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Jewish Nation Will Be Formed in Palestine"
n/iCDWAnD MARSHALL. Corrfapondeiire of The Star. NEW YORK. August IS, 1919. THAT a Jewish nation certainly will be one of the things which will come out of the great evil of the war is posi tively announced for the first time by Judge Julian W. Mack, president of the Zionist Organization of Amer ica, In the following Interview: "Out of the peace conference, or< at the latest, the first meeting of the league of nations," said he to me last evening, at the Harvard Club, New York, "Is coming a Jewish common wealth In Palestine. Or, to put it an other way, the thing for which the Jewish people have dreamed and prayed and for 2,000 years worked for is coming true?before our very eyes and in our own days. "Great Britain is pledged to it; America has given whole-hearted ap proval to the great project; France generously has assented to it, as have Italy, Japan and Holland; bleeding Serbia has blessed the Jewish aspira tion; Greece, China, Slam, Holland, Cuba,all these countries and more, have Indorsed the approval of the great powers. * * * * "The Socialist Internationale, the American League of Labor and De mocracy, the American Federation of Labor and the British labor party have placed themselves on record in full approval of it: a majority of both houses of the United States Congress of last year?the war Congress?ex pressed, over their own signatures, a determination to vote for a resolu tion favoring the establishment of a Jewish homeland In Palestine should a plan for one be presented for their approval; nine American state legis latures petitioned the peace confer ence in favor of the great idea. It is one of the biggest things that have come out of the war, this eager ness on the part of the world to right a monstrous wrong, and at last, after many centuries, to do Justice to the Jew. It Is the finger of God that is pointing the way. It could not be otherwise. "The French revolution fixed for all time the liberty of man; the great war has fixed for all time the rights of the smaller nationalities to exist ence. Zionism?to call the Jewish national aspiration by its familiar name?typifies the Jewish quest for liberty for all the smaller nationali ties. This Is the platform on which It has stood during the twenty years of Its present political organisation: 'For every people, however small, the right to national existence on Its own soil, to develop its own culture. For the Jewish people, Palestine!' "It Is the finest exemplification of what President Wilson had in mind when In the fourteen points he spoke of the right of even the smallest na tionality to live Its own life, on its own soil and develop Its own cul ture. Now the Jewish people Is to come into possession of its own land. Palestine will eventually be predominantly a Jewish land, with a Jewish people living a Jewish life and developing a Jewish culture. And the benefits of this development will be shared by all the Inhabitants, Moslem, Christian and Jewish alike, and they will benefit the world. "Certain fundamental principles for Palestine were embodied last year at our convention In what is now well known as the ^Pittsburgh program.' Here are some of the planks of the program: "Political and civil equality irrespec tive of race, sex or faith of all the in habitants of the land. "To Insure equality of opportunity we favor a policy which shall tend to es tablish this ownership and control of the land aVid of all natural resources and of all public utilities by the whole people. "All land' owned or controlled by the whole peoplfe should be leased on such conditions as' will Insure the fullest op portunity for development and continu ity of possession. "The co-operative principle Bhould be applied aa far as feasible In the or ganisation of all agricultural, industrial, commercial and financial undertakings. "The fiscal policy shall be framed to protect the people from the evil of land speculation and from every form of financial oppression. "In the words of the great founder of political Zionism, Theodore Herxl, the Jewish commonwealth is to be a model state,'for the common weal. It Is to embody all that Is good In government, In social relationship, and seek to free itself of all that has proved itself evil. * * * ? ?