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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, November 06, 1921, Image 51

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WORLD TO DEMAND
RUSS GUARANTEES
Recognition of Soviet Will Not Come
Until Moscow Abandons Interna
tional Chicanery.
?* OLIVER OWEN- KlHJi.
IAS the political leopard of the
old world chanced his spots?
far-reaching: tenders for political
recognition by world powers, coupled,
of course, with an offer to recognize
the old czarist obligations?
Can any regime which has engaged
in murder, arson, rapine, has dis
emboweled a once great nation and
In the application of false theories
of economic upbuilding ushered in
an era of pestilence and starvation,
suddenly state to the world that it
Is a government that can be trusted
?and then win support by the mere
saying so?
Are Lenin and Trotsky sincere in
protestations of eagerness to resume
civilized relationships with the world?
or?
Are they merely enunciating new
International policies to obtain de
sired recognition and in turn Infil
trate their seditious gospels of an-'
archlsm and destruction, thereby
hoping to bring about the much
heralded sovietizaljon of the world, a
great international regime through
which they hope to govern all Chris
tendom?
I
' These are questions that must be
weighed fully by any government in
listening to the beguiling statement
of Foreign Minister Tchitcherin of
Russia, who a week ago announced
that if the larger powers, notably the
United States. Great Britain. France.
Italy and Japan, would recognize the
soviet, the Moscow government would
engage in the task of seeing to it that
all obligations owed to the world by
the czarist regime up to 1914 were
paid. He intimated that the powers
must help Russia in readjusting her
economic 'and financial systems In
order that payment be Insured, and
Tie stated there'must be a previous
conference leading up to the settle
ment in which Russia's . counter
claims must be considered by the
allies.
How far can the allies place cre
dence upon /the word of the bolshe
viks? If past promises and past
deeds are criterion for future action,
then the Moscow regime may be ex
pected to resort to many of the das
tardly practices It has nursued in seek
ing to undermine the living Russia, for
the sake of experimenting with political
heresies and strive to perpetuate br.li j
shevist theories, with consequent-politi- j
<al and revolutionary upheavalf in every I
section of the world. If it still is the f
bolshevist regime of old, the allies would |
do well in imoring the far cry that has
eeme from Moscow. 1
But there enters into the situation |
a new development, and this is the i
apparently well credited theory that!
the sovfet leaders, not being entirely
fools even though clinging to fanciful
doctrines, 'have been convinced,
through famine, disease and abject
misery throughout Russia, that their
theorl?>- of operating a government
for 160.000.000 people are false. lynln
has confessed that .the soviet regime
has. been incapable of wrestling with
the multitudinous economic questions
that have confronted the government
through failure in working in con
cord with the outside world. Russia,
for the lack of things the outside
world could give her. has slipped,
slipped down to the bottommost runes
of despair, and the soviet leaders, un
doubtedly wishing to perpetuate some
semblance of their regime, now are
ready to turn to the outside world,
agree that after all their tenets of
faith are in a measure false?at least
recognize that all principles upon
?which other nations are founded are
at least not unsound.
Russia needs the outside world.
Also. Tchitcherin's remark that the
outside world needs Russia if greater
equilibrium economically and finan
cially Is obtained is wholly true.
The powers long have recognized
the 'need of a going Russia. They
have stood aloof during the four
years of bolshevik government, first
of all because they have feared in
filtration of bolshevik tendencies dur
ing the decidedly disorganized period
following the close of the war.
The soviet regime eariy in the day
blatantly announced the abrogation
of all of the czarist debts. This in
nowise pleased France, where nearly
25,000,000.000 francs was furnished
to the old Russian government. These
francs did not come from great finan
cial Institutions. The humble French
peasant, scattered from Brittany to
Nice, and from Bordeaux to the east
ern frontier, early learned to believe
that Russian securities Were of the
best?and they once were. Conse
quently there was a flow of hard
earned peasant francs into the large
banks of France which were handling
Is the soviet government of
Russia sincere in new and
$ * * *
* * * *
* * * *
Russian securities. When the aov}**_
announced repudiation of *or?'5" i
debts, possibly to gain a stronger grip
upon the imagination of the iIf!!!,
of Ignorant Russian people, there was
a furore In France and various gov
ernments have been loath to take an
action (poking toward recognition of.
tlfe soviet a? long as the debt ques
tion remained unsettled.
With the knowledge and tacit sup
port of the French, many counter
1 anti-bolshevik movements have been
started In France. Poland has fig
ured largely as the Instrument of
France in proposed future operations
agftinst the bolsheviks, ami it 1. i
known that Gen. Wrangel was kin en i
physical and material comfort in m
anti-red revolution In southern Ku.? - ,
sia two or three years ago. In tact,
the soviet regime now intimates tmit.
Inasmuch as France aided 'r
the bolsheviks will have a counter
charge against France in case ther
is a squaring of obligations at a coun
cil table.
The French government as a con
sequence may be c*P,ec'e^. ,to )
guarantees of the bolshevi.t g
faith even before they agree to eii'ei
Into parleys with the reds on tn .
monev question. It may be stated
that France never will recognize'the
reds or have further dealings with;
*ihem unless Russia's debt to ,b,r"n':
which is larger than that owed to anj. |
other country, is provided for w ith
adequate guarantees But ,f
guarantees arc forthcoming then
may be expected that the b rench w il
be quick to ask?ill fact, may t
?participation of other allied com - j
tries in a conference with the bol-.
sheviks.
