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The Associated Press Is exclusively entitled to tlie use lor republication of all news dispatches credited to it or not othei%ise credited in this paper and also the local news published herein. All rights of publication of special dispatches herein are also reserved. Saturday's Net Circulation, 88,229 Sunday's Net Circulation, 91,040 * TWO CENTS. Closing New York Stocks, Page 21. Vn 9ft -177 Entered as second-clasa matter O. ?0,:t i I. post office Washington, D. C. WEATHER. Rain this afternoon and tonight, probably clearing tomorrow morning; warmer tonight. Cooler tomorrow afternoon and night. Temperature for twenty-four hours ended at 2. p.m. today: Highest, 69, at 2 p.m. today; lowest 66, at 3 a.m. today. WITH SUNDAY MOBHING EDITIQK WASHINGTON, D. C., MONDAY, APRIL 17, 1922-TWENTY-EIGHT PAGES. President Scores Slackers in Homes and at Polls in . Opening Speech. SEES DEMOCRACY LOSING TO SOCIALISTS' MOB RULE Truth, Fearlessness and Faith in God Urged to Combat Present Evils. MRS. GEORGE MA WARD MI* OH, President general. Warning: that a false democracy 1s seeking to "overturn our repre sentative form of government and to replace It with mob rule," was sounded by Mrs. George Maynard Minor, president general of the Daughters of the American Revolu tion. In her address today formally opening the Thirty-first Annual Con tinental Congress of the Society. D. A. R. Hall Crowded. The conference was assembled promptly at 10:30 o'clock by a bugle call by Arthur S. Witcomb of the United States Marine Band. Immedi ately afterward, amid rounds of al- i most deafening applause. Mrs. Minor I and the national officers, escorted by I 141 white-clad pages, entered the hall and marched to the platform. Mrs Minor was at the end of the procession and carried a beautiful bouquet of retl roses. Virtually every seat In the large auditorium was filled with ine 2,700 accredited delegates and alternates when the congress was. called to order by the president general. The crowd Eew constantly and by the time Mrs. I nor had completed her address many were standing In the gallery, despite the fact that for the first time In history the general public was barred from the opening session. Boxes over the stage were occupied by the former national officers of the society and Invited guests. The na tional officers had seats on the plat form. Mrs. Minor appealed to the mem bers, "as guardians of the pure fire of patriotism and love of native land," to prevent the ascendancy of such a spirit and charged them that It was their "most sacred duty" to concern themselves with these dangers and to promote true internationalism 'through which the nations are bound together In the bonds of mutual faith and trust while preserving their na tional identity." She characterized the danger as being "the false democ racy of the socialist and communist." "It Is the more Insidious because It masquerades as true democracy, de ceiving the people," declared Mrs. Minor. "It masquerades also as 'industrial democracy," founded on groups, industries, trades and classes aa the political unit. Instead of on geographic districts or numerical divisions of the whole people, regard less of class or occupation. Bloe Control Seored. "This false industrial democracy leads to group or class legislation, ?bloc' control of government, and the dictation of powerful minorities. It holds the seeds of true democracy's death. "There's is likewise a false inter nationalism which seeks democracy's death. This is the socialistic inter- ; nationalism, which aims to obliterate all nationalities and differences of race; which mocks at patriotism and. love of country and violates man's most sacred Instincts In the name of universal brotherhood." Mrs. Minor asserted that our democracy is assailed b>* yet another danger?the slacker vote, both male and female. "There are startling statistics re vealed by the last census," she said, "which show that millions of eligible voters in this country are too Indif ferent to go to the polls. Out of 54. %421 832 eligible voters. 