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tTHE EVENING STAB, With Sunday Morning Edition. WASHINGTON, D. C. ♦TUESDAY February 27, 1923 •THEODORE W. NOYES Editor The Evening Star Newspaper Company Susldprk Office, 11th St. end Penn*ylT*nla Ave. »«■ York Office: I>%o Nskubii Bt. Chlc*»o Office: Tower Building. Rumpeeu Office: IS Regent St., London, England. The Evening Star, with the Sunday morning ►dltinn. in delivered by currier* within the city si HO centa per month; dally only, 46 cent* per month: Sunday only. 20 cent* per month. Or ders may ho gent by mull, or telephone Main 6000. Collection la made by carrier* at the end of each month. liat« by Mail—Payable in Advance. Maryland and Virginia. Daily and Sunday. .1 yr., $8.40; 1 mo., 70s Dally only 1 yr., $6.00; 1 mo., 60c Bunday only 1 yr., $2.40; 1 mo., 20c All Other States. Daily and Sunday. .1 yr., $10.00; 1 mo., 85c Daily only 1 yr., $7.00: 1 mo., 60c Sunday only 1 yr., $3.00; 1 mo., 20c Member of the Associated Press. The Aasoolafed I’regs Is exeltiiWely entitled to tlie use for repnblication of all newt dle patches credited to it or not otherwise credited In this paper and also the local news pub lished herein. All rights of publication of •pedal dispatches herein are also reserved. ■= —ii in uaw The Teachers' Bill. "While disappointment is naturally felt that the House yesterday did not recognize "District day” for the pur pose of considering the teachers’ pay bill, with other local measures of im portance. hope is not lost that oppor tunity will soon be afforded for the transaction of this bit of legislative business, so essential to the welfare of the District’s school system. The House committee on rules has prom ised such a chance. Yesterday the conflict was between the District busi ness and the deficiency appropriation bill, which, strictly under the rules of the House, had right of way. It must be, assumed that the promise of con sideration for the teachers’ bill holds good, and that the way will be open before adjournment, and in-season to permit a conference on the differences between House and Senate bills to put this measure on its passage. It has been repeatedly staled that there is no serious objection to the amendments proposed by the House District committee making certain changes in the i>ay scale and adjust ments. If that is the fact this bill should lead to little or no debate. It has behind it favorable report from the committee and a powerful public sentiment, manifested yesterday, per haps indiscreetly, by the presence in the galleries of the House of hundreds of Washingtonians who are anxious for enactment. It would seem that the presence of these i*arents of the capi tal, and particularly their manifesta tions of disapproval in the galleries, gave some offense to members. But tlie latter must bear in mind that the people of Washington are denied any effective representation in the shap ing of laws affecting their welfare, and that yesterday’s, gathering in the galleries was but a natural exhibition of public feeling which is to be con doned and rated as rather to the credit than the discredit of the community. If this bill is being sincerely sup ported, with its amendments, there should be no trouble about its passage ■when it gets before the House, and if the promise of "time” is also sincere, which there is no reason to doubt, that opportunity should be afforded. Until the gavel falls to end the life of this Congress hope will remain that the teachers’ pay bill, so urgently re ouired in justice to the public school staff, will be enacted. Reclassification Equity. Gratification at the terms of the re classification compromise bill was ex pressed by the government employes who met in this city last night and pointed out some particulars in which the measure can be made more equita ble in its practical application. For the incorporation of these amendments there will undoubtedly be opportunity, us the bill, if passed by the Senate, will in ail likelihood be sent into con ference. assuming that the House ac cepts it in principle hut asks a settle ment of differences. If the bill as now drawn is in the main enacted tiie personnel classifica tion board created to administer the law will have responsibilities and op portunities unique in the government service. The bitterness and animosi ties that have arisen during the long period required to frame, this legisla tion should make the board keen to prove to the government personnel its entire fairness and impartiality in al locating employes to positions, in making efficiency ratings and all other complicated duties devolving upon it. This board will have the opjx>rtunity to puli the government sett*'ice out of the slough of despond into which it has fallen because of the present chaos and unfairness, by working out nnd putting into operation a fair, hu mane and scientific system of per sonnel administration. The first problem is to get this bill enacted into law. then to adopt meas ures to reassure the workers that this is a plan for the improvement of their conditions, as well as to make the gov ernment more efficient and economi cal. If that_ can be accomplished it will so stimulate the government em ployes to achieve work of such quan tity and quality that Congress and the country will soon be convinced that fully 100 per cent return in the serv ice is being received. France has not given Germany any new suggestions as to efficiency in government-controlled railways. The School Report. The report of the joint congressional committee on District public schools, presented to the Senate yesterday, fol lows the lines of general expectation in recommending first a change in the method, of organization and adminis tration; second, an improvement in the courses of study: third, adoption of a long-term constructive building pro gram, and fourth, enlargement of the teaching force, with a better scale of pay. ' In respect to the first Item the com mittee follows the lines of recom mendation of the state superintendent <<C education of Pennsylvania, who was consulted as an expert, and who "urged that the board of education ba appointed by the President and given authority independent of the District Commissioners. On