* * * *
England long has recognized that
sooner or later, if Europe s equi
librium is guaranteed, that the sovi.t
regime must be brought w lthin the
plan of economic commercial and
financial readjustment. The output of
a nation of lSO.OOO.OOO cannot be
ignored. Neither can the political ef
fects of a friendly accord. The fcns- '
lish. therefore, entered into trade ar- i
rangtements with the Russians, but ,
these have suffered lapses owing t<> I
the -arlous disputes which have arisen
between the ty o. England but re
cently threatei>ed to break off rcla- i
tions* with the bolshevists entirely if
bolRhevik activities in the direction or
India did not cease. Russia owes com
paratively small amounts to the Brit
ish people, but the British are more,
concerned about red activities look-,
ing toward the revolution 111 Afgnan
istam and India than they are in |
monev considerations. .Any action I
looking toward recognition undoubt
edly wolild have to be prefaced by i
some holsheviet guarantees and show I
of good faith in ttirbing present ac- ,
tivlties.
Italv. through socialist pressure.!
sought resumption of relations with ?
the bolshevists In a trade way. As;
have other European countries. Italy
has found disposition 011 the part or 1
the bolshevists to resume trade, but 1
the reds have little to trade. Italv^
during the years since the war has f
had' reason- to suspect the reds or 1
fostering strife within Italy, and as a 1
consequence has* not pressed her rela
tions with the reds. Italy may be ex
pected to join other larger powers In
any movement looking toward recog
nition provided there are political as
well as financial safeguards.
' * * c *
The attitude of the American gov
ernment at the moment remain:)
conjectural, but it is known that
the policy of non-recocrnition un
til the worth and reliability of
the soviet regime is proven still
stands. It was enunciated by Presi
dent Wilson and has since been sup
ported by President Harding. The
Russian Abts in this country-lie,
largely in private hands, the govern- ,
ment not having loaned Russia larg'
sums until 1917. but if the soviet is
sincere and the other allies are con
vinced that much can be gained by
the perpetuation of peace in Europe
and la ;e strides taken toward end
ing chaotic conditions in commercial
and Industrial fields, it is 'believed
this government would take action.
* Z'fi # *
But before there is recognition of
the soviet regime some cardinal
things must be absolutely guaran
teed. among these being: -
Proven ability to meet such obli
gations as have accrued, with full in
terest in case of recognition.
Complete freedom of commerce
and trade with all Russians without
government interference.
Suppression of internationale ac
tnAgreements guaranteeing life and
libertv of all countries which skirt
on Russia, or which may have with
drawn from Russia since the war
started.
If the Russian "bolshevik regime
has abandoned many of its old the
ories and accepted the gospel of or
eanized government to a point where
it can meet the demands of the allies,
then Russia is upon the threshold ot
a new day.
History of Formation
Of Agricultural Bloc
BY EDWARD IS. DIKGLEY.
What is the so-called agricultural
"bloc," what is its significance and
( possible political effect? The appear
ance of this by-product of the United
! States Senate is one of the most in
j tereeting and important developments
t of the present session in Congress,
i The inside story is suggestive and
rich In possibilities. Here it Is from
one of the republican senators pres
' ent at the birth of the "bloc," and one
who has nursed it ever since.
For many years, said the senator,
the agricultural' west has felt that
general legislation has favored the
industrial and manufacturing east
, largely, while the Vest has been
t penalized. It was thought by' the
east that the west, with its rich agri
cultural territory, could take care of
itself. It did not need any congres
sional aid. This was true to a de
gree; and the agriculturists were
: content with governmental extension
( of farm education, farm literature
[ and theoretical farm economics. All j
t these were helpful, but they did not
t touch the heart of the situation.
Diaciltlu for Fanaers.
The farmers of the middle west
found their, sales prices depressed
. and their purchasing prices inflated.
I They 'soon found that for every dol
, lar they 'expended they received on
an average 30 cents back. Banks
' made their loans'op the basis of sixty
and ninety days, largely. The farm
_ e'rs needed longer time loans .to tide
" them over from crop tft crop. It takes
from one to three year's for an agrf
culturlst to "turn over" financially,
according to his business, whether he
is a grower of wheat or a grower of
cattle and hogs. Farmers found their
credits limited or exhausted. They
needed special legislation. Between
1900 and 1916 some special financial
credit relief was afforded, but the
war and the depression after the
war revealed the real paucity of leg
islation for the benefit of agricul
turists. The east, it is claimed, got
the best of every bargain.
Many of the western senator*, some
old legislators, some new, maintained
that the big republican victory of
1930 was not M much a. vindication
of prior republican policies as a pro
test against Wilsonism. The big ma
jorities, it was said, came from the
middle west and the far west, and
the senators from these sections came
to Washington in response to the call
for an extra session determined to
olaim their rights. The east is no
longer In the sidale, they said. The
west Is In control.
Movement Bl-Partlaan.
The extra session of Congress was
hardly a week old when the agricul
tural movement In the Senate came
to a head. It was by-partisan. Sen
ator Kenyon of Iowa, a republican,
and Senator Smith of South Carolina,
a dempcrat, were the two leading
promoters.
The first meeting -was held in an
ofSce down-town, far removed from
the Capitol, "in order that it might
escape the stamp of politics," said the
senator. Twelve senators were pres
ent at this first: meeting, divided
about equally as to politics. While
the meeting was informal, it was
agreed that politics should not be
discussed and that no question of
legislation should be considered from
a political point of view. ?
The main objects. It is stated, were
not to control or dictate to the Sen
ate, but to see to it that the great
west, the agriculturists of that sec
tion. received a square deal. The
members, pledged themselves to fight
for tfie interests of the agricultural
west without penalizing the cast or
any other section.
The tariff was not considered, be
cause, although an economic ques
tion, it . is saturated with politics.
