him after ; you. T am sure you would agree with 1 us if you could see our little son that i no other name could fit him quite so well as 'Woodrow.' He Is the exact image of you. We sincerely trust that he will not only resemble you in appearance, but that he will grow up to be the same splendid type of man that you are." j This is mild compared to the flatter- ' Ing notes which accompany some of n Ethnolc fWtiMmfegf' t;^HHH9HI w^Bm_ ^ . i II ' ????|?^ ?^mmmmmmmmmmmmmmm^mmmmrnmmmm IAS MADE POSSIBLE MUCH OP MISS : AMONG HIS TRIBE. iu of Ethnology.) , of songs of other tribes. These never 1 fail to Interest them greatly. We spend a long time talking it over, and in the , course of the conversation they tell . me about the most interesting customs of their tribes. I tell them how much the white people would like to know about these customs, but that I cannot do anything unless they help me. They ake some suggestions and perhaps ne of them will record a few songs before they go away. "Having outlined the work In this manner," said Miss Densmore, "I plan 1 it more definitely, taking up one principal and several lesser subjects for Investigation. If the principal subject is nno of ,<ii)prial imnortn.ncp na th> ann dance of the Sioux, I consult a great many Indians and read the partly completed manuscript to several men at a 1 time, that they may consult together : concerning it. "It I am placing considerable confidence in the statements of a certain man I inquire his standing at the agency office and the trader's store/ : looking up his personal record from every side. I seldom need to discount the material which I get, as the men > - S t :x';mvv,. : v ?BM jGSgMf jf . ' . - y ' THTS "VAIE)NT;wi,"WAS ~SX_ ^1 juohr. Arrives At Ban lifcr the photographs of valentine babies. One photograph received is of twin boys. Above one small head is written in red ink "Woodrow," and above the other "Wilson." On the reverse Bide is an explanatory message, which says that the twins' father insisted that they both bear some part of the President's name. Another class of valentine delivered fit the White House this season might be styled "war valentines." The valentines are arriving in large numbers, and are sent by both men and women. They come mostly in the shape of embossed cards, and they convey the writers' thanks to President Wilson for having kept this country out of war. They style the President as "the world's greatest prince of peace," "the most brilliant diplomat of the age," and "the finest President this country has ever had." Many of them caution him to pay no heed to the "jingoes >g'y "Cans for the really responsible work are very carefully selected. * * * "In this class of work would be included anything touching native religion, medicine or 'dreams.' All such songs are very sacred to the Indians. Many are associated with fasting vigils, and by singing them they think they can secure supernatural help in time of danger. "Practically all of my work is with the older members of the tribe?usually men over sixty-five years of age. It is not my purpose to get all of the available material, but to record what has been least touched by civilization and that which will be lost the soonest. "An Indian boy who has been educated at a government school is seldom interested in the deeper phases of the old thought. They must be preserved by the white race if they are to be preserved at all. The younger Indians 'make up' songs. The elder Indians say that all of the old songs 'came in dreams.' "Many will go farther and say that the song was taught them by a buffalo or a deer or a bear which appeared In the dream. You can see that here is a. radically different standpoint on the origin of music; but the song that came right from the bear or the buffalo is the song I am after. "This, however," Miss Densmore went on to say, "is only one of the many phases of Indian music. I.ast summer ! found some very old songs of the Man nan in x\ortn uaKota. They were re:orded by two aged women, almost the last women of their tribe, and were the songs sung years ago by the Manjan women as they worked in their gardens in the early mornings. The Mandan were agricultural people and some of the songs were sung to make the corn grow. "Others were 'lonesome songs' I asked more about these and they said that In the gardens, by themselves, they sang of their relatives who had been killed on the warpath?how much they missed them and how they lamented that they would never see them again. * * * "Greatness carries its penalty even among the Indians. If a man has done some great deed his friends may make a song about it. If a feast is to be given it is not unusual for a company of people with a drum to take their place before his lodge and chant his praises until he contributes to the feast. A circuit of the camp with frequent pauses for such songs will usually produce enough provisions for a feast. My work is, then, a study filled with human as well as scientific and artistic interest. A fine collection of Indian musical instruments has been made by Miss Densmore and placed on exhibition in the National Museum. One flute, called an elk whistle, is contrived without finger holes to regulate the sounds. The other Instruments comprise drums and various forms of rattles. Before the interviewer left Miss Densmore's office?which is fitted with a piano and two phonographs, in a manner not at all officelike?she played a number of the Indian records. This Indian music, as it has been notated by Miss Densmore. has been put to practical use by a number of this country's V ? Fv?* : >< i NT lb T^"VV5UT&T??VSE.