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<jp j0HRS|^B % FIE Special Correspondence of Tlir Star. BERLIN, February 20, 1916. THE twentv-flrst of January was a red-letter day for all the Americans in Berlin, for on that day tame mail, the lirst in five long weeks. The letters that arrived then were written on the last of December. Since the war it generally takes a letter about one month to go between American and Germany either way. Some times a letter will come in twenty days and then again it may consume fifty days on the way. and many letters, that are known to have been sent, never arrive at all. Daily newspapers, which re sent from America eat h day, arrive in peculiar ord*-r. One day a paper dated the last of November will arrive and the next post will bring an October paper. * *Letters from America are rarely opened when they come into Germany, and they are generally hurried post i aste to their owners. Letters that are registered generally arrive a day before the regular mail. They are the forerunners that a new post is coming. Letters going from Germany must be left open. The censor generally thinks that four glfirMwitV K? Itm; Xv I1- fikld rovr roLLEcm Five Milli MRS. JOHN HAYS Woman's Welfa j tion, Tells of Its Work Philanthropy as Is Y Chosen First Vice Pre International Congre; a Mf* f^) HINK of nearly fo? inII- \ 00 11 lions of women uniting for j i the common weal of the home, the children and the state!" exclaimed Mrs. John Haye Hammond during a recent visit to Washington. "In this country and at our J ?.at rreeing wo have gathered for this crusade women v. ho r. ; resent every benevolent a: d fratcrn: 1 society of national scope, as. for in.s'.j. ce. the Order ??f the Maccabees and the Women's it'll ef Corps and ail tho civ ! : federations which are affiliated with the central governing body. "Xon-political, we can attract so- 1 ' leties of seemingly divergent ams ' The United Daughters of the Confederacy have not found it impossible to work with the C. A. It's auxiliary bodies. The college women and its or . gan.zed alumnae branches and the federated clubs do not disdain to labor , with women who have no particular In'welloct-jal aim and may perhaps ha\e , been deprived of he advantages of any kind or education. The gieai organized suffrage hotuetiea meet the pairioiic. and benevolent rremoers on common ground and ' bury their differences for the nonce. 1 'the Mothers' Congress arid the Jewish Council of Women are of us. Our great < ? viui iiik (iif* i?is( run; ress wa? to affiliate that splendid body of worker* along- the beet ihe Daughters of the American Revolution. "Think what it mean* to have the <oncent rated executive talent, the brains, the sympathy ajid hearty cooperation of theee 6.000,000 women, each having already attained a sort of pre-eminence in a a pedal way. The Maecebeee, for instanoe, hare moot ten millions doliam in their national treasury, ready to meet any emergency wtuvfe might affect their vast member1 rm^j^Ki- MM 1 ^^ ^VJTJI ?m^m m fiB^V t;%- S ^ ILD POST BOX FOK A GERM A\ SOLI sides of writing: are enough. If he is in a good humor he may let more go through, but the chances are that you will get your letter hack again with the polite request to limit your writing to four sheets. It is better to write on 1 only one side of the paper, for some times when the man with big shears gets busy he spoils both sides of the paper. Letters going from Norway to either Germany or America are almost sure ] rot to arrive. Where they go is a mys- , tery, but they certainly do not go where they are addressed. The Eng- 1 lish people in Berlin get their mail 1 through Holland. They must have a j friend there who relays their mail . for them. In Europe they have a uni- < versal coupon that is worth about 6 . cents in any country, and the sender j from either Germany or England incloses a coupon in a letter, the relayer \ purchases a Holland stamp with the j. coupon and sends the letter. 1 Newspapers come in the same way, i and the London Times, the Daily Mail, t the Graphic and the London Illustrated I News can he read In any large cafe 1 in Berlin. These papers are generally r about four days old. As most of the ^ Germans of the better class know some English, these papers are very care- * fully read. ) Before October 22, 1915. it was pos- ? sible to send a ten-pound package i K/"... H - - -inHB Ibr5^?3& w. :.>v;s V sURl G STATION OF GERMAN MAIL FOR S on Womei ; HAMMOND, a Leading ire Department of the Na ?She Is as Well Knowr ier Husband in the Fin ;sident of the National C< 5S. fhip. The daughters of the Kfvolu- tl tiori and of the Confederacy have solved v. problem* and dispelled difficulties of b grave import. tl "Our work, like charity, begins at home First, we attempt to reach conditions under which women who are the wage-earners of their families must perforin their labors. Certainly it ? ' should hearten women who think they labor under unjust, tyrannical or unInaltliful conditions to know that " of their rasters, to whom fate d< been kinder, have their eyes rt focused on them read;.