37,763.966 did not' take the trouble to cast their vote, over one-half of our electorate. In other words, failed In this most sacred duty of citizenship, and of this failure the w?men must bear their full share of responsibility. Is It any won der that politics are corrupt, that self ish and cowardly men are In office all over this country for what they can get out of It? How many dare not do the right thing for fear of losing votes? Is it any wonder that we face the disheartening spectacle of political cowards cringing under the whip of powerful groups demanding legisla tion under threat of loss of votes If It Is refused? This political fear In high places Is the curse of our coun try, but whose fault Is It? 37,000*000 Sinkers. "If 37.000.000 voters care so ltttlo who govern them that they voluntar ily renounce the priceless privilege of self-governing mankind, they have the kind of rulers they deserve. What shall be the end of our democracy If our citizens are so careless of this great duty and moral obligation of the bal lot? . , , "The process of free democracy is loyal. Intelligent service In the pri maries and at the polls. Put up clean, honest, fearless men for office and then go and vote for them. Clearly this Is vour duty and privilege: loyalty to the home and country demands It." Another Insidious danger which "as sails the very heart of our democ racy." Mrs. Minor described as "the slacksr home." "It Is said that the American home Is 'coins Into the discard."" said Mrs. Minor. "Must this flippant expression he regarded as truly stating the case? >r? we American women no longer (Continued on Page S. Column 6.) STILL-TO-JAIL SPEED OF 150 MINUTES IS NEW WORLD RECORD What wai regarded by officials as the world record time for moonshiners between the still and the jail?two and a half hours? was reported today to prohibition headquarters. On Saturday at 3:30 p.m., offi cials said, Charles R. Carrlck was arrested near Capitol Heights, Md.. 750 gallons mash and two stills seized. By 6 o'clock. It was said, he was on his way to Jessups Cut Jail, having been sentenced to six months by Judge Moft'ett at Hy attsville. Supreme Tribunal Holds Sen tences to Occoquan Be yond Scope. The United States Supreme Court today affirmed a decision of the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia to the effect that the Ju venile Court of the District cannot sentence to hard labor at Occoquan and held that hard labor is an in famous punishment, and that a per son cannot be sentenced without being indicted by a grand Jury. The decision was read by Mr. Jus tice McKenna. The Chief Justice. Mr. Justice Holmes and Mr. Justice Brandeis dissented, while Mr. Justice Clarke took no part In the case. Punishment* Severable. In concluding his Opinion, affirm ing the decision of the lower courts, Mr. Justice McKenna said: "The ultimate contention of the United States Is that the provisions of the act of March 23, 1906, for pun ishment by fine or improsonment are severable and that, therefore, it was error in the court of appeals In hold ing the act unconstitutional and in directing the dismissal of the case, instead of turning it back for fur ther proceeding. "The contention Is untenable; it Is what sentence can be imposed under the law, not what was imposed, that Is the material consideration. When an accused is In danger of an In famous punishment if convicted he has a right to insist that he be not put upon trial except on the accusa tion of a grand Jury." Settles Non-Support Case. The decision was in the case of the United States vs. Charles Walter Moreland, charged with non-support of his two minor children. The effect I of the decision, according to Foster | Wood, Attorney for Moreland, Is that the Juvenile Court of the District has no jurisdiction in non-support cases, either as to fine or imprisonment, and that the cases will have to be brought In the District Supreme Court for in dictment by a grand jury. It has the further effect, Mr. Wood said today, of any cases in which the court may impose imprisonment at hard labor of Indicting them by a grand jury and the Police Court of the District of Columbia will not have jurisdiction over any of those cases In which the Imprisonment may I be at Occoquan at hard labor. ONCE PROUDEST WARSHIP OFF TO DOOM AS TARGET Iowa to Face Atlantic Fleet in Badio and Gun Tests Off 1 Cape Henry. PHILADELPHIA, April 17.?'The battleship Iowa, once the pride of the United States Navy, left the Phila delphia navy yard today for Cape Henry, where she will be used as a target for the Atlantic fleet In a series of radio and gun experiments. For two years the Iowa has been used as a radio experimental craft, with her sister ship, the Ohio, as the control vessel. In the approach ing tests off Cape Henry the Iowa, controlled solely by radio, will at tempt to run the gantlet of the At lantic fleet, now on its way from Guantanamo, Cuba. Besides the radio experiments, the sinking uf the ship will afford an opportunity to test the armor-piercing qualities of the largest projectiles and guns with which the modern battleships are equipped. The control of the vessel has been transferred from the Ohio, which also will be sunk, to the destroyer Dlckerson. SHOE MACHINERY SlilT DECIDED IN FAVOR OF U. S. Supreme Court Affirms Ruling tor Injunction in Patent Disputes. The government today won the Supreme Court case brought by the United Shoe Machinery Corporation and others to have set aside the re straining