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Saturday's Net Circulation, 88,229
Sunday's Net Circulation, 91,040
* TWO CENTS.
Closing New York Stocks, Page 21.
Vn 9ft -177 Entered as second-clasa matter
O. ?0,:t i I. post office Washington, D. C.
Rain this afternoon and tonight,
probably clearing tomorrow morning;
warmer tonight. Cooler tomorrow
afternoon and night. Temperature
for twenty-four hours ended at 2. p.m.
today: Highest, 69, at 2 p.m. today;
lowest 66, at 3 a.m. today.
WITH SUNDAY MOBHING EDITIQK
WASHINGTON, D. C., MONDAY, APRIL 17, 1922-TWENTY-EIGHT PAGES.
President Scores Slackers in
Homes and at Polls in .
SEES DEMOCRACY LOSING
TO SOCIALISTS' MOB RULE
Truth, Fearlessness and Faith in
God Urged to Combat
MRS. GEORGE MA WARD MI* OH,
Warning: that a false democracy
1s seeking to "overturn our repre
sentative form of government and
to replace It with mob rule," was
sounded by Mrs. George Maynard
Minor, president general of the
Daughters of the American Revolu
tion. In her address today formally
opening the Thirty-first Annual Con
tinental Congress of the Society.
D. A. R. Hall Crowded.
The conference was assembled
promptly at 10:30 o'clock by a bugle
call by Arthur S. Witcomb of the
United States Marine Band. Immedi
ately afterward, amid rounds of al- i
most deafening applause. Mrs. Minor I
and the national officers, escorted by I
141 white-clad pages, entered the
hall and marched to the platform.
Mrs Minor was at the end of the
procession and carried a beautiful
bouquet of retl roses.
Virtually every seat In the large
auditorium was filled with ine 2,700
accredited delegates and alternates
when the congress was. called to order
by the president general. The crowd
Eew constantly and by the time Mrs.
I nor had completed her address
many were standing In the gallery,
despite the fact that for the first time
In history the general public was
barred from the opening session.
Boxes over the stage were occupied
by the former national officers of the
society and Invited guests. The na
tional officers had seats on the plat
Mrs. Minor appealed to the mem
bers, "as guardians of the pure fire
of patriotism and love of native land,"
to prevent the ascendancy of such a
spirit and charged them that It was
their "most sacred duty" to concern
themselves with these dangers and
to promote true internationalism
'through which the nations are bound
together In the bonds of mutual faith
and trust while preserving their na
tional identity." She characterized
the danger as being "the false democ
racy of the socialist and communist."
"It Is the more Insidious because It
masquerades as true democracy, de
ceiving the people," declared Mrs.
Minor. "It masquerades also as
'industrial democracy," founded on
groups, industries, trades and classes
aa the political unit. Instead of on
geographic districts or numerical
divisions of the whole people, regard
less of class or occupation.
Bloe Control Seored.
"This false industrial democracy
leads to group or class legislation,
?bloc' control of government, and the
dictation of powerful minorities. It
holds the seeds of true democracy's
"There's is likewise a false inter
nationalism which seeks democracy's
death. This is the socialistic inter- ;
nationalism, which aims to obliterate
all nationalities and differences of
race; which mocks at patriotism and.
love of country and violates man's
most sacred Instincts In the name of
Mrs. Minor asserted that our
democracy is assailed b>* yet another
danger?the slacker vote, both male
"There are startling statistics re
vealed by the last census," she said,
"which show that millions of eligible
voters in this country are too Indif
ferent to go to the polls. Out of 54.
%421 832 eligible voters. 37,763.966 did
not' take the trouble to cast their
vote, over one-half of our electorate.
In other words, failed In this most
sacred duty of citizenship, and of this
failure the w?men must bear their full
share of responsibility. Is It any won
der that politics are corrupt, that self
ish and cowardly men are In office all
over this country for what they can
get out of It? How many dare not do
the right thing for fear of losing
votes? Is it any wonder that we face
the disheartening spectacle of political
cowards cringing under the whip of
powerful groups demanding legisla
tion under threat of loss of votes If
It Is refused? This political fear In
high places Is the curse of our coun
try, but whose fault Is It?