* to help when they can. This help we hope to give '' along the best lines ?>f moral suasion \ i and religious appeal to employers, and fr material assistance when needed to the employes. We have never in our entire body or its cornj>onent parts cl i-ountenanced any irregularity. K< * w * * "Children, the citizens ?>f the future, yi liave'alwaya appealed to such organ! Ral'on.s a? we hope to make of the Na- p, nopal Council of Women. We acknowi- ti edge we have a bis problem right at 1' home. ar.'l we are endeavoring to meet every requirement. But v\e cannot re in ftairi from thinking with pity and anxiety of the children of Europe. We sj are getting together to help just as (j( soon a:< peace is deviated. and we may w go directly to the scenes of desolation. )j< "There are orphans and half orphans is whom we ate teaching now through to the distributing centers of the inter- hi national society. There are twenty- w three countries of Europe enrolled ci with us. and they have their members in central committees who are diligent s0 In searching out cases such as I have cited. But when the work of again |ie establishing demolished homes, of leathering the scattered remnants of a household, of providing a livelihood for those who have survived the catastro- jn phe a/id of rearing the dependent chiliren confronts the warring nations of ),e Europe, then it is that our 6.000.000 y< women will come forward in a way si. which will command the admiration of !l< ; gjgf jflf -. ^ _... ir Is Dc >fl| H D1ER. between Germany and America, but on this date the service was stopped. It is expected that it will be again resumed later. It is possible to send second-class matter between the two countries. * * The German field post system is now * in its most perfected state. It works [ike clockwork. There is no charge to send a letter to a soldier, and it doesn't ne: L-ost anything for a soldier to send a in letter, either from or to the front, or in Germany itself. All that is neces- sor sary is to write "Feldpost" at the top up >f the letter and it goes free. If a bin soldier is the sender he must put his lame and address on the letter. ;in< Every soldier in the German army ~ las an army address including his irmy corps, his division, his regiment, j 11s company and his battalion. If he t?. s in France or Russia you don't put . hat on the letter. One is not sup- -'-"j >osed to know where each soldier is ocated and lie, in turn, is not per- t nitted to put the name of the town vhere he Is located on the letter home. It took a long time after the war o get this field post system into good forking order. Iri the first days, for nstance. when the army advanced so apidlv into France the field potst staions had to be booked ahead for the IOLDIKRS IX FRANCE. n United f< Factor in Organizing f tional Civic Federai in the Domain of ancial World?Was luncil of Women at I le world and place the American ornan. alive at last to her responslility in the universal scheme of lings, in her proper place. * # * "We do not intend to go over to Eu>pe and teach the people how to do lings. Nothing is further from our loughts. We know each nation can > thai much better than we. and will >alizc the needs of its people far more ian a stranger would. We will proide money first of all. Then we will y to open opportunities for those who *ek them. To find homes for girls, for lildren, ernploment for men, open hools. or rather provide the sinews of ar for such special instructions. "Our plans are merely tentative at ?t. hut during all the time which in rvencs oetwen the present and the irling of the battle flags there will i 5,000.000 women watching the situaon, clipping papers, gathering official ports. conferring with each other, id ready to strike a great blow for en era I humanity when the first breach the hostile armies is made in behalf ' peace.'" Mrs Hammond seems prouder that ie has been chosen first vice presi;nt of these vast cohorts of humane omen than of any other of the many mors which have come to her. She one of the smaii circle of those horn great wealth and lofty position who ive made a career of philanthropy, ho have found in charity religion, ocipation and a fad. all combined. Having had ail n gentleman of the iulh iti affluent circumstances could ve her children. Mrs. Hammond from r earliest childhood looked into other mien and pitied its imnaies when ey were not so well provided for as ^rself. It was Iter habit of observa>n which developed her usefulness havi civic work. marl For instance, she tells of going to told :r hotel one very warm day in Sferw nace >rk and finding the elevator whi**h and ould have conducted her to the firth to s or out of order; her petulance ,Sn to t I i ring to ^p*' II Kit It KR AKLKC. HL AD OF THf day to places that wore often still po.? the enemy's hands. lett ^hen otten there were frequent at- onl ks endangering the mall bags, and int< netirries a position had to be given am: quickly, and the mail bags left be- leci d. Sometimes they would be re- (Jei ried after many weeks of fighting gui 1 sometimes they were destroyed by ed enemy. ? oday the average number of field rha it letters that go from Germany rati the front is s.ooo.ooo letters, and the sen ters coming from the front average diff >0,000. There are twenty-three field eac I' r - A- w?| | "trr*"^jBfc^:'''H'' r THE MAIN POST OFFH 3r Commc ^P^V. ^^iifli MRS. JOHN HAYS ] ng to climb the tedious flights was in tli ked. In her room a chambermaid oute: her that the stoker of the fur- Sh i whicli ran the elevators was sick whei that, no one /else had been found in tl upply his place. Then she began She hi ilk of a stoker way down there the ! . " ? Wi 9E |Sl : GERMAN MAIIi SYSTEM. t confers in Germany, wliere the ers are collected and assorted, not y according to army corps, but also > regiments, battalions, squadrons I columns After the mail is colted and assorted at these centers in many it is sent to what they call din*; post centers, which are situaton the German frontiers, laeh guiding post center is in rge of a high official of a general's k. From these centers the mail is t to field post centers situated iri erent parts of the field. Each day h battalion sends postilions to * n>?-... <<g' i ^ "fe ; JtTjjmi T - nsraraw^w /&> 3 *> ^HH dmSS^^SSSS^tttSBSmmrn^^^!^C'E I\ BERI.IK. >n Weal < uammoxd. ie heat when it was broiling: in the j r air. 1 e asked to examine these cellars \ e the keepers of such trusts work i le darkness day in and day out. 1 was allowed to go, and she says < sight made he| unhappy for days. Service r~r> - " "z>"w ~ " ^ . . t< ' v; ' .-> r J i <7 ; _ ^-4. ' ' ' ' U' ' ? *S- . 4 '* <> 1? - * * ' * Ufe' / - v - " ~ FIE bring the ma:! from the field post stations to the men in the field. No one but the postilion knows wher his battalion is situated. Jn very rare cases, when it is absolutely necessary to keep everything: a secret, the postilions are not sent that day for the mail, but luckily this does not happen very often. Frequently during engagements these postilions have distinguished themselves for delivering the mail to the men in the trenches under the strong fire of the enemy. It gives a soldier extra courage when he has a letter from home in his pocket. * * * All letters sent by soldiers are sealed unless they are to be sent to a foreign country, when, of course, they must be censored like a civilian's mail. The parcel post to the field is very cheap, and a one-pound package can be sent for 5 cents. l..arge boxes can be sent for 12 cents. The sending of field post packages is teaching the Germans something new?how to do up packages, a thing in which they were never very expert. Two years ago at Christmas time it was quite impossible to buy a decent box in which to send a package. You couldn't even buy a label or the right kind of string. Today you can buy r ? it t * *v 1 ?> \t *r > I ;* j..?- , v* I - ipi, 5 ? . | ' FIELD POST MA11 :>f Home, l How she got to work and remedied these conditions is one of her little secrets. Mrs. Hammond has a way of getting at the root of a trouble, of meeting obdurate persons in charge with such frank and cordial understanding that she seems invincible. She has not yet accomplished in every great city all she wishes for i Me unaergrouna wotks, out. in -\ew York she has the happiness of knowing there is now enforced a law which makes every agent of a large building, whether for hotel or offices, have rest rooms, bathrooms and abundant soap and towels for those who labor in intense heat. Tlrey have the leisure to bathe and rest before going into the outer air. and pneumonia and kindred diseases which swept off these laborers like a plague has been decreased by 70 per cent. Mrs Hammond was the first president of the women's welfare department of Washington. To her efforts may be directly traced such reforms as the conditions under which the women employed by the bureau of engraving and printing, the government printing office and in the Agricultural Department now perform their work. The beautiful roof garden of the bureau of engraving, with its vista down the river, attractive in every season, is the best object lesson of what the Civic Dengue accomplished. Many a gray-haired woman can tell of the cruel hardships involved in working for the government some twenty years ago. especially the night workers. Now there are rest rooms, reading