The west and one-half of the south
is for reasonable protection, and the
senators at this first meeting de
cided to let the tariff alone, permit
ting each member to vote as he
pleased.
Held Open Meetings
When the newspapers revealed this
first secret meeting and dubbed the
organization "the agricultural bloc."
the members said they might just as
well meet in the Capitol and have the
-meetings open. This they did, in
viting such men a? Secretary Mellon.
Secretary Hoover. Barney ? Baruch
and many others to attend and "talk
over matters."
Soon the "agricultural bloc'* became
THE STORY THE WEEK HAS TOLD
BY HENRY W. BUNN. w
(Copyright, 19-1, by The Washington Star.) .
THE following is^a brief summary of the
most important news of the world for
the seven days ended November 5:
IRELAND.?On Monday, by a vote
of 430 to\ 43, the house of commons Indorsed
Lloyd George's Irish policy, approving con
tinuance of negotiations. The premier's speech
upon the occasion was not one of his happiest
efforts. He is obviously tired; and good reason.
He set forth more faintly than the subject
deserved the peculiarly unpleasant character of
a guerrilla war to the finish, and he pleaded for
"examining every proposition and every path'*
which might seem to point toward an "honor
able peace," before resuming arms#
Should the negotiations fall to the ground,
the south will be constituted a crown colony.
The government of .Ireland act confers on
northern and southern parliaments certain
powers to be assumed simultaneously. In
case of southern refusal of the gift, should the
legal advisers to the crown fail to find authority
in the act for assumption of these powers by
the Ulster parliament alone, doubtless parlia
ment will pass an additional act to this purpose.
We have no official information as to the
process of the negotiation on Ireland. Un
favorable and, strange to say, favorable in
ferences have been drawn from Lloyd George's
cancellation of his booking on the Aquatania,
which sailed lor New York on the oth.
* * * *
I? HUMAN V.?It is reported that Wirth's
position has been greatly strengthened dur
ing the past week. He has reaffirmed the policy
of strict fullfillinent of the London program,
but declares that the interallied commission
whose duty it is to keep tab on German re
sources will find that German capacity is greatly
curtailed by the Upper Silesian award. It is
intimated that Kathcnau is likely to resume
within the near future the portfolio of recon
struction. On the other hand, Rathenau is re
ported as saying (appropriating the language
of the Alsace-Lorraine delegate in the reichs
tag in 1X71): "Once more we pronounce null
and void a decision made without our consent."
The reparations commission has granted a
delay in payment of the OlH?,UUO.OOO gold marks
due on November lf?. tiie German government
promising payment on December 1, before which
tune a large industrial loan will, it gives as
surance, be consummated.
? * * .*
HUXGAUY. -Upon the" demand of the
council of ambassadors, Charles of Hapsburg
and Zita, his wife, were turned over to the
British naval authorities at Budapest. They
were taken down the Danube in a British gun
boat to Galatziu, Kumania, where they now
await the final decision of th^ council of am
bassadors as to their place of internment.
Humor has it that the council is in negotiation
with the Portugese government regarding .-one
of the Madeiras for that honor.
Complying with an ultimatum of the council
of ambassadors, Horthy has submitted to the
Hungarian national assembly (convened1 on
Thursday for the purpose) a bill to exclude
forever the house of Hapsburg from the Hun
garian throne. "There promises to be a merry
fight over the bill, the opposition being led by
Count Apponyi; but with the Czeehos and Jugo
slaves mobilized on the Hungarian borders and
chafing at delay, there seems little doubt that
the bill will be passed. The bill declares that
the election of a new king is indefinitely post
poned. The governments of the little entente
have behaved admirably, leaving the handling
of the delicate situation to the council of am
bassadors. upon the flatter's assurance that
now, at last, the disarmament clauses of the
Trianon treaty will be speedily executed to
the letter, ?nd that the demand of the little
entente that Hungary pay the costs of their
two mobilizations upon the account of Charles
wfithln six months will receive due considera
tion later. (A report just received states that
the royal pair *re already on the way to
Madeira on a British warship.)'
* * * *
SOVIET RUSSIA.?The Moscow government,
through Chicherln. its foreign minister, pro
poses "to recognize its obligations to other
states and their citizens on government loans
concluded by the ezarist government up to
1914, on condition of being granted privileged
terms giving It a practical chance to fulfil
these obligations," and "provided the great
powers conolude with It formal peace and its
government Is recognized by the other powers."
It propose* an international conference to con
sider the many details involved and to draw
up a treaty.
Lord Curzon, replying for the British gov
ernment to the note conveying this interesting
proposition, a??kN the questions which naturally
suggest themselves. "Your proposition.'' says
the noble lord, "confines recognition to one
particular class of debts or obligations.
"His majesty's government wish to know
whether recognition of other classes of obliga
tions?e. g. loans to the ezarist government
since 1914, municipal and railway loans and
claims by foteign owners of property in Russia
confiscated or destroyed by the soviet govern
. ment?also correspond with the intentions or'
the soviet government at the moment, and
they invite thaPfcovernment explicitly to define
their attitude in regard to all such other classes
of claims." If Lord Curzon is sarcastic, the
French press is contemptuous; the offer is
inadequate, Moscow fails to suggest where she
proposes to find the money. French recognition
of the infamous soviet regime is not to be
bought, etc. The Moscovite offer seerns to have
fallen rather fiat.
* * * *
TURIvKY.?Details have come in concerning
* the important treaty between the French
yoveranient and the Turkish nationalist govern
ment of Mustapha Kemalqd. France withdraws
from Cilicia, and the dividing line between
French Syria and Turkish Cilicia is exactly
drawn. Alexandretta apparently goes to &yria,
the Turks being^ assured free use of the port.