"If 37.000.000 voters care so ltttlo
who govern them that they voluntar
ily renounce the priceless privilege of
self-governing mankind, they have the
kind of rulers they deserve. What shall
be the end of our democracy If our
citizens are so careless of this great
duty and moral obligation of the bal
lot? . , ,
"The process of free democracy is
loyal. Intelligent service In the pri
maries and at the polls. Put up clean,
honest, fearless men for office and
then go and vote for them. Clearly
this Is vour duty and privilege: loyalty
to the home and country demands It."
Another Insidious danger which "as
sails the very heart of our democ
racy." Mrs. Minor described as "the
"It Is said that the American home Is
'coins Into the discard."" said Mrs.
Minor. "Must this flippant expression
he regarded as truly stating the case?
>r? we American women no longer
(Continued on Page S. Column 6.)
OF 150 MINUTES IS
NEW WORLD RECORD
What wai regarded by officials
as the world record time for
moonshiners between the still and
the jail?two and a half hours?
was reported today to prohibition
On Saturday at 3:30 p.m., offi
cials said, Charles R. Carrlck was
arrested near Capitol Heights,
Md.. 750 gallons mash and two
By 6 o'clock. It was said, he was
on his way to Jessups Cut Jail,
having been sentenced to six
months by Judge Moft'ett at Hy
Supreme Tribunal Holds Sen
tences to Occoquan Be
The United States Supreme Court
today affirmed a decision of the
Court of Appeals of the District of
Columbia to the effect that the Ju
venile Court of the District cannot
sentence to hard labor at Occoquan
and held that hard labor is an in
famous punishment, and that a per
son cannot be sentenced without
being indicted by a grand Jury.
The decision was read by Mr. Jus
tice McKenna. The Chief Justice. Mr.
Justice Holmes and Mr. Justice
Brandeis dissented, while Mr. Justice
Clarke took no part In the case.
In concluding his Opinion, affirm
ing the decision of the lower courts,
Mr. Justice McKenna said:
"The ultimate contention of the
United States Is that the provisions
of the act of March 23, 1906, for pun
ishment by fine or improsonment are
severable and that, therefore, it was
error in the court of appeals In hold
ing the act unconstitutional and in
directing the dismissal of the case,
instead of turning it back for fur
"The contention Is untenable; it Is
what sentence can be imposed under
the law, not what was imposed, that
Is the material consideration. When
an accused is In danger of an In
famous punishment if convicted he
has a right to insist that he be not
put upon trial except on the accusa
tion of a grand Jury."
Settles Non-Support Case.
The decision was in the case of the
United States vs. Charles Walter
Moreland, charged with non-support
of his two minor children. The effect I
of the decision, according to Foster |
Wood, Attorney for Moreland, Is that
the Juvenile Court of the District has
no jurisdiction in non-support cases,
either as to fine or imprisonment, and
that the cases will have to be brought
In the District Supreme Court for in
dictment by a grand jury.
It has the further effect, Mr. Wood
said today, of any cases in which
the court may impose imprisonment
at hard labor of Indicting them by
a grand jury and the Police Court
of the District of Columbia will not
have jurisdiction over any of those
cases In which the Imprisonment may I
be at Occoquan at hard labor.
ONCE PROUDEST WARSHIP
OFF TO DOOM AS TARGET
Iowa to Face Atlantic Fleet in
Badio and Gun Tests Off
1 Cape Henry.
PHILADELPHIA, April 17.?'The
battleship Iowa, once the pride of the
United States Navy, left the Phila
delphia navy yard today for Cape
Henry, where she will be used as a
target for the Atlantic fleet In a
series of radio and gun experiments.
For two years the Iowa has been
used as a radio experimental craft,
with her sister ship, the Ohio, as
the control vessel. In the approach
ing tests off Cape Henry the Iowa,
controlled solely by radio, will at
tempt to run the gantlet of the At
lantic fleet, now on its way from
Guantanamo, Cuba. Besides the radio
experiments, the sinking uf the ship
will afford an opportunity to test
the armor-piercing qualities of the
largest projectiles and guns with
which the modern battleships are
The control of the vessel has been
transferred from the Ohio, which
also will be sunk, to the destroyer
SHOE MACHINERY SlilT
DECIDED IN FAVOR OF U. S.