rooms, doctors and nurses in attendance; in fact, every accessory which humanity can suggest. This reform has spread as far as practical to lunch and rest rooms provided by the larger mercantile establishments of Washington. But this problem, compared to the industrial centers of the country, where thousands of women work under crowded conditions, is al Ill OS 1 clCaUCIIMU, Ba>B LUG IlilUUlltll leader. Mrs. Hammond at present resides in Boston, but she makes frequent visits to the capital. She never fails to go around with the president of the Civic League to see how cherished theories are working out in practice. * g * "Another thing which our Council of Women did," said Mrs. Hammond, '"and which 1 feel very enthusiastic over, is that we voted for preparedness. Every member is going to prepare in her home and instruct her own home circle before taking the crusade into the open country. I fairly tingle with joy when I think of my second boy. who is giving his best efforts toward making his country ready to face a foreign foe. Like all mothers, I hope we shall never have to do so. but I think the very best way to avoid the horrors of war is to strengthen ourselves to the ut- . most of our material resources and to < elevate the standard of patriotism. "My boy, always ingenious, has been j of Oc ':" c-f , 77" ' m| '> s - , ' < #'^v^'v; ;; j , %^:W- .&* , tJJMi ??*t :- " t .; v-^ - ?>V>s^M "rv . "* **"'' ?" ;.' v. . . *' LD POST BOXES GOING TO THE I everything: for doing up a package boxes of every size, labels and wa paper for the outside of the boxe? These boxes are not beautiful, jus plain brown boxes, very, very plaii boxes The American women would simpl: pass away if they coukl see how- th Germans tie up packages in stores You may buy a priceless piece of lac or a lovely unwrinkled collar, and th wrapper rolls it into a little tigh wad, puts a paper around it and hand it to you without any string. Yoi can pay a dollar a pound for cand; and It is slammed Into a box an which way, and then a paper is pu around the box. and handed to yoi without any string. But the Germans are learning, am their field post boxes of things for th soldiers are simply wonderful. Yoi can buy boxes already packed or yoi can order them packed. And sucl things as they put in them?little fa uic#bip, iviik wursis, imie ja-i : of gooseliver paste, chocolate, ral sins, canned fruit, honey, butter it tubes, wine, cigars and cigarettes. The German girls have, of course, ; great time sending boxes to their lexers in the field. Some of the vert methodical ones number their pack ages, and one soldier received, in les: than one year, over 200 packages fron his sweetheart. He was so pleasec that, when he got his furlough, h< married her. Another soldier did not act so nicely indeed, his actions almost prove thai ' "'V~ . I I 1 V '''!]' [. WAITING TO BE FORWARDED T Children experimenting with submarines, and 1 feel as though not only my country but my home, myself and dear ones as well have a worthy defender in him should we need defense. I hope every mother will try to make her son a de itnucr uj ma iicuriii <1iiu iiwiuc. j nr jingoes may shout, but when so many representative women as our council means takes up defense in the higher interpretation it is epoch making and should inspire the women of the world. We hope to make patriotism the paramount issue, as opposed to the prosperity of nation or individual, which lowers the national standard. "After patriotism we hope to inspire a race of entirely self-reliant American women?women, who. whether rich or poor, see real responsibilities and can meet them, and who can take hold of a household and perforin its duties, not caring whether servants elect to leave without a moment's notice. I count it one of the most valuable assets of my life that I went with my husband in our early married years into a mining camp in Mexico and that I performed every duty connected with keeping a home. That experience made me see the ordinary routine of life from a different angle. sic * * "I feel that when women are more self-reliant and independent of servants it will elevate the tone of the servants, make them more faithful to their work and more careful about leaving it. What we 5,000,000 women do not hope to accomplish seems outside the pale of human activities. But we are going gradually step by step and not overwhelming ourselves with obligations." Mrs. Hammond is witty and alert, and an hour's conversation with her opens many fascinating vistas. She is interesting. most of all. as the type of woman from the new south. Her ancestors are of the best and gentlest of Virginia and Mississippi. Her father faced the wreck of his fortune after the Mar. and yet he was not daunted. He regained the family fortune, gathered influence and respect, and in the legal