The French get a concession to operate the
Bagdad railroad frona the Mediterranean to
Xisibin an\rt thence northeast to a point on the
Tigris. A French group obtains a ninet*r-nine
year concession for exploitation of certain Iron,
silver, etc., mines near .the Black sea, Turkish
capital to participate up to 50 per cent. "In
addition the Turkish government is ready to
examine with the greatest good will other
requests which may be made by French groups
relative to concessions in mines, railroads,
ports and rivers."
A desire is expressed for French specialists
in Turkish schools. The Angora government
promises to sign an "agreement for the pro
tection of minorities along the same lines as
those laid down in the European treaties."
By evacuation of Cilicia some. 15,000 French
troops are released for service elsewhere. The
French have certainly stolen a march on their
friends the British.
s|c * * #
CHINA.?Some weeks ago it was reported
that Dr. Sun Yat-Sen, president of the Canton
.or south China republic, had started north
from Cantdn with a large army, resolved to
fight his way to Peking, overthrow that govern
ment of reactionaries, tuchuns and "tools of
Japan" (so he calls them), and re-establish the
constitutional republic of all. China, the re
public of 191.1. of which he was the first presi-^
dent. Changes there should be "indicated" by
the experience of the last ten years, but ef
fected by constitutional methods.- For example,
the government should be greatly decentralized.
conformably to the Chinese political genius.
Most of the power assigned by the constitution
to the central government should bo transferred
to the provincial government. Through the
constructive genlug of do v. Chen Chung-Ming,
Kwang Tung now presents a perfect model of
a provincial government, the main lines 'of
which would doubtless be followed by other
provinces. The Japanese should be ejected, bag
and baggage; the treaties made pursuant to
the twenty-one demands should be abrogated;
the concessions obtained by the Japanese
through threats and bribery should' bo re
pudiated. The "sovereignty and integrity of
China" should no longer be an empty phrase.
An excellent program, but Dr. Sun Yat-Sen
is not the man to carry it out. It appears that
(Jen. Chen Chung-Ming, governor of Kwang
Tung province (in which Canton is situated)
refused to buck Dr. Sun's military enterprise.
Without such support it could not succeed.
Dr. Sun never started north as was reported.
But a new hope has emerged. The two
best men in China appear to be the Gen. Chen
Chung-Ming above mentioned, and Gen. Wu
Pei-Fu, the northern liberal. Gen. Wu Pei-Fu
lias been organizing the central or Vang Tse
provinces for defense against Dr. Sun's
threatened invasion. That organization may be
used for other purposes. Wu Pei-Fu, though in
the service of the Peking government, probably
loves Chang Tso-Din. the northern dictator,
even less than he does Dr. Sun Yat-Sen. the
southern agitator, lie is a conservative liberal,
a unionist. With his organization of Yangtse
provinces (Hupeh, Hunan. Anhwei, Kiangsu
and Kiangsi) he holds the ba'ance of power in
China. A conference between him and Chen
Chung-Ming is proposed. Out of such a con
ference might come a practical scheme for the
unification and rehabilitation of China, provided
Chen Chung-Ming should assume the leader
ship of the southern group and provided these
two strong men could work together.
1 am not oversanguine: 1 see a long period
of reconstruction and adaptation ahead before
the new. upstanding, self-sufficient China shall
be firmly established; but 1 do conceive some
hope for the meeting of Wu Pei-Fu and Chen
Chung-Ming. Assuming them to be the men
report gives them to be. f
% ;je *
JAPAN.?Premier Hcya of Japan was stab
l?e<J to death on Friday bv a crazy Korean.
He was a moderate liberal, who held the bal
ance nicely between opposing factions. His
death at this time not only causes profoundest
regret, but arouses apprehension. It will be
difficult to find a successor equally qualified by
temper, ability and training to handle the very
delicate affairs, foreign and domestic, now in
train.
ijc ;jc :}:
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.?Judge A.
B. Anderson of the federal district court of
Indianapolis has enjoined all officials and mem
bers of the United Mine. Workers of America to
abstain from trying "by any and all means"
to unionize the coal field of West Virginia
which has lately been a scene of disorder and
bloodshed. He also enjoined collection of dues
from the mine workers' union by deducting of
same by the operators from the miners' wages
<the "check-off" system). Result: 25.000 soft
coal miners have struck: 350,000 more through
cut the country may strike.
The conference report on the bill which pro
poses a grant of $7">.000,000 in aid to states
toward highway construction, having passed
both houses, has gone to the President.
The American Legion, in convention at
Kansas City, gave its hero-guests a rousing
reception, denounced Col. Harvey's famous
speech and opposition to the soldiers' bonus,
and voted a message of greeting to ex-Presi
dent. Wilson.
Senator Watson has made the most astound
ing charges concerning conduct of officers of
the A. E. F.: Enlisted men hung without trial
and shot down for "insolence:" nurses turned
into courtesans; a frightful list. The Senate
has voted a thorough investigation.