this point The Star has heretofore expressed its belief that this is not a desirable method of organization, tending to remove the schools from the public contact that is essential to satisfactory administra tion, and also to confuse the requisi tions for funds, which should all be handled by the District Commissioners to effect a fair allocation of revenues between the various municipal activi ties. In regard to tlie school building pro gram there can he no question or dis pute. The District's needs In this re gard are notorious and urgent. The schools are underhoused and under equipped, and only a broad program of consecutive, consistent constructions will catch up with the arrears and provide for future needs. In point of the courses of study and teaching force there will be no reason for question in the public mind. What ever educational changes may be re garded as desirable by those qualified to discuss the matter, may perhaps best be left to the school system rather than written Into law. The teaching force, if the bill now pending in the House is enacted, will be put upon a proper basis of compensation; In num bers, however, the force should lie in creased. especially as the plant is ex panding. At present the educational staff of the schools is 100 small. < 4 None of tliese ( matters, save perhaps the teachers* pay bill, will be con sidered at the present session. This • report will be filed us a general guide for the next Congress. The District’s hope i$ that it will be taken up early enough 10 insure action, at least along the line of a constructive building pro gram. and that the question of the wisest form of administration will be considered carefully. Mr. Hughes Abandons His Trip. It is a matter for keen regret that Secretary Hughes has been compelled to abandon his projected visit to South America in connection with the Pan- American Congress at Santiago. The visit has been looked forward to. both in the United Stales and in Latin America, as an event of major im portance as making for better under standing and closer relations among the republics of th«j western hemi sphere. and it can be accepted as as sured that the reasons which have induced Mr. Hughes to change his plans are impelling ones. The Pan- American Congress presented an au spicious opportunity for the paying of such a visit, but because advantage cannot be taken of this occasion it does not follow that the American Secretary of State cannot make the trip at a later day. . Critical affairs in Europe demanding attention from the State Department are emergency matters which do not admit of being put aside, but this does not mean that the United States rc [ gards European policy as of superior I importance to American policy. It has ! been recognized, by the present ad ministration in particular, that cul tivation of the friendship of the new world republics should be a cardinal principle of the program of this gov ernment. and neither President Hard ing nor Secretary Hughes has let pass 1 any opportunity of demonstrating the good will of the United Stales toward I these republics. The record already i written is a brilliant and gratifying I one. and it will be enlarged as time I passes. Today practically the only rift in re- I lations between this government and its American neighbors is in the case of Mexico, and even here time is work on the side of better understanding. | The American State Department has shown tact and remarkable patience j in dealing with the Mexican situation, I and its tact and patience have been 1 rewarded at least to the extent that j other Latin American governments j have, come to understand that our I Mexican policy is wholly unselfish and I straightforward. That understanding I on the part of the other republics is [ a powerful influence which eventually I will help bring, about a satisfactory | understanding with Mexico itself. More i>ay for teachers is a reason i aide demand. The youth of the day i that makes up the citizenship of the I future is entitled to instruction by ] competent and contented minds. , ! Germany has given a practical • demonstration of the axiom that the | real value of a currency unit is meas ured strictly by its purchasing power. N’o reorganization of the school sys tem will be complete until it provides a full day’s schooling for every child who is old enough to need it. Keep on Building! ! The bousing situation in the District i and contiguous territory is on the way Ito adjustment, and with peace and j harmony between contractors and the 1 men working for them the adjustment j could probably he brought about with jin a reasonable time. Vet, there is 1 talk of industrial war between em- I ployers and employes In the building I business. It would seem that there are ■ many considerations to induce them to | pu.ll together. The city needs homes and other kinds of structures. This need, coupled with increased building costs and maintenance, makes the rental rates of houses, flats and rooms higher than at any other time in the city’s history. Persons on a fixed salary are paying out a greater proportion of their earn ings for shelter thaa ever before, and after paying rent the spending power of those persons for food and clothing is materially reduced, and their ability to put away savings in the banks is crippled, and the banks to a large ex-, tent finance building operations. The greatly increased price at which flats rent and small houses sell is stimulat ing building, so that construction is going on In the District at a rate with out precedent. There is a struggle going on to re store the equilibrium between the need for shelter and the amount of shelter obtainable. With building oper ations being carried on as now it must be that all mechanics in the building trades are employed, and it would seem that wages must be high because the rate of wages is set forth as one of the reasons for the high cost of •building. Building material is high, but wages cut a large figure In the THE EVENING STAR, WASHINGTON, D. C., TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 27, 1923. cost of lumber, brick, steel and all other supplies. To put the. cost of building to a higher level will have a tendency to check building, reduce