order prohibiting them from using certain lease clauses in their contracts for the rental of patented machinery. The Supreme Court affirmed the de cree of the United States district court at St. Louis, which enjoined the corporation, under the Clayton The lower federal court prohibited the corporation from compelling, by lease agreements, the exclusive use of its machines, and from enforcing an alternative royalty clause, found to be prohibitive, upon all footwear manufactured In factories where machines of competitors were also used. It also held Invalid the agree ment by which tbe corporation re quired those using its machines to purchase supplies of It. APPROVES BURKE STATUE. Under unanimous consent the Hous* today passed the bill favorably re ported from the committee on the library, which would authorise erec tion of a statue of Edmund Burke, on public grounds in the District of Co lumbia, which Is a gift to the people of the United States by .the Sulgrave Institution of New Tork, London and Canada, whose- purpose is the promo tion of good will among English speaking races. The President of the United States Is honorary head of the Institution, and former Senator Root Is also an honorary member. This Institution has presented statues of Abraham Lincoln, George Washington and other prominent Americans, to muni cipalities In Great Britain and statues of leading British statesmen to the United States, PHYSICAL TRAINING IS DECLARED VITAL PART OF EDUCATION Playgrounds Regarded Indis pensable to Children by Virginia Educator. HEALTHY BODY NEEDED TO BACK UP MENTALITY Would Install Gymnasiums in All Schools as Best Step Toward Proper Development. Playgrounds are Indispensable in order to round out the education of children and fit them physically to go out In the world and apply with vigor their mental training, accord ing fo Harris Hart, superintendent of public instruction of the state of Vir ginia. He said that playgrounds should be provided in the congested sections especially. He expressed the belief before the joint congressional committee on I schools that it would not be difficult for Congress to provide sufficient playgrounds as a part of each slx teen-room building accommodating from 480 to 600 students. "If you have a unit of a slxteen-room building you are going to accommodate in that building anywhere from 4S0 to 600 students." he said. "That Is a group of students that I would say, in Wash ington. is geographically sufficiently well centered for no student to have a long distance to go to school. It Is a group that Is not so large that It will be beyond the ordinary task of the public to supply large enough playgrounds to take care of a crowd of students of that size. You have a building large enough to accom modate 1,000 or 1,200 or 1,500 students, and it is a question of a whole square, maybe a square and a half, for the building and for the playground. I'rtM Gymnasiums. "What I mean by 'adequate play giounds' is about this: First of all. a gymnasium, one that will accommo date classes for gymnastic exercises and physical training, so that in four or five groups during the day you could reach all the children that should be taken into those classes, reserving the kindergarten and first primary students probably for phys ical exercises (n their own rooms. Then, out in the yard you would have space enough. I should say. in half | a block to give those children room for such games as In the early fall or In the spring of the year might be indulged In under proper supervision. 1 would think it ought not to be too strictly supervised. I do not think it should have the life supervised out of It. I mean that with a group of about 500 students you could take a school lot of about a square and you could take ample care of them. It may be in many places half a square would be fcufllclent "I think in the last few year*," Mr, Hart continued, "people generally have somewhat changed their atti tude toward physical education. I am not sure that five or six years ago physical education was regarded by some people as a frill. I regard phys ical education as nothing more or less than a part and parcel of the ed ucational process. I look upon phys ical education as being Just about the same as what we commonly call men tal education. Iasarance Policy. "The purpose of the whole job ia to develop not merely citizens who can think with the mind, but who can put their whole body and energy to the ?ervice of the state, and the proper type of physical education Is a sort of insurance policy which they take out to guarantee they are going to get a proper return on the money In vested In mental training. It depends on your starting point. I feel that the publio school situation Is probably one that sometimes invites entirely too