Supreme Court Affirms Ruling tor
Injunction in Patent
The government today won the
Supreme Court case brought by the
United Shoe Machinery Corporation
and others to have set aside the re
straining order prohibiting them from
using certain lease clauses in their
contracts for the rental of patented
The Supreme Court affirmed the de
cree of the United States district
court at St. Louis, which enjoined
the corporation, under the Clayton
The lower federal court prohibited
the corporation from compelling, by
lease agreements, the exclusive use
of its machines, and from enforcing
an alternative royalty clause, found
to be prohibitive, upon all footwear
manufactured In factories where
machines of competitors were also
used. It also held Invalid the agree
ment by which tbe corporation re
quired those using its machines to
purchase supplies of It.
APPROVES BURKE STATUE.
Under unanimous consent the Hous*
today passed the bill favorably re
ported from the committee on the
library, which would authorise erec
tion of a statue of Edmund Burke, on
public grounds in the District of Co
lumbia, which Is a gift to the people
of the United States by .the Sulgrave
Institution of New Tork, London and
Canada, whose- purpose is the promo
tion of good will among English
The President of the United States
Is honorary head of the Institution,
and former Senator Root Is also an
honorary member. This Institution
has presented statues of Abraham
Lincoln, George Washington and
other prominent Americans, to muni
cipalities In Great Britain and
statues of leading British statesmen
to the United States,
IS DECLARED VITAL
PART OF EDUCATION
Playgrounds Regarded Indis
pensable to Children by
HEALTHY BODY NEEDED
TO BACK UP MENTALITY
Would Install Gymnasiums in All
Schools as Best Step Toward
Playgrounds are Indispensable in
order to round out the education of
children and fit them physically to go
out In the world and apply with
vigor their mental training, accord
ing fo Harris Hart, superintendent of
public instruction of the state of Vir
ginia. He said that playgrounds
should be provided in the congested
He expressed the belief before the
joint congressional committee on
I schools that it would not be difficult
for Congress to provide sufficient
playgrounds as a part of each slx
teen-room building accommodating
from 480 to 600 students.
"If you have a unit of a slxteen-room
building you are going to accommodate
in that building anywhere from 4S0 to
600 students." he said. "That Is a group
of students that I would say, in Wash
ington. is geographically sufficiently well
centered for no student to have a long
distance to go to school. It Is a group
that Is not so large that It will be beyond
the ordinary task of the public to supply
large enough playgrounds to take care
of a crowd of students of that size. You
have a building large enough to accom
modate 1,000 or 1,200 or 1,500 students,
and it is a question of a whole square,
maybe a square and a half, for the
building and for the playground.
"What I mean by 'adequate play
giounds' is about this: First of all. a
gymnasium, one that will accommo
date classes for gymnastic exercises
and physical training, so that in four
or five groups during the day you
could reach all the children that
should be taken into those classes,
reserving the kindergarten and first
primary students probably for phys
ical exercises (n their own rooms.
Then, out in the yard you would have
space enough. I should say. in half
| a block to give those children room
for such games as In the early fall
or In the spring of the year might be
indulged In under proper supervision.
1 would think it ought not to be too
strictly supervised. I do not think
it should have the life supervised out
of It. I mean that with a group of
about 500 students you could take a
school lot of about a square and you
could take ample care of them. It
may be in many places half a square
would be fcufllclent
"I think in the last few year*," Mr,
Hart continued, "people generally
have somewhat changed their atti
tude toward physical education. I
am not sure that five or six years ago
physical education was regarded by
some people as a frill. I regard phys
ical education as nothing more or
less than a part and parcel of the ed
ucational process. I look upon phys
ical education as being Just about the
same as what we commonly call men
"The purpose of the whole job ia to
develop not merely citizens who can
think with the mind, but who can put
their whole body and energy to the
?ervice of the state, and the proper
type of physical education Is a sort
of insurance policy which they take
out to guarantee they are going to
get a proper return on the money In
vested In mental training. It depends
on your starting point. I feel that the
publio school situation Is probably
one that sometimes invites entirely
too much work?some things that
may be called frills?but I do not
believe a proper conception of public
education would permit physical edu
cation to be classified as a frill. I
suspect that that idea has come down
from a' long, long tradition.
