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Woman Munition Workers to Be Safeguarded by a (Government Division j
TO safeguard the health and In dustrial conditions surround* Ing the thousands of woman workers who have gone Into government munition plants since the ^rar the women's branch of the In dustrial service section of ?he ord inance department has been estab lished, with a woman as chief. In the low gray building known as the department of ordnance Is the office of Dean Schneider, head of the Engineering School of the University Of Cincinnati, and now one of Uncle Sam's "dollar-a-year men" who is Serving as the head of the Industrial feervlce section of the ordnance de partment. This Industrial service sec tion, which was created In January. 1018, has already established four main divisions and, under Dean Schneider, is fast working out con structive policies with reference to employment and other conditions per taining to munition workers. In this Organisation wherever practicable the English pattern has been followed relative to conditions, hours, eta * > ? * . The first of the four divisions al ready established Is the employment management division, which will ad vise regarding the establishment of employment departments In Indus trial plants, and, with the co-opera tion of the universities, develop a trained group of available men and women for positions as employment managers The second division of the section fs the adjustment division, for media tion In difficulties which have caused strikes or seem likely to cause them. The third division, on supply an^ distribution, has In hand a big prob lem of housing and transportation in munition centers. The fourth is the woman's division. Miss Mary Van Kleeck, chief of this division, Is an A. B. of Vassar Col lege of the class of TO, and a maga slne writer on labor problems. She was for a number of years With the Russell Sage Foundation, and her lectures on industrial conditions for men and women at the Hew York School of Philanthropy were largely attended. . A. ? ? This office Is the picture of tl^e most austere warlike simplicity. There are neither rugs nor comfortable chairs to invite the visitor to engage In a lengthy conversation; all betokens dispatch and the prompt conduct of business. A solitary pansy on the desk was the only touch of color. Miss Van Kleeck spoke of the thou sands of women in the United States who had been drawn Into occupations formerly considered suitable to men and how the war made all the work of women new?how it had created new conditions, Imposed new burdens and removed old safeguards In their accustomed tasks. She said. In speaking of these new conditions: "The war has opened up new opportunities, and it has also multiplied problems of adjustment In the new and unaccustomed occupa tions. The relation of women to in dustry or of women te men in their trades is no longer the same. Baclr of a)L the changing conditions affect ing both men and women is the fun damental fact of a new public con sciousness that labor is the nation s fundamental asset In time of war. * * ??The number of primers Inspected by a woman in a cartridge shop, her skill ii> Inspection and the conditions which make her a vigorous, cheerful worker or a discontented employe witlf a just grievance have become details of national importance. The housing in her town, her standard of living and the skill and contentment of the numerous other workers whose products are part of her standard of living are all factors Influencing the output of cartridges needed for the Army In France. "The establishment of a woman's division in the industrial service sec tion of the ordnance department is a practical expression of the govern ment's direct interest In woman workers In munition plants. The ordnance department is charged with the responsibility of providing muni-, tlons of all kinds for the Army and many supplies needed by soldiers in the field?not only arms and car tridges, but helmets, harness and a long list of other equipment as well." Miss Van Kleeck spoke of the ex pediency of the ordnance department In establishing an industrial service section to deal with labor conditions, as logical, practical and far-sighted, owing to the fact that shortage of labor, strikes and all conditions which prevent efficiency and dispatch are of Importance in the production pro gram. The government, through the ord nance department, manufactures in Its own arsenals, and It places con tracts with privately owned plants. ? The many kinds of munitions are in spected by the-department at various stages of manufacture. Miss Van Ki/iO attention to general orders No. .13, issued by. the chief of ?rdnance last November, containing Suggestions to arsenal commanders and itianufacturers of ordnance. The orders deal with hours of labor, standards in workrooms, wages, ne gotiations between employers and employes and the employment of women and minors. For women, it is declared, that "existing legal stand ards should be rigidly maintained, and even where the law permits a nine or ten hour day, effort should be made to restrict the work of women to eight hours to enable them to bear the Increased burden brought by new tasks and" by greater speed in their accustomed occupations." * t * * Miss Van Kleeck, in explaining the work of the women's division, said: 'The woman's division is a separate branch of the industrial service sec tion of the ordnance department, be cause many of the problems affecting women are different from the prob lems affecting men. The standards of Ifceir wages are lower. They are not so strongly organised in trade union*. They are physically less capable of heavy work and the dangers of over strain are more serious. And they represent a reserve force of labor capa ble of expansion if the withdrawal of men into military service makes nec essary the more extensive employ ment of women. 