>Forty years ago began the first serious effort to rewin the soil. Out of pogrom - ridden ^Russia came a band of devoted pioneers to establish the first Jewish Agricultural colony In Palestine. They were heroes, they were martyrs. On the foundation laid by these martyrs there have grown up fifty flourishing colonies, villages, cities, urban settle ments, a school system, financial insti tUtlffHIb Head of American Zionists Says Dreams of Two Thousand Years Are Coming True?War Has Fixed for All Time the Rights of Smaller Nations?Land Can Support Five Millions. JIDGF. JULIAN W. MACK, President of the Zionist organisation of America. "Twenty-two years ago, In response to the summons of Theodore Herzl, the Zionist movement, as a political or ganization, was created and adopted for its program: 'The establishment In Palestine of a homeland for the Jewish people, recognized and guaranteed by public law." Today we count 150,000 members in the United States and hun dreds of thousands, millions, all over the world. Millions, as was recently announced, are waiting with burning impatience the hour when they may proceed to Palestine to begin the new life. "Before analyzing that tissue of ru mors. violent exaggerations, misstate ments and pure Turkish propaganda, which forms the basis of much of the opposition to Zionism, it Is well briefly to consider the problem of Palestine and the reason why the Zionist proposals to the peace confer ence for its solution have commend ed themselves to the delegates for their moderation and justice. The Zionist solution of the problem of the future of Palestine is required first, by the need for healing the present world's oldest national trag edy and, secondly, by the need for reclaiming Palestine again for civili sation. * C? ? * "During the last score of centuries of the separation of the Jewish peo ple from Palestine, neither conquer ors nor the various populations down to and including the present popula tion, have done anything to make that great land productive In spiritual and economic values. The Zionist move ment through its schools, Internal self-government, courts to which the Arabs have come for justice, and all the labor and sacrifice whose benefit for the native population is acknowl edged by the Arab leader, Prince Feisal, is making the land productive again, and has this reinforced the Jewish right to Palestine sanctified by a two-thousand-year history of persecution, suffering and striving. "The Palestine of today with its slopes left bare and unprotected by the felling of forests has resulted In the washing away of its most fertile soil (the same thing ruined much of China), Its large marshes breathe ma laria, its wide districts are tilled only sporadically and primitively, and Its population of only 700,000 as against the millions of the past must be regenerated. "The regeneration of Palestine, all experts agree, requires a population such as It does not possess at pres ent, and an accordingly large, vig orous and progressive body of set tlers for whom the restoration of the land to Its ancient glories will be an Ideal calling forth a high degree of devotion and sacrifice. "Palestine can and must be regen erated as other countries have been, by the introduction of an industrious and enterprising population?In a word, by the repatriation of the Jew ish nation and its development into a Jewish commonwealth. "la this work of regeneration no legitimate interest of the present pop ulation would be injured, for the Jews have no Intention of going to Palestine as a class to exploit its economic possibilities?rather, they intend to settle on the land as pro ducers and to carry on productive occupations of every kind in harmony with and for the mutual benefit of the present and the future population. "In the opipion of men who have studied the problem in all of its bear ings. the country, which today has only a population of 700,000, can be reclaimed so as to support a popu lation of 5,000,000 persons. The coun try today has no more than forty per sons per square mile, while Egypt, under British administration, has 800; Belgium, 632; Holland, 573, and Palestine's neighbor, Lebanon, has 400 persons to the square mile. "The regeneration must begin by making the land accessible to new settlers. The country Is Buffering from the vice of absentee landlord ism?the locking up of vast estates by owners?Kfftndis, a class of Arabs created by the .Turks, who have no interest in the real development of the land, but live from the oppressive rental which they draw from tenants cultivating it in the most primitive and sporadic fashion. "The