"We had a notion once, I think, that
you could take a boy and chop him up
into three more or less airtight com
ponents, calling one moral, one physi
cal and one mental. We had a pretty
distinct Idea that you could develop
one regardless of the other, somewhat
like the very ancient monks who
felt the best way to sanctify the spirit
was to persecute the body. But I
think we are getting away from that
conception, where our education,
physical and mental, Is regarded as a
unit, and It is from that conception
that I would think adequate play
grounds and adequate physical train
ing facilities are necessary."
CONFER ON DISTRICT BILL
The conferees on the District appro
priation' bill still have to complete
consideration of the proposed Items
for Increasing the water supply and
for additions to the parks, and also
the Jones rider dealing with the fis
cal relations of the District and the
federal governments. It was said, fol
lowing a meeting this morning.
The conferees are to meet again this
afternoon, and it Is the hope of Chair
man Phlpps that a report may be
made within the next few days.
A new series of comic
pictures, unique, origi
nal and funny.
This is the. first time this serv
ice has been seen In America.
It was originated by O. Jacobs
son, the famous Swedish car
EASTER EGG ROLLING.
Merry Young Egg Rollers
Throng White House Lawns
Bringing bright eggs In baskets,
and brighter smiles, several thou
sand Washington children today
flocked to the White House grounds
for the annual Easter Monday egg
roiling festivities, as the guests of
President and Mrs. Harding.
The spirit of spring and youth was
everywhere, despite the threatening
clouds.1- as the children rolled their
eggs on the knolls to the south of
the executive mansion, at the same
time keeping an eye on the south
portico, upon which the President
and Mrs. Harding were expected to
Mrs. Harding appeared on the
south portico shortly before 1 o'clock
and waved a greeting to the crowd
of children, who waved their hands
In reply. A little while afterward she
was followed by the President himself
nnd the happiness of the youngsters was
complete. Wives of members of the
cabinet and other officials watch
ed the festivities from the portico.
\ LaUlc Bey ma Esltrtaiwr.
Laddie Boy, the President's alre
entertained the crowd of children
asd their elders during the morning.
Laddie Soy made his appearance early,1
breaking away from the "master of
hounds" shortly before 11 o'clock,
when the gayly-dressed children had
begun to arrive by the hundreds.
Down the south portico steps Lad
die Boy dashed, his tail wagging: at
anticipation of meeting so many of
his little friends. Boys and girls,
men and women, crowded around
him at once, hundreds of hands at
tempting to pat his head or stroke
his coat, until the dog was nearly
"Let me pet you, Laddie Boy,"
shouted eager voices, as boys and
girls came running from all parts of
But Laddie Boy evidently had
enough, for he broke away and raced
up the steps at a lively rate. Once
on the portico, the man who had him
i In charge put him through his vari
i ous tricks.
His "Crowning Feat.**
The airedale mounted a wicker ta
ble, after much scrambling, from
which point of vantage he surveyed
the crowd, kept,back by the park po
j lice, members of which corps policed
the grounds today. Then Laddie Boy
gave an ezhibltibn of handshaking,
which was greeted with tremendous
applause from the crowd.
Laddie Boy's crowning feat, how
ever, was a demonstration of his abil
ity to bark, his utterings being
(Continued on Page 2, Column 2.)
Committee Told General Was
on Way to Confer With
Suggestion that Gen. Semenoff, now
in jail in New York, was en route td
Parli for the purpose of meeting
Grand Duke Nicholas to plan a coun
ter revolution against the soviet
regime In Russia was made by Im
migration Inspector Zurbrick at Van
couver, in a report to the immigra
tion bureau, following his examina
tion of the Russian officer.
The report of the inspector, laid
before the Senate labor committee
today by Commissioner General of
immigration Husband, stated that ad
mission of the anti-bolshevik leader
to the United States was the only
oourse the Immigration authorities
could have pursued unless he had been
"arbitrarily debarred." /
Subpoenaed to appear at 10 o'clock
today before the committee, Boris
Bakhmeteff, the last accredited Rus
sian ambassador to the United States,
still was at Charleston, S. C? where
he went to spend the Easter holidays.