^ -- ?-?wm :.. : i > ! I s. _ v^iS~- -"- j U2UT1VX, OTFXCLS. who are harassing you to get our country into war." Probably the most interesting of all the valentines received are those which are mailed by children. In some cases it is hard to decipher the childish scrawl on the envelopes and reverse sides. These valentines are of the cheaper sort, flimsy paper hearts, with ridiculous verses printed on the inner side, though a few of them are partly made of celluloid and quite ingenious in design. Accompanying one of them was a letter from a little lad in Philadelphia, signing himself 'Hoy." It read: "I am a little boy. ten years old. This valentine costs 10 cents from my bank. My papa, who said he is a neutral, said for me to send you It if I wanted to. I would like to thank you because we haven't got any terrible big war in this country on account of you. I don't want my papa to go to war and get killed, and I don't think it would be any fun r Songs o foremost musical composers. Mr. Carl Bunch has adapted for orchestral purposes four of the songs published by the bureau, and these have been performed by the Chicago, Washington, Kansas City and Minneapolis symphony orchestras. The first American rhapsody is based MEN IN THE PU1 WHO WEI THE publicity which has been given to President Wilson's accomplishment as a writer of shorthand calls to mind the large number of men prominent in national and industrial life who were, and continue to be, practitioners of this art. A census of distinguished men who have dallied with the jealous mistress of shorthand would be an impressive one, but sometimes there appears to be too great a disposition to give undue credit to the shorthand and not enough credit to the men themselves. The fact that they were intelligent enough to become proficient in an art in which proficiency demands a very good order of intelligence and Varied knowledge shows that V, /I in tliam V,ctnff Thft fact that they took up shorthand and persevered in it until they were successful shows that they had intellectual ambition and that other quality of merit, the capacity to stick to a thins once undertaken. Another factor is that in many cases the men. by reason of being efficient stenographers, came into confidential relation with other men who could help them in the upward climb. Still another factor is that shorthand brought them in contact with many lines of thought and endeavor, increasing the store of knowledge, widening the outlook on the world and possibly whetting an ambition for more knowledge and more power. Among the men well known to the people of Washington and who formerly were shorthand writers are Frank A. Vanderlip, now president of the National City Bank of New York; George B. Cortelyou, now president of the Consolidated Gas Company of New York; William I.?oeb, jr., president of the Albany Southern railway and a director of the American smeiiing ana xieumng Company; R. O. Bailey, newspaper man, private secretary to Secretary Franklin MacVeagh, assistant secretary of the Treasury and now with the National City Bank of New York. Frank A. Vanderlip, president of the ^National City Bank of New York, the richest bank in America, began his career as a newspaper reporter in Chicago. In 1S97 he became private secretary to Lyman J. Gage, Secretary of the Treasury, and soon after was made assistant secretary of the Treasury. It has been given out that two vice presidents of the National City Bank, H. B. Eldridge and C. V. Rich, are also shorthand writers. George B. Cortelyou began as a civil service stenographer in New York in the eighties. He became private secretary to various public officials, including the post office inspector, surveyor of the port of New York, fourth assistant postmaster general, stenographer to the President, executive clerk, assistant secretary to the President and to be a orphan. I hope you will like this valentine, because I picked it out myself." \ One valentine, which had a com background studded with red hearts, bore a picture of a little hoy sitting- on a boat, which was a big heart, ringed up with a sail. It came from a little flrl in Idaho, and on one side of it was copied the verse. There if a lassie in your town, A la?*1e I lore well. But what's her name, and Where's bar hame, I diuna cbooce to tell. "If you ran"t guess who T mean I will say that it s the lassie who lives in the White House. I am a nine acotn and that's why I like this pome. Maybe the pitcher on this valentine ain't eggzactly apporpiate, for It's a little boy and I'm a little girl, but I couldn't find any little girl floating on a heart boat and gts I liked the idea of a heart floating along: like is shown on the pitcher. I thought I'd ?ret this one. and eggsplain to you that I'm not a little boy. but a littie ?.irl named Mabel. I have a cousin whose name is Edith like yours. She is going to send you a valentine, too, only later. I hope you will answer ours both." a * * One little lad. the other year, sent a valentine of his own deslpnlnp. It was made of manila paper, cut in the form of a heart, and decorated with cupids. These he had colored with crayons. The result was startling?six little pop-eyed cupids standing in a row, with even their faces colored purple, black, yellow and green. Each held forth gingerly a shattered heart. One little girl from Tennessee sent all the valentines which she had received at school last year, together with the following note: "These valentines are all that I got in our valentine box last year at school. You can expect all that I get this year, too. We often study about the war and you