most glaring of misleading statements is the tale that Zionist agents offered during the week end ing June 30 the sum of 116,000,000 for a tract of land in Palestine. Even assuming that they had that huge amount at their disposal for such or any other purpose, the thing would be impossible because Palestine Is enemy occupied territory, held by British arms, subject to whatever disposition of the land may be made by the peace conference or the league of nations. As Maj. Ormsby-Gore, British representative on the Pales tine administrative commission, who, addressing a Jewish conference in Jaffa, on June 17, 1918, said; " 'At present we are bound Tb carry on the Turkish system of law, taxa tion and government. We are bound to do this by international law, and it is against Turkish law to sell land In Palestine to Jews.' The whole ?tory of Jewish settlement in Pales tine would be different if this were not the case. Can any one believe, in the face of this law, and in the face of Great Britain's determination to abide by it, that the Zionist or ganization would be likely to risk so colossal a sum? Surely it would be a hazardous venture. ? * * * "One of the statements which I question is that there are 600,000 Mos lems, 75,000 Christians and 75,000 Jews in Palestine. The official figures as given out by the British military au thorities (O. E. T. A.) are: Moslems, 512,000; Christians, 60,880; Jews, 66,883. Here you haver a discrepancy of over 50,000. Again, consider the statements that the Ar*ba resent the issuance of governmental proclamations In He brew. In faot. all governmental proc **? J Initiations are issued In three lan guages?English, Arabic and Hebrew. The Palestine News, the official news paper issued by the military admin istration, Is published in the three languages; the police or gendarmerie wear Arabic or Hebrew insignia, "de pending upon whether the wearer is a Moslem or a Jew, and the stamp of the military governor of Jerusalem Is In both Hebrew and Arabic. "Consider also the statement that the three Jewish regiments In Pales tine are a source of Irritation to the 'natives.' In truth, these Jewish regi ments of'the 6ritl?h army of occupa tion are' made up of young, men born In Palestine. Nothing Is said.of the fact that these reglments campaigned with Allcnby, for the liberation of the land and all the inhabitant* there of, from Turkish tyranny, and that Iheir valor was the subject of special mention In thfe official war commu niques. "Another statement Is that the 'na tives' are resentful, because of tlie "presence of a large number of Jews on the staff of the occupied enemy ter ritory administration which Is minis tering the country until Paris acts.' A visitor to the O. E. T. A. office, In fact, must be impressed by the no ticeably small percentage of Jews on the staff. The oiv Jewish employes are a few girl clerks, hired because they speak English. "Without even going into the great luestion of why Palestine is so all mportant to the Jews from the his oric, political, economic or spiritual loints of view, let us approach the juestion from the angle of very recent facts. "On November 2, 1917, the Hon. Ar thur James Balfour, British foreign secretary, issued the following official declaration: " 'His majesty's government view with favor the establishment in Pal estine of a national home for the Jew ish people, and will use their best en deavors to facilitate the achievement of this object' (note the clear words of the following clause, 'it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoy ed by Jews in any other country.' "Early in March, 1918, King George appointed the Palestine administrative commission. In the official announce ment of the purpose of this commis sion one of the objects stated was ?to help In establishing friendly rela tions with the Arabs and other non Jewish communities.' Every step un dertaken by the commission has dis played solicitude for the non-Jewish communities. When food ships were dispatched by Jewish organizations to relieve war distress, no discrimination was made; when the American Zion ist medical unit sailed for Palestine it carried a special gift of money from Mr. Nathan Strauss, a Zionist, to the Moslems, and the medical min istrations of the unit are freely ex tended to all the inhabitants of Pales tine, without any distinctions what ever. "But ^fhaps more to the point Is the statement made last summer by the Archbishop of Mount Slnal, Porl phyrus II of the