much work?some things that may be called frills?but I do not believe a proper conception of public education would permit physical edu cation to be classified as a frill. I suspect that that idea has come down from a' long, long tradition. "We had a notion once, I think, that you could take a boy and chop him up into three more or less airtight com ponents, calling one moral, one physi cal and one mental. We had a pretty distinct Idea that you could develop one regardless of the other, somewhat like the very ancient monks who felt the best way to sanctify the spirit was to persecute the body. But I think we are getting away from that conception, where our education, physical and mental, Is regarded as a unit, and It is from that conception that I would think adequate play grounds and adequate physical train ing facilities are necessary." CONFER ON DISTRICT BILL The conferees on the District appro priation' bill still have to complete consideration of the proposed Items for Increasing the water supply and for additions to the parks, and also the Jones rider dealing with the fis cal relations of the District and the federal governments. It was said, fol lowing a meeting this morning. The conferees are to meet again this afternoon, and it Is the hope of Chair man Phlpps that a report may be made within the next few days. Adamson's Adventures A new series of comic pictures, unique, origi nal and funny. This is the. first time this serv ice has been seen In America. It was originated by O. Jacobs son, the famous Swedish car toonist. Starts Today THE STAR Page 24 ' EASTER EGG ROLLING. Merry Young Egg Rollers Throng White House Lawns Bringing bright eggs In baskets, and brighter smiles, several thou sand Washington children today flocked to the White House grounds for the annual Easter Monday egg roiling festivities, as the guests of President and Mrs. Harding. The spirit of spring and youth was everywhere, despite the threatening clouds.1- as the children rolled their eggs on the knolls to the south of the executive mansion, at the same time keeping an eye on the south portico, upon which the President and Mrs. Harding were expected to appear. Mrs. Harding appeared on the south portico shortly before 1 o'clock and waved a greeting to the crowd of children, who waved their hands In reply. A little while afterward she was followed by the President himself nnd the happiness of the youngsters was complete. Wives of members of the cabinet and other officials watch ed the festivities from the portico. \ LaUlc Bey ma Esltrtaiwr. Laddie Boy, the President's alre entertained the crowd of children asd their elders during the morning. Laddie Soy made his appearance early,1 breaking away from the "master of hounds" shortly before 11 o'clock, when the gayly-dressed children had begun to arrive by the hundreds. Down the south portico steps Lad die Boy dashed, his tail wagging: at anticipation of meeting so many of his little friends. Boys and girls, men and women, crowded around him at once, hundreds of hands at tempting to pat his head or stroke his coat, until the dog was nearly smothered. "Let me pet you, Laddie Boy," shouted eager voices, as boys and girls came running from all parts of the grounds. But Laddie Boy evidently had enough, for he broke away and raced up the steps at a lively rate. Once on the portico, the man who had him i In charge put him through his vari i ous tricks. His "Crowning Feat.** The airedale mounted a wicker ta ble, after much scrambling, from which point of vantage he surveyed the crowd, kept,back by the park po j lice, members of which corps policed the grounds today. Then Laddie Boy gave an ezhibltibn of handshaking, which was greeted with tremendous applause from the crowd. Laddie Boy's crowning feat, how ever, was a demonstration of his abil ity to bark, his utterings being (Continued on Page 2, Column 2.) Committee Told General Was on Way to Confer With Grand Duke. Suggestion that Gen. Semenoff, now in jail in New York, was en route td Parli for the purpose of meeting Grand Duke Nicholas to plan a coun ter revolution against the soviet regime In Russia was made by Im migration Inspector Zurbrick at Van couver, in a report to the immigra tion bureau, following his examina tion of the Russian officer. The report of the inspector, laid before the Senate labor committee today by Commissioner General of immigration Husband, stated that ad mission of the anti-bolshevik leader to the United States was the only oourse the Immigration authorities could have pursued unless he had been "arbitrarily debarred." / Subpoenaed to appear at 10 o'clock today before the committee, Boris Bakhmeteff, the last accredited Rus sian ambassador to the United States, still was at Charleston, S. C? where he went to spend the Easter