Introducing New Bond Plan j
To American Exporters j
[ SIR DHL iniO\D I)RI MH(iM)
FRASKR,
! "Who Ih in the I %Jted State* to ex
I plain the ter Meulen bond plan for
the restoration of world commerce I
| adopted by the RruM?<'l*_international j
I conference. He wan chonen organizer
| of the plan last March and In in thin
country at the invitation of the Amer- I
icon Banker** Association, to nhow i
American .exporter** how to finance!
their export trade by means of ihe.l
ter 3Ieul??ii bond.
a fixed institution, meeting every
Saturday night and reflecting the
sentiments of the people in a dozen
or more western and southern states,
largely' agricultural. It is not a
movement hostile to the east, al
though some of our states are jealous
of the long-standing predominance
of the east in matters of legislation, j
Thefce senators demand# a "square
deal" for . their constituents. Nor is
the movement political in a party
sense, a recent meeting, for instance,
being attended by nine democrats
and five republicans, with seven re- |
publicans absent, fhe strength of
the "bloc" is about twenty, often 1
twenty-one votes. These senators;
call themselves "progressive," as dis
tinguished from "reactionary"?pre- |
cisely the same alignment which ap- ;
peared on the political horizon in I
1911 and 1912.
The first opportunity for a show of I
strength came when the revenue tax
bill was reported to the Senate. The
main point ot' difference is over the
: reduction of the excess-profits taxes,
the transportation taxes coming next j
in importance. The ' agricultural
"bloc" opposed a reduction of the i
excess profits taxes to 3^ per cent,
provided in the Senate bill, and in-1
sisted on a complete repeal of the ,
transportation taxes, since they tend 1
to maintain high freight rates for the i
farmers.
Political Kffect Discussed.
The political effect of the "agri
cultural bloc" is a topic of lively dis
cussion. Obviously it has an im
i portant bearing on the future of the
controlling party and the next con
gressional election. It presents a
rather embarrasing and complicated
situation, said the senator member, i
involving leadership in the Senate
and party divisions. Th'e former, it
is said, will take care of itself, pro
vided leadership is subordinate to
principles. The latter, however, is a
matter which th? majority party
alone can determine. Division is the
one and only thing the majority ]
leaders fear, it is said, and the course
of the agricultural "bloc" in the Sen
ate, its attitude on important ques
tions, and the skill with which the
old-line leaders meet the situation
will determine the future of the dom
inant party and the political com
plexion *f the next House of Repre
sentatives. Farseeing and wise leaders
are watching developments with no lit-,
tie anxiety.
The political future is pregnant \
with Interesting and important de
velopments. said the senator. The
"agricultural bloc" is a significant
movement and an important factor.
HUGE SUM PROVIDED
FOR BUILDING ROADS
Federal Aid Act Assures That Money Will
Be Used in Creating a National
Highway System.
BV (i. (iOtLD MXCOLX.
CONGHESS has just taken its
most progressive step in the
aid of the establishment of
a network of good roads
over the entire country. The measure
passed by both bodies and sent to the
President for liis approval has been
the subject of long discussion in Con
gress. but it is believed that it will
result in an efficient plan for road
construction.
Incidentally, the passage of this
good roads bill at this time of unem
ployment should help in giving work
to thousands of men looking for jobs.
The bill carries an appropriation of
$75,000,000 to be used in the con
struction. maintenance, etc., of the
roads. Of this sum $25,000,000 is to be
immediately available and $50,000,000
on January 1, 1922. This sum must
be matched by an equal sum supplied
by the states, which would make a
total of $150,000,000 available during
the next few months for road con
struction.
.National Mghna; System.
The'prlncipal benefit which the au
thors of the legislation expect to fol
low its enactment, however, is the
development along sound lines of a
system of interstate roads, fed by
couiWy roads.
The new law provides that before
any state can participate in federal
aid it must lay gut a system of roads
approved by the Secretary of Agri
culture. consisting of not more than
7 pet' cent of the road mileage of the
state. Three-sevenths of that 7 per
cent shall be interstate mileage, con
necting with similar roads in adja
cent states, and four-sevenths inter
county roads, connecting with the
interstate highways.
It was the purpose, in framing the
legislation in this way, to prevent
the use of federal funds In uncorre
cted roads. The flrst federal aid act
?in relation to good roads, carried a
small appropriation, the principal ad
vantage of which wis to stimulate
the interest of the states In the build
ing of good roads. It is charged,
however that this fund came to be
treated as political "pork" in some
states. Roads were constructed with
out regard to terminals of traffic
needs, and with regard only to spend
ing money in places where political
supporters desired it expended.
Fearful of "Pork" Charge*.
The supporters of good road legis
lation have feared that. If something
Vere not done to call a halt to such
practices, good road appropriations
in the future might meet with the
same charges of "pork" which have
been applied to proposed appropria
tions for river and harbor work, and
which have resulted in halting to
some extent the improvement of the
Inland waterways of the country.
The new law will give the Secre
tary of Agriculture far more control
over the selection of the roads to "be
built with federal aid than he ever
had under the old laws. The secre
tary will be called upon to approve
all systems of roads presented to him
by the state highway commissions
before they can be constructed with
the aid of federal funds.
Under the provisions of the bill, 60
per cent of the state's share, of the
federal money, for roads will be ex
pended on interstate roads unttil they
are completed, and with'the consent
of the state highway commission, all
of the money may be^expended upon
these- Interstate roads. This Is the
flrst recognition by the government
of the principle that it is the flrst
duty of the government to assist in
building its Interstate roads.
The Congress also has made every
provision for safeguarding the fed
eral money appropriated for good
roads against waste in the construc
tion and maintenance of durable
types of road. The bill specifically
provides that only such durable types
V
of surface and kinds of material shall
be adopted for construction__and re
construction of any highway which
lis a nart of the primary or interstate
.Ultl secondary or inter-cminty sys
tems as will adequately me~t the ex
isting and probable future needs of
traffic. The Secretary of Agriculture
is called upon to approve the types
of construction adopted.
?nlllntlvr Left ?o Slate*.