in school. I told the children in my class that T was going to send all the valentines T got to you, and so. I guess I'll get more, and when you get my this year's valentines you will know that lots of little boys and girls in Tennessee are grateful to you for not dragging our country Into bloodshed. "My father told me you will go down in historv as something, I forget Just what, but something awful nice, because of the way you have acted about war, or, I mean about no war at all. With much love, I am a small admirer of yours." One of the odd valentines to reach the White House is made up of two boxes, heart-shaped, fastened together with wide red-satin ribbon. Each box contains a nice, firm apple, and to ttm stem of one was tied a card, which bore the words: Ton name your apple core for me. And I'll ntme mine for you, So if the count up to Love, We'll know it'a coming true. * * * Dozens of the valentines are conspicuous because of their inappropriate nature. For instance, one is a cardboard doll valentine, in the shape of % wee, fat boy in overalls, standing at the edge of a creek, with a can of wiggling worms and a. flshpole made of a twig. Ashing hearts out of the water. A small pile of hearts are heaped up on the cardboard shore, and one large "catch" is dangling on his line. The verse underneath is: T're been fishing 'bout a week. Dangling ray bait In this 'ere creek: I've caught a heart, but what of that. When you don't know where your girl Uvea at. This helpfully hinting valentine might have been just the thing for some lovelorn chap to send to the object of his fond affections, but why it should have been selected as an apt one for the President of the United States must remain an unsolved riddle. A valentine WHICH aruuoru "iw of even the digmifled assistants in the executive offices last year was a picture of a little boy laboriously painting: a heart on a piece of paper. On the grround bepide him is a pile of school books, and standing: a little distance off is a small girl who graze* scornfully in the direction of her youn? swain, as she declares (according to the verse up in one corner): Please don't waste your time and paint; I ain't your valentine. No, I ain't. To this valentine was attached a letter, signed Herbert: "The little girl who sent me this goes to my school. She i* in my grade. I sent her a ten-center, and got thi* from her. I am sending you a good one along of this, but only thought I'd send this, too, because it must b* real funnv, as every one laughs when I show it to them, but I don't exactly see the joke, as it looks like a snub to me, but I thought maybe as you are having so many troubles just now about fights in all parts of the world that it wouldn't hurt you none to get a little laugh out of it, too." if Indians on the music of the Sioux sun dance. It has been written by Mr. Heinrich Hammer and is the first publication for the orchestra in which Indian themes have been used exactly. He has followed the sequence of melody and used at least one theme for each important part. BLIC EYE ITE SHORTHAND finally secretary to the President. He ^ was appointed the first Secretary of the Department of Commerce and Labor. created in 1903. In 1905 he was made Postmaster General and two years later Secretary of the Treasury. All Washingtonians will recall John Hay, Secretary of State in the cabinets of Presidents McKinley and Roosevelt, for a number of years United States ambassador to England, an author, journalist and diplomatist and Joint author of a life of Abraham Lincoln, under whom he began his career as assistant secretary, was a shorthand writer, and that Robert Roberts Hitt. assistant secretary of state and long a member of Congress from Illinois, was also a shorthand writer. Daniel Scott Lamont, who came to be appointed Secretary of War under President Cleveland, was a shorthand writer, and Joseph P. Tumulty, the present secretary to the President, is also a writer of shorthand. In Congress today Representative Byrnes of South Carolina was formerly official reporter for the second judicial circuit of that state; A. F. Lever of South Carolina was secretary to Representative J. William Stokes. Irvine L. Lenroot of Wisconsin was formerly a court reporter, and William H. Thompson, senator from Kansas, was court reporter. A. Mitchell Palirusr of Pennsylvania writes shorthand. Representative Frank L. Green of Vermont began as stenographer in the offices of the Central Vermont railway, then became a newspaper reporter and later % editor of the St. Albans Daily Messenger. Among other members of Congress who are known to write shorthand, and to read it after they have written it, are Edwards of Georgia. Addison T. Smith of Idaho, Ashurst of Arizona. Hughes of New Jersey. Mellish of New York and Egan of New Jersey. A ? , It is probably not well known that W'illiam E. Chandler. Secretary of the Navy during President Arthur's administration and senator from New Hampshire for a number of terms, reported decisions in the supreme court of New Hampshire. Lovers of Chicken. DR. ELIJAH E. HOSS, the Methodist bishop, said at a dinner in Muskogee: "The Methodist minister is noted all over the world for his love of chicken. "Once, when I was stationed in Knoxville, I wanted a pair of chickens for our Sunday dinner, and so I called on a suburban farmer's wife whose fame as a chicken raiser was remarkable. "There had been a Methodist conference in Knoxville that week, and when I told the'farmer's wife the nature of my errand she shook her head: " Tm sorry. Dr. Hoss,' she said, 'but all my chickens have already entered the ministry.'"