holidays. The State Department Is understood to be preparing to call the attention of the Senate labor committee to the usual diplomatic immunity of for eign ambassadors in connection with the committee's subpoena. To Stay la Charleston. Attaches at the Russian embassy, when the hour designated In the subpoena issued late Saturday by Chairman Borah of the committee and telegraphed to the ambassador Satur day arrived, said the ambassador not only was still a.t Charleston, but would remain there as he had planned until the middle of the week.; They professed to have no Information as to whether Mr. Bakhmeteff planned to take advantage of the Immunity granted under law ard international usage to diplomatic officials. - Pursuing its inquiry, the Senate committee today heard Commissioner General Husband of Immigration as to the circumstanoes surrounding Gen.. Semenoff's admission into the United States. The commissioner re^d a con fidential circular sent, he said, to all j ports of entry January 24, warning i that the anti-bolshevik leader was; reported to be headed towaid Amer ica. The circular, ordered to be han dled "without undue publicity,1"? sug-! rested that War Department intelli gence records showed that possibly' "Questioning" of the general "may de- i velop ground*' for exoludirir him. Aeeased of Crimes. The ^circular said that Semenoff was accused in the intelligence records of "wholesale crimes, murder and ban ditry." and that his career had been "checkered," and quoted an Asso ciated Press dispatch to the effect that he was traveling under the name Qf "ff. Victorol." v The Immigration commissioner as (Continued on Page 2. Column ?.) BUREAU ISSUE SOON 10 BE CLEARED UP Plate Printers Indorse Presi dent and Tell of In efficiencies. ? The bureau of engraving and printing situation Is progressing "very satisfactorily," and the public will before long be assured that the action of President Harding in making recent sweeping changes was justified, it was said today by Repre sentative McFadden, republican, of Pennsylvania, chairman of the bank ing and currency committee, after a conference with the President at the j White House. While there could be no more defi nite announcement at the present j time, it was said, the public might expect sometime in the near future definite developments which would preclude criticism of the administra tion. Representative McFadden, who is understood to have been deeply in terested in the bureau and conver sant with its affairs, seemed greatly pleased with his conference with the Preslden, intimating that the bureau situation, which has been sensitive for some time, will very shortly be en tirely settled. Workme* Approve Action. The International Plate Printers and Die Stampers' Union of North America, including many workmen at the bureau of engraving and print ing, has Indorsed the action of Presi dent Harding' through the unioii's official organ, the Plate Printer. Charges that the output of the bureau had become so low of stand ard as to be ^asy to counterfeit, "were made by the Plate Printer, which declared the country was flood ed with counterfeit money and se curities. The President was thorough ly justified in making the change, it was" said, although the Integrity of the officials discharged from the bureau was asserted to be "beyond reproach." At the Treasury this morning , it was intimated in official circles that while there were counterfeit paper* circulating, without a doubt, the gov ernment "would never go bankrupt on their account." Deputy Assistant Treasurer Tate, chairman of the special committee taking an Inventory at the bureau of engraving in connection with the change in management, said today that his committee expected to com plete the actual work at the bureau either today or tomorrow. Good progress had been made, said Mr. Tate, and the report of the commit-, tee would be completed'as soon as possible after conclusion of the count. One copy of the report will be sent to the, Secretary of the Treasury, through Assistant Secretary Wads worth. in charge of the bureau, it was said, and another copy will be sent to the Department of Justice, whose agents are working in conjunction with the Treasury oommlttee. No part of the report will be made pub (Continued on Page 2. Column ,1.) ? ? 7 KILLED, 35 HURT IN TORNADO'S PATH Terrific Windstorm Plays Havoc Around Cen tralia, III. By the Associated Press. CENTRALIA, 111., April 17.?Re ports received here state that seven persons were killed and about thirty five injured, some seriously, in the tornado which struck this section early today. One woman was re ported killed instantly at Lake Cen tralia, ten miles north of here. One baby was killed and two per sons are in St. Mary's Hospital here in a critical condition as the result of the tornado which struck Irving ton. south of here, about miinight last night, hospital attendant^ re ported today. A number o| other injured persons remained in Irrington. INDIANAPOLIS^ Ind.. April 17.? Westbound passenger train No. 43 of the Big Pour railroad was because of a washout near Foster. Ind., early today, reports received by the Indianapolis dispatcher's office today said. Harvey Watts of In dianapolis, fireman of the train, was Injured, but not seriously. 