Of course, the good roads law will i
function through the aid of the bu
reau of public roads. But the Secre
tary of Agriculture himself is to be
the deciding factor in any contro
versy that may arise. The initiative
is left to the states in the matter of
selecting the systems of highways
which they desire improved first, but
after the state has made the selec
tion, it must be approved by the Sec
retary of Agriculture.
Within sixty days after the passage
of the good roads act, which, by the
way. is to be officially kiiown as the i
"federal highway act." the Secretary |
of Agriculture must certify to the Sec- ,
retary of the Treasury and to each of;
the state highway departments the |
sum he has estimated to be deducted |
for administering the provisions of.
this act. and also the sums he has j
apportioned to each state for the fis- j
cal year ending June 30, 1922.
The apportionment of the federal |
funds to the states is to be made as j
follows: One-third in the ratio which :
the area of the state bears to the |
total area of all the states of the
Union; one-third in the ratio which
the population of the state bears to
the total population of all the states,
and one-third in the ratio which the
mileage of rural delivery routes and
star routes in each state bears to the
total mileage of rural delivery and
star routes in all the states. v
Fairest to All States.
This plan has been considered the
fairest to all states concerned. It is
conceivable that some of the states
will pay Into the fund, through the
taxes levied upon Its people, far niore
than the amounts which these states
will receive for the development of
their roads. The difference will go
to other states of less population, and
perhaps greater area, to aid them in
their road work. But in view of the
.fact that the expenditures are to be
j made especially to bring about the
I construction of a national system of
J highways, connecting all the states.
I there will be no objection on this
I count, it is said.
| NChe continued activity of the coun
try in road construction is of the
highest importance to the people gen
erally, it is held. The development of
the highways will of course, aid in
the development of industry and
commerce. It will reduce the cost of
transportation In many instances,
when the cost of transportation, it is
generally conceded, must come down
if the country is to prosper. The con
struction of these interstate and inter
county roads also will lessen the
dangers from possible railroad paraly
sis, In the event of a great strike of
the railroad employes. It will en
courage the people to return to the
farms?and they need encourage
ment?by making the farms more ac
cessible and attractive, not to men
tion more valuable.
Tollcatrs Forbidden.
&(pne of the roads constructed with
the aid of federal funds shall be
"toll" roads, the new law provides.
These roads must have a right of
way ample width, and a wearing sur
face Of ample width, too, which shall
be not less than eighteen feet, unless,
in the opinion of the Secretary of
Agriculture, a less width will answer
the purpose. It is made imperative
that the states shall maintain the
roads constructed with federal aid
in good repair. If any state fails
to maintain the roads as provided,
then the Secretary of the Treasury
is authorized to serve notice upon
the state highway department that
the roads must be repaired, and if
ths repairs are not made in ninety
To Be in Charge of Army
Ceremonies at Arlington
BRIG. VEX. HARRY HILL BAND
HOLTZ.
Commander of the military district of
Washington, D. ('.? who will be in
charge of the purely military cere
monies* at the burial of the "unknown
?ofdter" in Arlington national ceme
tery Armixtice day, November 11.
days, then he is authorized to go
ahead and have the repairs made
himself ?id charged against the al
lotment of the federal funds made
to the state. Furthermore, the sec
retary is directed not to approve any
further road construction in the state
in question until the state shall have
reimbursed the federal government
for the work of repair.
One provision of the bfll "which
should be of great benefit to those
who travel over the roads calls upon
tTie Secrefury of Agriculture, within
two years, to have prepared, publish
and. distribute a map showing the
highways and forest roads that have
been approved as part of the system
which is to receive the federal aid,
and to publish supplementary maps
annually showing the progress made
in construction.
University of CMcasro Man to Di
rect Work in This Country
and Abroad.
Harry Pratt Judson, president oC
the University of Chicago, will head
the American University Union in
Europe for the coming year, accord
ing to a statement of the boa/d of
trustees yesterday announcing his
election as chairman. Dr. Judson will
direct in this country and abroad the
work of the union, which represents
the united effort of fifty leading
American colleges and universities.
President John Grier Hlbben of
Princeton was chosen vice chairman
of the board. Other officers elected
were: Secretary. Prof. John W. Cun
liffe, director of the School of Journal
ism on the Pulitzer Foundation of
Columbia University, and treasurer.
Henry B. Thompson, Princeton. These
officers, with President A. Lawrence
Lowell of Harvard. President W. A.
Shanklin-of-Wesleyan and Dr. Anson
Phelps Stokes of Yale will constitute
the administrative board of the
American University Union.
President Harding, it was announc
ed by the trustees, has accepted their
invitation to become a patron of the
union. Similar acceptances. the
board's announcement said, had been
received from Viscount James Bryce,
Alexandre Millerand. Brand Whitlock,
Col. George Harvey. Richard Wash
burn Child and Robert Underwood |
V
HARD WORK NEEDED
TO WIN LATIN TRADE
American Exporters Are Represented as
Either Too Optimistic or Too
Easily Discouraged.
BV BEX McKELWAV.
ASK the man on the street for
his views on foreign . trade
and in many cases he will re
ply by stating his interest or
otherwise in Latin America. So well
and so steadily has Latin America
been advertised in the United States
as the happy hunting ground for the I
American exporter that the mention j
of "foreign trade" brings to the lay J
mind the picture of a South .America I
the streets ofMier cities paved .with J
golden cobblestones which await j
the languidly swung pick of the first j
American who comes along. j
The booming business years just ;
passed helped to root deeper this im
pression. and now that they are replac
ed by hard times American business
men are learning through bitter ex
perience that while Latin America does
represent a market, it is a market to
be cultivated only with the greatest j
pains and care and under expert
Kuidance. Many undercapitalized i
concerns which attempted to engage
in foreign trade without previous ex-j
perlence are dropping out of the race, J
and their disappearance has preju- ;
diced many against foreign trade in
general and Latin American trade in
particular. Many old and established p
firms with records of many years of 1
honest and successful dealing in !