The State Department Is understood
to be preparing to call the attention
of the Senate labor committee to the
usual diplomatic immunity of for
eign ambassadors in connection with
the committee's subpoena.
To Stay la Charleston.
Attaches at the Russian embassy,
when the hour designated In the
subpoena issued late Saturday by
Chairman Borah of the committee and
telegraphed to the ambassador Satur
day arrived, said the ambassador not
only was still a.t Charleston, but
would remain there as he had planned
until the middle of the week.; They
professed to have no Information as
to whether Mr. Bakhmeteff planned
to take advantage of the Immunity
granted under law ard international
usage to diplomatic officials. -
Pursuing its inquiry, the Senate
committee today heard Commissioner
General Husband of Immigration as
to the circumstanoes surrounding Gen..
Semenoff's admission into the United
States. The commissioner re^d a con
fidential circular sent, he said, to all j
ports of entry January 24, warning i
that the anti-bolshevik leader was;
reported to be headed towaid Amer
ica. The circular, ordered to be han
dled "without undue publicity,1"? sug-!
rested that War Department intelli
gence records showed that possibly'
"Questioning" of the general "may de- i
velop ground*' for exoludirir him.
Aeeased of Crimes.
The ^circular said that Semenoff was
accused in the intelligence records of
"wholesale crimes, murder and ban
ditry." and that his career had been
"checkered," and quoted an Asso
ciated Press dispatch to the effect
that he was traveling under the name
Qf "ff. Victorol." v
The Immigration commissioner as
(Continued on Page 2. Column ?.)
BUREAU ISSUE SOON
10 BE CLEARED UP
Plate Printers Indorse Presi
dent and Tell of In
? The bureau of engraving and
printing situation Is progressing
"very satisfactorily," and the public
will before long be assured that
the action of President Harding in
making recent sweeping changes was
justified, it was said today by Repre
sentative McFadden, republican, of
Pennsylvania, chairman of the bank
ing and currency committee, after a
conference with the President at the j
While there could be no more defi
nite announcement at the present j
time, it was said, the public might
expect sometime in the near future
definite developments which would
preclude criticism of the administra
Representative McFadden, who is
understood to have been deeply in
terested in the bureau and conver
sant with its affairs, seemed greatly
pleased with his conference with the
Preslden, intimating that the bureau
situation, which has been sensitive
for some time, will very shortly be en
Workme* Approve Action.
The International Plate Printers
and Die Stampers' Union of North
America, including many workmen
at the bureau of engraving and print
ing, has Indorsed the action of Presi
dent Harding' through the unioii's
official organ, the Plate Printer.
Charges that the output of the
bureau had become so low of stand
ard as to be ^asy to counterfeit,
"were made by the Plate Printer,
which declared the country was flood
ed with counterfeit money and se
curities. The President was thorough
ly justified in making the change, it
was" said, although the Integrity of
the officials discharged from the
bureau was asserted to be "beyond
At the Treasury this morning , it
was intimated in official circles that
while there were counterfeit paper*
circulating, without a doubt, the gov
ernment "would never go bankrupt
on their account."
Deputy Assistant Treasurer Tate,
chairman of the special committee
taking an Inventory at the bureau of
engraving in connection with the
change in management, said today
that his committee expected to com
plete the actual work at the bureau
either today or tomorrow. Good
progress had been made, said Mr.
Tate, and the report of the commit-,
tee would be completed'as soon as
possible after conclusion of the count.
One copy of the report will be sent
to the, Secretary of the Treasury,
through Assistant Secretary Wads
worth. in charge of the bureau, it was
said, and another copy will be sent to
the Department of Justice, whose
agents are working in conjunction
with the Treasury oommlttee. No
part of the report will be made pub
(Continued on Page 2. Column ,1.)
7 KILLED, 35 HURT
IN TORNADO'S PATH
Terrific Windstorm Plays
Havoc Around Cen
By the Associated Press.
CENTRALIA, 111., April 17.?Re
ports received here state that seven
persons were killed and about thirty
five injured, some seriously, in the
tornado which struck this section
early today. One woman was re
ported killed instantly at Lake Cen
tralia, ten miles north of here.