4 newbDsunes ASKJpSES Nearly Every Section of Dis trict Touched by Routes Proposed. Applications for four new bus lines with routes extending Into nearly every section of the District were tiled today with the Public Utilities Commission. Three of the lines are to be operated by two men from Jersey City, N. J? William Cathcart' and Albert David, who told the commission in their ap plications they wish to start business with between twelve and eighteen busses. The fourth route is to be run by Paul C. Robinson. In all four cases the applicants ask for a straight eight-cent fare. Cath cart and David say they are prepared to begin operations within sixty days from issuance of their permits, while Robinson is ready to begin immedi ately. 'I-argrat Baa Expansion. If these applications are granted by the commission it will mark the largest single addition yet' made to bus facilities In the National Capital. Here is a summary of the four appli cations: William Cathcart, to operate from fcur to six busses on a five-minute headway over the following route? From Union station on Massachusetts avenue to 7 th street northwest, through Mount Vernon square to Massachusetts avenue again and west ] to 33rd and Q streets. The Washington Rapid Transit Company, now operating on 16th street and New Hampshire avenue, has obtained a permit to start a new line over substantially the same route proposed by Mr. Cathcart, but so far the commission has made no rule against more than one company oper atl"*, over the same street. William Cathcart, to operate fnom Jour to six busses on a five-minute headway from I9th and Calvert streets, south on 18th to K street, east on K street to l?th, south on 10th to F. looping at 10th and E streets for the return trip. Nwtkeut to Soathweat. Albert David, to operate from four to six busses from 15th street and Maryland avenue northeast, on Mary land avenue to 2n<l street, northeast, on 2nd to* B street southeast on B street to 14th street southwest, on 14th to B street northwest, on B street to 17th street, on 17th to E street, on E street to 20th, on 20th to B and return. , Paul C. Robinson, to operate one bus from 8th street and Pennsylvania avenue northwest to Suitland, Md., by way of Pennsylvania avenue. The three routes picked out by Messrs Cathcart and David pass through neighborhoods, served both by the Capital Traction and the Wash ington Railway and Electric Com panies. They do not follow the car tracks except at Intervals. j ? ? ; ? ; * ' ' "Ducking Days" Mar "Glad" Easter Outfits In Mining Community HAZLETOV, Pa.. April 17.? MDveklnf days" started today inoif the foreign-speaking; miners of the anthracite eoal fields and will afford considera ble sport as a relief from the monotony of thr suspension. The custom prevails among the Lithuanians, Poles, Gallclan Slavs, Russians and Rumanians nnd la generally observed as an Kaster event. On Easter Monday the men have the right to throw water by bucketful on the women and girls. Tomorrow the women will enjoy the privilege of do ing likewise with the men aad boys. "First" and "second" Easter are celebrated as holi days among the forelga-speak ing element, and the practice Is to wear their best clothesj hence the adldtlonal fun In "dousing" to spoil either a new dress or suit, as the ease may be. The ducking usually Is taken good naturedly by those caught off their guard. FRANCE NOT UKELY TO ^PROSECUTED Senate Jealous of Rights. Many Precedents Seen for Lloyd George Cable. BY DAVID LAWRENCE. Can a United States senator com municate with a foreign government direct and without resort to the usual channels of diplomacy through the President and Secretary of State? Formal charges have been filed against Senator Joseph France of Maryland for doing so, on the ground that he has violated a statute as an cient as 1789. The case has many interesting angles to It and turns largely upon the meaning of the words "United States government." That is a historic controversy. Does the "government" mean only the President and his cabinet' or does it include the United States Senate? The act of 1789 declares no citizen shall communicate with a foreign govern ment "without the permission of the United States government." Secretary Hughes contends that the words United States government mean what the