'The danger is that they may be put Into men's places before an actual shortage of labor ma!:es it necessary, and that their ill-considered Introduc tion into new occupations may be the occasion for lowering wages, for checking the proper development of collective bargaining, and for adding a new and powerful factor to condi tions causing unrest In industry. "While women's work has its spe cial aspects, nevertheless Its prob lems are so Intertwined with those of men in the same trades that they cannot be considered as a group apart. The women's division of the ordnance department Is an integral part of the industrial service section, guided by the same policies and working with and through the other divisions. It will have its specialists in employment management, in hous ing as it affects woman workers, and in adjustments, ard these will work with the corresponding divisions of the industrial service section. "It will have an important branch on the health of woman workers. Its field work will be handled through district supervisors assigned to the large munitions area where women are employed. These supervisors will be stationed in the local offices of the production divisions, of the ordnance department." Miss Van Kleeck has appointed Miss Mary Anderson a member of her supervising staff. Miss Anderson is a member of the national execu tive board of the Boot and Shoe Workers' Union, and has had suc cess as a mediator in Important in dustrial disputes. Her work with the government will be to act as me diator in any ldbor controversy which may arise among woman muni tion workers in government plants. * * ? Dr. Kristie Mann is a member of Miss Van Kleeck's staff. She has asked one of the prominent women's colleges to establish a summer course for officers to serve in the health de partment of munition plants as em ployes of the plant. It is estimated that from twenty to thirty such officers to look after the health of women employed in arsenals and ord nance plants will be needed by next MISS MARY VAN KLERCK, Cldef of women's branch of Industrial ?ervlce section, ordnance department. falL. At Dr. Mann's suggestion, one of the medical colleges is contem plating a course of this kind to turn out doctors of industrial health after two years' training. A woman supervisor will be sta tioned in each of the ten supervisor districts which are fast being or ganized. The Chicago and Phila-. delphia districts have opened with Miss Amy Hewes in charge of the women's work in the Chicago dis trict. She was until recently secre tary of the committee on women in industry of the Council of National Defense, and head of the fconomic department of Mount Holyoke Col lege. Miss Hewes will have under her supervision ail munition plants which employ women in Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota and northern Indiana. Miss Louise Cornell, sometime asso ciated with the New York state com mittee on women in Industry of the Council of National Defense, has been appointed woman supervisor of the Philadelphia district. The other and voted that it should be made of khaki. The result has been pleasing as well as utilitarian. * ? * This uniform consists of a blouse and specially designed overalls which are made full and button around the ankles. In order that there may be no place In the uniform for powder WOMAN MUNITION WORKER IN CAP AND UNIFORM. districts being organized are Detroit, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, Rochester, New York, Boston and New Haven. * * * For several months there has been waged a lively campaign in Washing ton to put all woman war workers in uniform with some Insignia to show that they are engaged in war work and doing their part as valiantly to fight the war to a finish as any sol dier in the field. So far lack of unity in the departments as to the kind of uniform to be adopted by those in purely clerical positions has prevent ed anything being done. Then a lin gering fancy for fllmy chiffon blouses, frills and fancy boots defeats a war time economy much needed* However, woman munition workers In government plants 'decided some time ago that the sensible, sanitary, riafe and patriotic thing to do was to wear uniforms. As a result they wear a distinctive uniform with an insignia to denote that the War Department recognizes theiti as ah Important part of the military organization. The safety features which characterize this uni form, making it practicable for wear at work which involves danger either from the operation of machinery or the handling of explosive powders, were designed by a- committee of woman workers at the Frankford arsenal and Mrs. Clara Tead of the woman's branch of the industrial service section of Miss Van KIceck's department. Mrs. Tead was sent to confer with the women at the arsenal and found them enthusiastio over the project. A committee of work ers selected the style of the uniform or flying dust to lodge, the blouse buttons over the overalls instead of under; the overalls button forward instead of backward; the collar of the blouse can be buttoned tightly around the neck or can be worn open at the throat in warm weather. The pocket on the front is closed at the top and will doubtless be used as the place on which the insignia is to be worn; the large hip pocket, which has an emple flap to button down tightly, gives the worker a se cure place to carry her purse, hand kerchief and other articles. There are no loose ends to the costume, the cuff of the bloomers buttoning close ly around the ankles with two but tons. The cap Is made of a lighter weight material than the bloomers. This is to prevent any undesirable overheat ing of the scalp. While the material of the cap