Greek Catholic Church In Palestine, and spiritual head of the vast majority of the Christian population of Palestine, as follows: " 'The Jews, as bearers of the old Hebraic civilisation which has had much profound Influence in modern civilization and which is stll operating today as In Prophet Isaiah's idea of a league of nations, will, now that they shall be restored to Palestine, bring all their innate capacities to bear upon the development of the country, which has been desolated by Turkish mis rule, and will, as Is already proved by the Zionist colonies, Introduce In the population a spirit of progress and emulation, so that in the course of time Palestine will again becomo a land flowing with milk and honey.' * * * * "During the second week of last September the British premier, l.loyd George, received deputations from three peoples who desired to express their gratitude through him to Eng land for holding out to them the as? suraace that their national aspirations would be gratified. The peoples rep resented were the Arabs, the Arme nians and the Jews. Replying to the Jewish address, Lloyd George suU: " 'I have today had the honor of receiving addresses from the repre sentatives of three elements most In timately concerned in the establish ment of a rule of order and justice In an a-s>a *hich has hitherto been the prty.of tyranny and outrage. The fulfillment of (he historic hope, and aspirations to which you refer in your address Is. I believe, an es coro?ary to the necessary en f anchisejnent of the oppressed peo ples of the near east.' "The 'Arab question' had Its hour at the peace conference. The opponents teen,ri"h the advocate8 of an In ? yria' ,he advocates of an American protectorate over Turkey Pa r (g R h ea rlf6 ^ Arab OUe.tion.' Turkish the "PB of th. Of anlrrn""VM the threat writer mvI'* " War wh,ch thl" down Zll. C?"Celvably may bring Afo-ho ?fypt> Mesopotamia, Persia, Z "orMn, and Indla a?d Involve a new chaos.' It de rM?," con8lderatlon now a. The " fr<)rnVthe allied council. ^SSS,"JSr^JS States asetoton#forn,er United vho. awtatant secretary of war 25?Ki? iLXT ??? i? ?u . "1IC,es ?Board, who was in Pnt-i. Phrates Tr t h' emP'r? of the ?u 'tine throughout Jewish hi. aUen rul^^^ Syria' f?Uffht a*a>"'t alien rule and established its own in. dependent and vindicated its own ^Bht as an entity. Geographically and economically nature has given ieparlte6!^1! thC characteristics of a separate land. The only thing whlch Palestine and Syria have 7? ? and in .u '"a nave in common. sine* , y haVe ln common only Arabic. Palestine and Syria is ?otBma^a?^H?? W?Ulara doe? nation. Under thf Turks all?^?Jnian churcTTas^th'e0 The rSS-SS S^KSSL^ is"seo??Prtl0n there to thl zfont report;0"'81 med,Cal un,t "The only newspapers ln Palestine whllegSment ,pub"catlons. and| ? these are of value, they can K'nls conBS 'EHV^oS s.?ss???,,sr. Jha #8 *dvance had started I heard ""WAX been meifwa^ ?e \?V tffifS Damascus. The town crier ' ^ fon to b^ fnnin 0 unlfl<?d public opin ion to be found among the wandering of PaUlln?8t,nWf,? ooH'titute one.foSr"? mi.H nf population; nor in the mud villages of the Fellahin.' ? k ?w a8 to the alleged fear that the Jews will oust the natives it be borne in mind that "a%ood nriJo? land doe8 n?t belong to prro^rtyOWner8' bUt 18 ">yXVnt the^rlif.Hi ^iaturblng In the least theereP^sVa?eiII0Xrt',y room tor"** new settlement. If Pal?Jst?M ^s to become 'the keystone of th e CaDe to n?id?"toa h?'#a arch' U wm certainly lated than it is !?w aen8ely P?PU* uV^h'^^^8^*l^'*^?n^^try1'played worldreatT?r?flT, *2 !h" history Jewish onlnllli. f-V again with jewisn colonies wiil not mik> th. o'wneratndnh?tbUai?itS 8trangers in the.p of flvin* kni m l raL8e the standard hIJiT make them a healthier tfPPie^-yes.a better? peopleTo oro MMin 'J? immigration would be to continue the stagnation Into which a t.i / ,,eM1 under Turkish rule. Tel-Aviv is only one bit of evi dence of what the Jews have beea fni th? accomplish In Palestine dur Tllrlrl.fc P ' f?r,y yPar8 ln 8P'te of nftv t?wf.KM,i?n'. Kach one 01 the nrty Jewish colonies has its own dramatic history, just as each one la pSl?H^P,e ?,f wtat 18 'tore for Palestine under the oving develon. m?."t which the Jews are planning Finn!?! there will be no snti. ?t22iSt,.War n Palestine, nor any other dire calamities predicted un- ? less, indeed, race bitterness be used as propaganda to Inflame Ibe native mind." ' ? 't'ep>rlfbl, 1010. hy Kilwanl J'-??u?u Hi?1L. *??*. I