South America are said to be actually
embarrassed by the present attitude ;
of many of our manufacturers and
financial institutions on foreign trade.
* * * *
However bad conditions In Latin
America may be now. the future
holds promise for those who weather
the storm. And with business slow
and competition keen, those Ameri
cans who wish to take advantage of
the future must get firmly establish
ed no the ground floor or prepare for
the consequencies. ?
With this idea in view, the bureau
of foreign and domestic commerce is*
going about a carefully planned pro- i
gram of education?largely an educa
tion of disillusionment. It is telling
the American business man that while i
there is an excellent market in South
America for the right thing lo sell,
it is no market for the amateur in
foreign trade, and it is a market with
own peculiar problems to be solved
only by earnest application and care
ful study.
Under the able direction of Dr.
Julius Klein, a man who has travel
ed widely and studied at first-hand
the problems of Latin American
trade, the bureau is driving home the
lesson that many of the high-sound
ing and fanciful ideas in regard to
our commercial relations with Latin
America must be substituted with
cold, hard business sense.
For instance, th# much-heralded
"understanding" of the Latin Ameri
can, his customs and his language
?has been so overrated that the casual
j business man who intends to develop
a Latin American trade believes the
sole requisite of a good representa
tive is a knowledge of Spanish and
how to act at a bullfight. The Latin
American is a good business man. A
dealer's fluency in Spanish or Portu
guese does not impress him salf so
much as arguments for his goods
or the worth of the wares them
selves.
* * # *
Another misconception of Latin
American trade lies in the belief that
the American business man must
sell American ideas so camouflaged
that the South American will come
to think of them as his own. There
is no reason, it is pointed out,' why
the South American should not be
educated in American ways, instead
of changing American methods to
suit the South American client,
wrongly pictured as conservative.
The bureau is endeavoring to
spread the knowledge of actual con
ditions in South America among
American business men. and it is
building up a service of advice and
information which should prove of
great value to those who know how
to use it.
According to Dr. L S. Rowe. di
rector general of the Pan-American
Union, one' is impressed with the
ignorance in this country in regard
to the work of the bureau as well
as with the magnitude of the service
It renders to the country. He points
out the important service the bu
reau is performing for Latin America
In addition to its service to this
country.
Through its commercial attaches
in Buenos Aires. Santiago. Havana
Lima. Mexico City and Rio de Janeiro,
the bureau secures timely informa
tion on general economic conditions,
whiclr are reported by cable. Through
its technical commodity experts it
helps American exporters to find spe
cific trade opportunities in Latin
America and helps Latin American
exporters find a market in this coun
try.
* * * *
The Pan American Union. Dr. Rowa
states, has become the great center
and clearing house of commercial and
technical information for the repub
lics of Latin America. It is to the
Pan American Union the ritiaens of
these countries look for accurate in
formation of the industrial activities
of the United States. Every mail
brings hundreds of inquiries from
every section of the continent re
questing information as to the person
or firms to which the inquirers should
Johnson, secretary of the American
Academy of Arts and Letters.
Foreign diplomats In this country
will also be among the patrons of the
union, which yesterday made public
a plan to enlist the co-operation of
other organizations in promoting a
general movement of international
education. They Include M. J. J.
Jusserand, French ambassador; Baron
de Cartier de Marchienne, Belgian
ambassador, and Senator Rolando
Ricci, Italian ambassador. J. Destree',
Belgian minister of education, Brus
sels. and H. A. L. Fisher, president of
the Board of Education. London, are
others who have accepted the trustees'
invitations to" become patrons.
? Secretary Currllffe made public the
annual report of the director of the
London office, showing an Increase in
registratioh last year from 6JS to
1,133 over the' preceding year. The
number of applications from teachers
and students for posts or exchanges
was 228, of whom ninety-six -were
women. The registration in the Paris
office was almost double that of the
previous year, reaching a total well
over 500 in French universities. Prof.
Paul Van Dyke of Princeton Is now
directing the continental division of
the union, and he reports from Paris
increasing-interest in French-Amer
ican educational affiliations' on the
part of the officials of both the gov
ernment and the universities.
SELECTED TO REPRESENT
GOVERNOR OF TENNESSEE
Wade H. Cooper, president of the
United States Savings Bank, will rep
resent Uov. A. A. Taylor of Temies
i see at the burial'of the unknown sol
I dier at Arlington on Armistice day.
ia.s well as at the laying of the corner
stone of the Victory Memorial build
ing. November 14. according to in
structions .wired him by the Tennes
see official yesterday.
Mr. Cooper Is in receipt of the fol
lowing telegram from Gov. Taylor:
"I have wired Secretary Weeks that
you would represent >he and occupy
reserved box septs fof me at Ar
lington national cemetery November
11. and at the laying of the cqrner
stone of the national Victory Memorial
building November 14."
direct themselves in order to secure
certain classes of merchandise. In
answering these Inquiries the Pan
American t'nion h*s not only con
stant recourse to the publications
of -vVtfvtatr, hut is in frequent con
sultation with its personnel.
Information of conditions in the Unit
ed States, secured by the bureau of for
eign and flomestic commerce, is con
tained in "ihe Portuguese un<f Spanish
editions oi the Pan American Union
Bulletin, i?ued each month, which goes
to every cfuntry of South America.
This in/f>rmatioii circulated in Cen
tral and South America gives rise to
further inquiries from readers of tin*
Bulletin with reference to some psytie
ular commodity in which they are in
terested.