One baby was killed and two per
sons are in St. Mary's Hospital here
in a critical condition as the result
of the tornado which struck Irving
ton. south of here, about miinight
last night, hospital attendant^ re
A number o| other injured persons
remained in Irrington.
INDIANAPOLIS^ Ind.. April 17.?
Westbound passenger train No. 43 of
the Big Pour railroad was
because of a washout near Foster.
Ind., early today, reports received by
the Indianapolis dispatcher's office
today said. Harvey Watts of In
dianapolis, fireman of the train, was
Injured, but not seriously.
Nearly Every Section of Dis
trict Touched by Routes
Applications for four new bus lines
with routes extending Into nearly
every section of the District were
tiled today with the Public Utilities
Three of the lines are to be operated
by two men from Jersey City, N. J?
William Cathcart' and Albert David,
who told the commission in their ap
plications they wish to start business
with between twelve and eighteen
busses. The fourth route is to be run
by Paul C. Robinson.
In all four cases the applicants ask
for a straight eight-cent fare. Cath
cart and David say they are prepared
to begin operations within sixty days
from issuance of their permits, while
Robinson is ready to begin immedi
'I-argrat Baa Expansion.
If these applications are granted by
the commission it will mark the
largest single addition yet' made to
bus facilities In the National Capital.
Here is a summary of the four appli
William Cathcart, to operate from
fcur to six busses on a five-minute
headway over the following route?
From Union station on Massachusetts
avenue to 7 th street northwest,
through Mount Vernon square to
Massachusetts avenue again and west ]
to 33rd and Q streets.
The Washington Rapid Transit
Company, now operating on 16th
street and New Hampshire avenue,
has obtained a permit to start a new
line over substantially the same route
proposed by Mr. Cathcart, but so far
the commission has made no rule
against more than one company oper
atl"*, over the same street.
William Cathcart, to operate fnom
Jour to six busses on a five-minute
headway from I9th and Calvert
streets, south on 18th to K street,
east on K street to l?th, south on
10th to F. looping at 10th and E
streets for the return trip.
Nwtkeut to Soathweat.
Albert David, to operate from four
to six busses from 15th street and
Maryland avenue northeast, on Mary
land avenue to 2n<l street, northeast,
on 2nd to* B street southeast on B
street to 14th street southwest, on
14th to B street northwest, on B
street to 17th street, on 17th to E
street, on E street to 20th, on 20th
to B and return. ,
Paul C. Robinson, to operate one
bus from 8th street and Pennsylvania
avenue northwest to Suitland, Md., by
way of Pennsylvania avenue.
The three routes picked out by
Messrs Cathcart and David pass
through neighborhoods, served both by
the Capital Traction and the Wash
ington Railway and Electric Com
panies. They do not follow the car
tracks except at Intervals.
j ? ? ; ? ; * ' '
"Ducking Days" Mar
"Glad" Easter Outfits
In Mining Community
HAZLETOV, Pa.. April 17.?
MDveklnf days" started today
inoif the foreign-speaking;
miners of the anthracite eoal
fields and will afford considera
ble sport as a relief from the
monotony of thr suspension.
The custom prevails among the
Lithuanians, Poles, Gallclan
Slavs, Russians and Rumanians
nnd la generally observed as an
On Easter Monday the men
have the right to throw water
by bucketful on the women and
girls. Tomorrow the women
will enjoy the privilege of do
ing likewise with the men aad
boys. "First" and "second"
Easter are celebrated as holi
days among the forelga-speak
ing element, and the practice Is
to wear their best clothesj
hence the adldtlonal fun In
"dousing" to spoil either a new
dress or suit, as the ease may
be. The ducking usually Is
taken good naturedly by those
caught off their guard.
FRANCE NOT UKELY
Senate Jealous of Rights.
Many Precedents Seen for
Lloyd George Cable.
BY DAVID LAWRENCE.
Can a United States senator com
municate with a foreign government
direct and without resort to the
usual channels of diplomacy through
the President and Secretary of State?
Formal charges have been filed
against Senator Joseph France of
Maryland for doing so, on the ground
that he has violated a statute as an
cient as 1789. The case has many
interesting angles to It and turns
largely upon the meaning of the
words "United States government."