is light weight it is closely woven in order to keep out the durit* The cap has an elastic or tight band, but is easily adjusted to any size or shape head. It is made, after the style of the official aviation cap and is worn with enthusiasm by the-wom an workers ecause of its general at tractiveness and becomingness, Mrs. Tead finds. * * * The Frankford arsenal employs the largest number of women of any of. the government plants, and these women were the first to wear the uni form; Miss Van Kleeck hopes that this uniform",will\be adopted by ,the private munition plants because of its ?safety features. She says the in signia "to5 be Worn by every woman making munitions in- government plants is intended as a badge of honor signifying that those woman workers are as necessary to the winning of the war as the men in the trenches. Miss Van Kleeck, in summing up the alms of the wonipn'H branch of the industrial service Miction, said: "The whole plan of the work is determined by a put-pone of the women's division to be in constant touch with the munitions plants, not for investiga tion without an aim, but for practical constructive e.T ?rt ?to establish con ditions which shall set free tho besl energies of the woman workers, en abling them to accomplish the part which they are eager to perform in production for the war. "Setting free the energies of the workers mentis removing the ob stacles to real achievement which.are built up by too long hours, too low wages, unwholesome or unsafe con ditions of employment, crowded and insanitary housing and inadequate transit facilities." | PADDY | A Simple Philosopher. By LIEUT. J. B. MOUTON. FRANCE. June 20. PADDY was the best known man In the battalion. As soon aB you saw him you knew that he was something more than a type. He was unique, and there was individuality in everything he did or said, from his bandy-legged manner of walking to his quaint way of expressing himself. He was short and thickset, with green eyes that blinked out from un der heavy black eyebrows. His legs were bandy from a life In the saddle, and his talk was a mixture of soldier slang. Australian phrases and British oaths, all delivered in a broad Irish brogue For Paddy had been a great traveler and ha4.?pent part of hia life in Queensland, now as a boundary rider, now as a rancher or a sheep-, shearer. The rough life had left a tan on his face and a frankness In his conversation. Nothing ever disturbed his good hu-. mor. In billets he was always the center of a little crowd. Men would ask him questions about his wander-'. ings simply to draw him out, for he had an inexhaustible fund of stories and reminiscences. Rut it was hard to make him talk In the daytime. He went about his work singing in his cracked, tuneless voice In rain or sun. All days were alike to him, and' so long as he got a certain amount of food and a few minutes' sleep now ami, then he was happy. He could sleep in any corner and any position without ever seeming to bo uncomfortable, and he nearly always managed to make himself a cup of tea when-he wanted It. There was something al most magical In the way he kindled a Aire In the most unllkoly places. In the evening he became different. Even his face seemed to grow older and more serious. He would sit round the estamlnet fire or the brazier and fell stories, either experiences of hi? own or weird little things he remem bered hearing among his own folk as a boy. There were many old songs he used to sing in a monotonous droning voice, too, some picked up In Aus tralia. some In Spain, some in South America, but the brogue flavored every dialect. In the trenches Paddy was Inval uable. He could never accept a pessi mistic side to any question. He con sidered that so long as the trencn wasn't literally blown away, the occu pants. were lucky, and ho lived up to his ideas. The shelling was never ac curate enough or heavy enough to stop him singing, or curling himself up to sleep. Once 1 saw him burled. They dug him out and he was badly shaken, but he glanced round and remarked that they had' "wasted a molghty big shell to disturb such a small piece of thrench." It Is unusual to And a man over forty years old as calm as that after a bad shaking. With all his rough exterior Paddy had a heart of gold. I've seen him give up his food to a youngster In particularly bad times without a word. I've seen him give up his precious mug of tea to a wounded man or a He was a man of simple likes and dislikes, but he rose above tho ordi nary recognised new army types, good as they are. by reason of his person ality, In which there was the real touch of magic. None-of us who knew him has ever forgotten him in tne smallest degree, and he left a tradi tion with us. His phrases are still used, and we try to remember his ridiculous songs. Sometimes, when' thing* are very bad In the front line, some association brings back one of his sayings and it will turn the serious ness Into something almost laughable. Pig-Headed. EX-AMBASSADOR GERARD WM discussing Germany. . . "When a German," he said, "gets to talking about German supremacy, there's no reasoning yvlth him.. He's as unreasonable ' and ?' pig-headed as1 the drug clerk. 4 ';') t , v * "f "A customer asked this drug clprk o'ne hdt Tnorning for a plain seltzer. " *Vat flavor'?* said the clerk. 'Van- ? ilia, jogolate or vat?' ?? ? ?< ' " "NO flavor,' said the customer. 'A plalii 6ne, without flavor. Don't you? understand?' "'Yah, I unrterstandt,* said the drug clerk. 'But vat flavor you want him mlto\it? mltout Vanilla or mltout Jogolate?"" ' I Junker Patriotism. ?HE German junker idea of pa triotism, " said a government of ficial, apropos of the appalling German losses, "is clear and unmistakable." He smiled and added: "A Junker patriot is a man who gives your life for his country."