Constitution says they mean. In other words, wherever the words are applied to something which the Constitution says the ex ecutive shall do, it means the execu tive. When It applies to the making of treaties it means the executive plus the Senate and so on. Men like Senator Brandrgee argue i and have arrued that the Senate and I the House should have more to say about foreign policy, since the Consti tution gives Congress alone the right to make war on a foreign country. Again and again in reoent years, and particularly since the armistice of 191*. members of the Senate have been In communication with the rep resentatives of foreign governments, but no one has ventured to say that the act of 1789 was being violated? at least, no one in the government it self, though there has been much out side discussion on the point. There are several instances which have made a precedent for communicating with foreign governments. Beaate Round Robin. The American Senate adopted a round-robin resolution notifying all foreign governments that if the cove nant of the league of nations were made part of the treaty of Versailles, which was not completed at the time, the treaty would not be ratified. This action wu received by friends of the executive as an unwarranted intervention in a negotiation being conducted by the executive, but senators contended they were merely saving European governments much time by telling them something in advance of the treaty's submission to the Senate. The Genoa conference, like the Versailles conference, will negotiate treaties or agreements. Senator France individually has noti fied foreign governments of his in tention to press for the passage of a resolution urging the American executive to participate. He did not misrepresent the executive. He did not say the executive would partici pate. He acknowledged that the right was constitutionally in the hands of the President, and that a resolution from the Genoa conference would be helpful to the cause he was advocating. Many American senators have in the past communicated to foreign governments suggestions which in their judgment would be helpful in making for better understanding between governments. The differ ence between Senator France's com munication and some of the others which have been made orally over the dinner table or In drawing rooms is that Senator France frankly gave his message to the public. There was no clandestine attempt to interfere with the course of the American gov ernment, but a public effort to secure modification. Coafer at Dlkaer Table. On many an occasion the ambas sadors of France and Great Britain have been in conference with sen ators. Everybody in Washington knows that Sir Edward Grey spent most of his time in the fall of 1919 talking with American senators about the treaty situation. It would have been proper for President Wil son to object to foreign Intervention in American domestic affairs, but since all the communication was oral Instead of written, no basis for such an action by the executive was avail able. It was admitted at the time, however, that no law could prevent a United States senator from dis cussing anything he pleased with a representative of a foreign govern ment, so long as no commitments were made on behalf of the executive without his permission or authority. Many a senator has been in private communication with statesmen abroad discussing pending policies. Senators have felt that they were as much members of the United States government as the President or Secretary of State, and that since the Senate had a right to pass upon all treaties are agreements commit ting the United States to specific obligations, they had a right to in form themselves Independently of the chief executive and his ambassadorial representatives. The charges against Senator France will cause the lawyers at the De partment of Justice a little more work, but they cannot prosecute him without startlpg a serious light with the Senate, where prerogatives are jealously guarded. Any one who at tempts to Interpret any existing statute as mossling a United States senator, whether he wants to write, talk, telegraph or cable /to anybody under the sun, has a job on his hands ?and a futile one at that. - ? - - - (Cwrisht. MS2.) RUSS-GERMAN PACT ISSIONEDATGENOA, THREATENINGCRISIS Hurried Conference of Allies Called to Meet Surprise Treaty. WAR CLAIMS CANCELED BY SIGNATORY NATIONS Brest-Litovsk Fact Nullified and Diplomatic Relations Established Between Two Powers. I!j the Associated Press. GENOA, April 17.?A treaty between Germany and Russia was signed at R&pallo yesterday, the signatories be ing the foreign ministers of the two countries, George Chicherin for Rus sia and Dr. Walter Rathenau for Ger many.. The treaty nullifies the Brest - Litov.sk treaty and re-establishes full diplomatic relations on an equality basis. The pact cancels all war claims, as well as claims arising from the na tionalization of property. Negotiated for Months. The treaty signed yesterday, it Is stated, represents the conclusion of negotiations begun many months ago. This action by delegates to the Genoa economic conference. in meet ing independently and negotiating a treaty outside the scope of the con ference itself, is pointed to as estab lishing a striking precedent for the nations who are participating in the discussion of the Russian problem here. In connection with the mutual re nunciation of nationalization of prop erty claims and war claims, the treaty expressed the friendly hope that other powers would do likewise. Comes aa Rude Surprise. Announcement of the signing of the treaty came as a rather rude sur prise to the Genoa conferees, and It was pointed to by observers as likely to make more difficult the position of some of the other allies in their at titude toward Russia. By the new treaty, replacing the Brest-Litovsk pact, which has been so humiliating to the soviet leaders. Germany is the first great power to grant Russia full recognition. Poland and the Baltic states have long had diplomatic relations with the soviet government, but Germany has been withholding recognition because of failure to obtain satisfaction of the claims for the murder of Count Mier bach, who was assassinated in Mos cow ln'191S, when he went there aa German ambassador under the terms of the Brest-Litovsjc treaty. Harried Meeting Called. Premier Facta of Italy, as president of the economic conference, Issued a sudden summons this afternoon for a conference at 3 p.m. of the heads of the invitin powers now in Genoa. It Is believed one reason for the calling of the conference was the announce ment of the signing of the Rusio German treaty. The announced object of the meet ing was to adjust by consultation the attitude of the allies towards the Russian question. The Japanese were included in the invitation. I Previous Trade Agreement. Although negotiations between Ger j many and Russia have been in prog i ress for some months on various sub | jects. mostly relating to trade mat ters, there has been no intimations that the signing of a formal treaty, superseding the historic Brest-Litovsk pact of early 1918, was contemplated by the plenipotentiaries of the two nations at Genoa. The countries had I previously made a trade agreement which became effective nearly a year ago. The treaty of Brest Litovsk was a sequel to the armistfbe between Ger | many and Russia signed at that place ! on December 14, 1917, following the j rise of the bolsheviki to power in I Russia. Peace negotiations were be > gun between Germany and Russia in January, 1918, but the demands of ! the central powers were considered ' excessive by Russia, which refused to concede them. The next move by RuESia was to announce on February lu that sha hud withdrawn from the war with out signing a peace.and had ordered immediate demobilization of the troors on all fronts. This maneuver ! dlil not satisfy the Germans, how ever. Declaring the war was still on, they renewed their Invasion of Russia but this was speedily cut short by a declaration by the Ruslan government that it accepted the terms formerly declined and the signing at Brest-Litovsk on March 3, of the treaty now superseded. Terma ?( Treaty. As indicated, these terms were virt ually dictated by the central power*. Although war indemnities were re nounced, Russia agreed to resign ail claims to Finland, Esthonia, Livonia, Courland, Lithuania, Russian Poland and the Ukraine, to return all the Anatolian provinces to Turkey and to evacuate Russian Armenia. This treaty was effective, so far as its continuing provisions were concerned, however, only bo long as Germany re mained in the war. With her defeat , and the conclusion of peace with the allies, Germany In the treaty of Ver sailles agreed to accept the abrogation of the Brest-Litovsk and all other treaties entered into with the Maxima list government of Russia, to recognise the full force of all treaties entered into by the allies and associated powers with states which were a part of the former Russian empire and to recog nize the frontiers as determined therein. It was added that the powers reserved the right of Russia to obtain restitu tion and reparation on the principle! of the Versailles treaty. AFTEB, GENOA, WHATP Two More Conference* Likely Alt** Present Farley. By the Associated Press. GENEVA. April 17?After Genoa, what? This is the question upper moat in the minds of the delegates to the International economic confer ence. Experts and delegates alike ore agreed that It probably will tContinued on Page Z. Column 4W. 1'