That is a historic controversy. Does
the "government" mean only the
President and his cabinet' or does it
include the United States Senate? The
act of 1789 declares no citizen shall
communicate with a foreign govern
ment "without the permission of the
United States government."
Secretary Hughes contends that the
words United States government
mean what the Constitution says
they mean. In other words, wherever
the words are applied to something
which the Constitution says the ex
ecutive shall do, it means the execu
tive. When It applies to the making
of treaties it means the executive
plus the Senate and so on.
Men like Senator Brandrgee argue
i and have arrued that the Senate and
I the House should have more to say
about foreign policy, since the Consti
tution gives Congress alone the right
to make war on a foreign country.
Again and again in reoent years, and
particularly since the armistice of
191*. members of the Senate have
been In communication with the rep
resentatives of foreign governments,
but no one has ventured to say that
the act of 1789 was being violated?
at least, no one in the government it
self, though there has been much out
side discussion on the point. There
are several instances which have
made a precedent for communicating
with foreign governments.
Beaate Round Robin.
The American Senate adopted a
round-robin resolution notifying all
foreign governments that if the cove
nant of the league of nations were
made part of the treaty of Versailles,
which was not completed at the time,
the treaty would not be ratified.
This action wu received by friends
of the executive as an unwarranted
intervention in a negotiation being
conducted by the executive, but
senators contended they were merely
saving European governments much
time by telling them something in
advance of the treaty's submission to
the Senate. The Genoa conference,
like the Versailles conference, will
negotiate treaties or agreements.
Senator France individually has noti
fied foreign governments of his in
tention to press for the passage of a
resolution urging the American
executive to participate. He did not
misrepresent the executive. He did
not say the executive would partici
pate. He acknowledged that the right
was constitutionally in the hands of the
President, and that a resolution from
the Genoa conference would be helpful
to the cause he was advocating.
Many American senators have in
the past communicated to foreign
governments suggestions which in
their judgment would be helpful in
making for better understanding
between governments. The differ
ence between Senator France's com
munication and some of the others
which have been made orally over
the dinner table or In drawing rooms
is that Senator France frankly gave
his message to the public. There was
no clandestine attempt to interfere
with the course of the American gov
ernment, but a public effort to secure
Coafer at Dlkaer Table.
On many an occasion the ambas
sadors of France and Great Britain
have been in conference with sen
ators. Everybody in Washington
knows that Sir Edward Grey spent
most of his time in the fall of 1919
talking with American senators
about the treaty situation. It would
have been proper for President Wil
son to object to foreign Intervention
in American domestic affairs, but
since all the communication was oral
Instead of written, no basis for such
an action by the executive was avail
able. It was admitted at the time,
however, that no law could prevent
a United States senator from dis
cussing anything he pleased with a
representative of a foreign govern
ment, so long as no commitments
were made on behalf of the executive
without his permission or authority.
Many a senator has been in private
communication with statesmen abroad
discussing pending policies.
Senators have felt that they were
as much members of the United
States government as the President
or Secretary of State, and that since
the Senate had a right to pass upon
all treaties are agreements commit
ting the United States to specific
obligations, they had a right to in
form themselves Independently of the
chief executive and his ambassadorial
The charges against Senator France
will cause the lawyers at the De
partment of Justice a little more
work, but they cannot prosecute him
without startlpg a serious light with
the Senate, where prerogatives are
jealously guarded. Any one who at
tempts to Interpret any existing
statute as mossling a United States
senator, whether he wants to write,
talk, telegraph or cable /to anybody
under the sun, has a job on his hands
?and a futile one at that.
- ? - - - (Cwrisht. MS2.)
Hurried Conference of Allies
Called to Meet Surprise
WAR CLAIMS CANCELED
BY SIGNATORY NATIONS
Brest-Litovsk Fact Nullified and
Diplomatic Relations Established
Between Two Powers.
I!j the Associated Press.
GENOA, April 17.?A treaty between
Germany and Russia was signed at
R&pallo yesterday, the signatories be
ing the foreign ministers of the two
countries, George Chicherin for Rus
sia and Dr. Walter Rathenau for Ger
many.. The treaty nullifies the Brest -
Litov.sk treaty and re-establishes full
diplomatic relations on an equality
The pact cancels all war claims, as
well as claims arising from the na
tionalization of property.