annals of Mississippi the name of James William Monroe Harris stands pre-eminent. Judge Harris died as chief justice of the supreme court of his state. His mother Mas Nathalie Harrison, a daughter of that distinguished family which flrst located at Brandon, a splendid estate on the James river, and M'hich has two Presidents and innumerable successful public men on its roster. "I have many delightful memories of my old home in the south," said Mrs. Hammond. "I Mas educated in Dresden, and it Mas there I -met my husband, nephew of that dashing Jack Hammond of California fame. Of the south during the civil war I do not of course remember. But one -of the pleasant memories I recall v+s going I ' srmany in Jmm .yj MMBi \. v /^7 ROXT. 5, after all German men are liwn.ai ;.ni> x He was a tine looking underoflicer. ami j. underofticers are always on the alert t for something: for nothing. Every day tl he received an expensive package from a very unattractive German girl whom v lie knew only slightly. No one in his e company had much smoked ham. chocolate and cigarettes as he: and ' lie always divided u ith the others. Site ? sent him gloves, pulse warmers, hande knit stockings. The other soldiers all t screamed when she sent him a muff a Finally he got a furlough, but 111u stead of getting engaged to the packy age sender, as she fondly expected, he y went and married a little slip of a t thing who had only sent him three li post cards and a dozen wieners the whole time he was away. And the 3 wieners were spoiled at that! e Field post writing paper is very j cheap, and plain post cards are so little u that it is possible for every soldier no h matter how poor to send some word I to his family every day. They have in Germany a verv simnle kind of writinir paper and envelope combined. It in " merely, a sheet of paper folded. Inside > on write the letter, and outside you write the address, it has glue along: 1 the edge, and a perforated border to ~ tear off when the letter is opened. ^ Letters come from the German sol diers in France very quickly, often in 3 one day. It takes longer for the let1 ters to go out because of passing i through the field stations. From Rusi sia it takes three or four days, and from Serbia even longer. But now that the Balkan express is running the !ett ters will come much quicker. I) THi; SOLDIKRS. and State 10 London with (Jen. Fred Grant when AJr. Hammond was special ambassador i at the coronation of King George. Gen. Fred 'Irani recalled the friendship of his father. Gen. Grant, for toy mother's family, the Lumms of Vicksburg. During the siege Gem I". S. Giant renewed his acquaintance, and despite high feeling he was cordiallx received and entertained. (Jen. Fred told all the details to me, and m> boys were breathless with interest. ' A Big Buffalo Hunt. ALKXANPKR K'hSS was a Scottish Highlander, who, something like a hundred years ago. went 1?? Ganada. joined Aster's expedition, went round (.'ape Horn, and in Uritish Columbia, rose to be an officer in the Northwest Company. He married the daughter of an Indian chief. There is related a spirited stoi > of ? "uuaiu nuin in 111- ii uwn |i.ti i. There were nearly U.UOO ihmsoiis encaged in it, and it is cont.ndcd that it was probablv the largest liurit on record. They journeyed -in miles to reach tlie hunting grounds. At. 8 o'clock the whole cavalcade broke ground and made for the buffaloes. When the horsemen started the buffaloes were about a mile ami a half distant, but when they approached to within four or five hundred yards the hulls curled their tails or pawed the ground. In a moment the herd took flight, and horse ami rider were heard, and all was smoke, dust aid hurry, and in less time than lias been occupied in a description a thousand carcasses strewed the plain. When the rush was made the earth seemed to tremble as t lie horses started, but when the animals fled it was like the shock of an earthquake. The air was darkened, the rapid firing: soon became more ami more faint, and at last died away in the distance. in such a run a good horse and experienced rider would select and kill front ten to twelve buffaloes at oti?* heat, but iti this case the surface was rocky and full of badger holes Twenty-three horses and riders were at one moment all sprawling on the ground. One horse, gored by a bull, was killed on the spot, two more were disabled by the fall. One rider broke ins shoulder uiacie, anoiner oursi ins gun aiva lose three fingers by the accident and another was struck on the knee by an exhausted bull. In the evening no less than 1,375 buffalo tongues were brought into camp. When the run was over the last animal killed was the first skinned and night surprised the runner at his work. What remained then was lost and fell to the wolves. Hundreds of dead buffaloes were uevessariU'