This co-op??ration between the Pan
American Union and t|ie bureau of for
eign and domestic oomm^rce is d.oing
much to su]?ply the infohnation and
practical understanding so necessary for
greater development of trade between
this country and f^atiu America.
? * ? ?
Dr. Aaron Benchetrit. a leading phy
sician of YenezTTHa. in charge of the
care and treatment of the 9,000 lepers in
that country, passed through Washing
ton last we^k on his way to Honolulu
to observe the experiments under way
there for treatment of leprosy with rhal
, inoogra oil. said to have been very suc
cessful. Dr. Benchetrit intends to tail
back nuts from the chalmoogra tree for
transplants g in Venezuela. The nuts
have been brought from India and tic
| tree grown successfully in Honolulu.
Ecuador lias passed an industrial
protection law. under which machin
ery and raw material may be brought
into that country free of duty and
capital invested free from taxation.
The legislation indicates the desire
on the part of Ecuador for foreign
capital to create industry?a desire
wiiich is common in South and Cen
tral America.
Dr. Rafael H. Elizalde, Ecuador's
minister here, declares "the most seri
ous obstacle to the commercial devel
opment between the United States and
the South American republics is the
lack of confidence felt by the money
ed men of this country toward invest
ing capital in South America.
I "That distrust," lie states., "is not
[justified by experience. T do not know
ia judicious investment made by capi
I talists of the United States in Spanish
America that has resulted disastrous
ly. By judicious I exclude prepos
terous enterprises, and. the greatest of
{all risks to foreign capitalists, mixing
j in internal politics."
ip. %
Expressing the hope and confidence
felt by Latin America in the coming
conference on the limitation of arma
ment, Senor Jacobo Yarela. Uru
guayan minister to the United States,
addressing Secretary of State Hughes
at the meeting of the governing board
j of the Pan American L'nion last week,
said the "success in the policies, prin- *
? ciples and ideals of the United States
j of America-means security and prog
J ress to all American brothers, if the
j standards of your country remain in
J the future as in the past."
j Senor Yarela, speaking for other
; members of the governing board, con
; gratulated Secretary Hushes 011 the
I way in which the program for the
coming conference has been handled.
J and expressed confidence in the men
* President Harding chose as American
i delegates. The meeting of the board
I last week was the first since June.
! ' * * *''?* t
? Interest is felt here in the planned
I pan-American conference of women.
J to be held in Baltimore next April. In
. connection with the third annual con
I vention of the National League of
J Women Voters. This is the first pan
J American conference of women ever
t called. Its purpose is announced as
j an effort to promote understanding
j and friendly relations between the
I women of South America. Central
j America, Mexico and the United
J States and Canada. Secretary Huehe*
j and Secretary Hoover and Dr. L. S.
, Rowe. d?rector general of the f'an
I American Union have co-operatcM
I with the Rational League of Women
| Voters in planning for the confer
5 ence. ,
I Through the Slate Department, tnvi
i tations have been forwarded to the
.- various Latin American governments
! to select women as delegates to the
j conference. While the invitations are
not official, the plan is said to have
received the sanction and approval
of administrative officials, who view
with favor conferences of this char
acter.
* * * *
Permanent officers for the Gorgas
Memorial Institute for the study of
tropical diseases elected at a recent
meeting in Philadelphia are: Rear
Admiral William C- Braisted, presi
dent; Dr. Franklin II. Martin. Phila
delphia. vice president; A. F. Robbins.
Chicago, executive secretary; Edward
J. Stellwagen, Washington, treasurer,
and Edson B. Olds, Washington, as
sistant treasurer.
The question of raising fund.s for
the maintenance of the institution
was discussed and plans already for
mulated were adopted for soliciting
from scientific and philanthropic or
ganizations and from individuals.
Election of permanent officers for
the institution constituted the lira!
step in establishment of the
memorial. The government of
Panama has donated the building and
part of the equipment. Actual work is
expected to begin within a short time.
EUROPE AN ARMED CAMP.
(Continued from First Page.)'*
and Rumania one of 206,000. more
than the ex-belligerent states of
the German group.
We can understand Rumania's
and Poland's fear of bolshevist
Russia, but what reason has Jugo
slavia for maintaining an army
proportionately more numerous
than that of any state before the
war?
Poland and Greece have been the
i two spoiled children of the en
tente. Mr. Lloyd George has
| rightly said that Poland owes her
] existence to no effort of her own.
! l)ut to the joint efforts of ail lliu
| allies. Everything has been
I granted to Grvecc. even the most
j absurd concessions. Now thepe
, two countries have launched on
such mad adventures that, their
two armies amount to, at least.
900,000 men. namely, much mort
than the total of the German army
before the war. \
? * * *
What is the object of all this
military effort and display if the
states of the ex-central empires
are do longer in a condition to
wage war against any other state,
and, on the contrary, are obliged
to submit to the most absurd and
vexatious impositions, even those
which .are not contained in the
treaties?
Ih this question lies the loss of
equilibrium so evident in the pres
ent European situation. Great
Britain stands aloof, and the fluc
tuations of the exchange on every
market in. Europe indicate the
greatest confusion both in produc
tion and ip the raoney market.
Europe vainly seeks for a way
out of her difficulties, and will not
find it until a spirit of peace shall
replace the spirit of wag. Only
then will production resume its
normal forms, across a series of
crises. But at.least ten years must
go by before this is achieved, even
if a spirit of wisdom will sfiTne
more freely orr ttte 'minds and souls
darkened toy violence, and poisoned
by hate.
(Copyright. 1921.)

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