Negotiated for Months.
The treaty signed yesterday, it Is
stated, represents the conclusion of
negotiations begun many months ago.
This action by delegates to the
Genoa economic conference. in meet
ing independently and negotiating a
treaty outside the scope of the con
ference itself, is pointed to as estab
lishing a striking precedent for the
nations who are participating in the
discussion of the Russian problem
In connection with the mutual re
nunciation of nationalization of prop
erty claims and war claims, the treaty
expressed the friendly hope that other
powers would do likewise.
Comes aa Rude Surprise.
Announcement of the signing of the
treaty came as a rather rude sur
prise to the Genoa conferees, and It
was pointed to by observers as likely
to make more difficult the position of
some of the other allies in their at
titude toward Russia.
By the new treaty, replacing the
Brest-Litovsk pact, which has been
so humiliating to the soviet leaders.
Germany is the first great power to
grant Russia full recognition. Poland
and the Baltic states have long had
diplomatic relations with the soviet
government, but Germany has been
withholding recognition because of
failure to obtain satisfaction of the
claims for the murder of Count Mier
bach, who was assassinated in Mos
cow ln'191S, when he went there aa
German ambassador under the terms
of the Brest-Litovsjc treaty.
Harried Meeting Called.
Premier Facta of Italy, as president
of the economic conference, Issued a
sudden summons this afternoon for a
conference at 3 p.m. of the heads of
the invitin powers now in Genoa. It
Is believed one reason for the calling
of the conference was the announce
ment of the signing of the Rusio
The announced object of the meet
ing was to adjust by consultation the
attitude of the allies towards the
The Japanese were included in the
I Previous Trade Agreement.
Although negotiations between Ger
j many and Russia have been in prog
i ress for some months on various sub
| jects. mostly relating to trade mat
ters, there has been no intimations
that the signing of a formal treaty,
superseding the historic Brest-Litovsk
pact of early 1918, was contemplated
by the plenipotentiaries of the two
nations at Genoa. The countries had
I previously made a trade agreement
which became effective nearly a year
The treaty of Brest Litovsk was a
sequel to the armistfbe between Ger
| many and Russia signed at that place
! on December 14, 1917, following the
j rise of the bolsheviki to power in
I Russia. Peace negotiations were be
> gun between Germany and Russia in
January, 1918, but the demands of
! the central powers were considered
' excessive by Russia, which refused
to concede them.
The next move by RuESia was to
announce on February lu that sha
hud withdrawn from the war with
out signing a peace.and had ordered
immediate demobilization of the
troors on all fronts. This maneuver
! dlil not satisfy the Germans, how
ever. Declaring the war was still
on, they renewed their Invasion of
Russia but this was speedily cut
short by a declaration by the Ruslan
government that it accepted the terms
formerly declined and the signing at
Brest-Litovsk on March 3, of the treaty
Terma ?( Treaty.
As indicated, these terms were virt
ually dictated by the central power*.
Although war indemnities were re
nounced, Russia agreed to resign ail
claims to Finland, Esthonia, Livonia,
Courland, Lithuania, Russian Poland
and the Ukraine, to return all the
Anatolian provinces to Turkey and to
evacuate Russian Armenia.
This treaty was effective, so far as
its continuing provisions were concerned,
however, only bo long as Germany re
mained in the war. With her defeat
, and the conclusion of peace with the
allies, Germany In the treaty of Ver
sailles agreed to accept the abrogation
of the Brest-Litovsk and all other
treaties entered into with the Maxima
list government of Russia, to recognise
the full force of all treaties entered into
by the allies and associated powers
with states which were a part of the
former Russian empire and to recog
nize the frontiers as determined therein.
It was added that the powers reserved
the right of Russia to obtain restitu
tion and reparation on the principle!
of the Versailles treaty.
AFTEB, GENOA, WHATP
Two More Conference* Likely Alt**
By the Associated Press.
GENEVA. April 17?After Genoa,
what? This is the question upper
moat in the minds of the delegates to
the International economic confer
ence. Experts and delegates alike
ore agreed that It probably will
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