employment in the building trades and raise the cost of shelter. To put construction costs much higher might stop it altogether except in very urgent eases. There oujrht to be peace. There ought to be no discord between contractors and the men working with them. Yet we are hearing much tu ; of clashes, and strikes, and the whole train of evils that follow such tilings. The most energetic get-together means should be adopted. This is the worst time for a break between the building contrac tors and their men. Everybody would be hurt. Senator Williams. Everybody who knows Senator John Sharp Williams will wish that he finds his Arcadia, and that he will find there as much happiness as the Greek poets celebrated in their songs. Ar cadia was a beautiful district of Greece inhabited by a simple pastoral people who were believed to be distinguished above all other people for their hap piness. In retiring from public life Senator Williams told the Mississippi Society of Washington that on going home to Mississippi he would rise when the cock crows, gather flowers while the dew is on them, read his books, eat his dinner in the middle of the day, return to books and letter writing in the afternoon, cat supper, not dinner, in the evening, listen to the sweei serenade of his bund of mock ing birds in the twilight and live out a happy old age surrounded by troops of friends. There is no doubt that "Marse John" phrased those senti ments in the most delightful English. The gift of language is his. It has dis tinguished him all through his career. Here is a man with a wonderfully fine natural intelligence on which was im posed a classical schooling. His mind was kept rich by steady reading of good books. When the senator was a young and energetic debater in the House nearly all members listened when he spoke because of his broad knowledge of every subject he under took to discuss. Another gift of John Sharp Williams is that of friendship. He has always been a man of simple, easy and courteous ways and he lias drawn men to him. Washington peo ple regret that he is retire from pub lic life, and the people of Mississippi have cause to regret it. But if he should find Arcadia a trifle dull, and should long for the clamor and action of public life, the door is wide open for his return. Mail Slots and Boxes. There ought to be lively work today, this evening and tomorrow in cutting mail slots in front doors and screwing up boxes, for the post office announces that Washington carriers will not de liver mail after tomorrow at homes which have not complied with the "no box-no mail" order. Persons who have not complied with the order will re ceive mail by calling for it at the city post office. That would be a step back ward of something like a hundred years. There ought to be prompt com pliance with the regulation prescribed by the Post Office Department. It is much easier to comply with this regu lation than to combat it. The great majority of residents of the capital have complied because it saves them time in answering the postman's ring and promotes the earlier serving of their mail and their neighbors’ mail. The whole argument was gone through some months ago. and most persons concluded that the -weight of reason was on the side of the letter box or letter slot, and they put in the labor saving and time saving device without further parley. Lot every home have its box or door slot for mail: Europe can hardly fail to perceive the danger of rendering her wars so commonplace that they may fail to arouse poignant interest in the west ern hemisphere. As Col. Bryan has a home in Miami, both great political parties ■will be represented with distinction in Florida for the next few weeks. SHOOTING STARS. RT PHILANDER JOHNSON. Always a Candidate. My Uncle Jim’s a candidate For an official place— * And he’s a man, 1 want to state. Os intellectual grace.; He knows all kinds of politics. Domestic and abroad. And how to show up any tricks Os bribery or fraud. He's been a candidate for years. The fact each paper notes. He gets the compliments and cheera, But never gets the votes. It’s never in the cards for him The heights of fame to touch. We’re sort of scared of Uncle Jim, Because he knows too much. The Serious Joker. "Have you a sense of humor?" “Yes,” replied Senator Sorghum. "I can appreciate a joker in a legislative bill as much as anybody." Jud Tunkins says overanxiety to have a good time is what causes morft of our troubles. Musings of a Motor Cop. Hortense has left me in a plight, Deserved, beyond a doubt— When I called at her house last night She hung the “Go:” sign out. Sign of Greatness. “What makes you think your boy Josh is going to be a great politician?" "Because," replied Farmer Corntos sel, "he kin talk fur hours tellin’ us how to run the agriculture business without havin’ had any personal ex perience whatever.” The Particular Woman. "What do you think of the pictures of Tutankhamen’s tomb?" "It la wonderfully furnished, but I shouldn’t call Mrs. Tutankhamen a neat housekeeper.” "When we gits too busy reformin’ one another,” said Uncle Eben, “we’s each liable to sacrifice ourselves by not checkin’ up on our personal abort comings.** THE WAYS OF WASHINGTON BY WILLIAM PICKETT HELM. To him whose fancy leads him to, explore our yesterdays, Washington is as a mine of gold. Old memories sweep in cohorts invisible over our wide avenues and pleasant, tree frlngcd streets. Old associations cluster around almost every corner. Old landmarks rear their timeworn and familiar forms wherever human eyes are turned. Here but a few brief years ago a smiling farmland; today the fairest city of the western world. Where now our statesmen tread, there trod but yesterday, undisturbed, the far mer's cattle. What footfalls echo down the pages of our history since that day George Washington first gazed down upon the future site of America's future capital! How many giants have come and gone! What impres sive tread was that which wore smooth the stones over which we now are stepping? Time touches with light and caress, ing hand some of the old, old things. The clock that ticked away the hours when Jeff Davis was Secretary of War sits in Us self-same place today and still ticks away the hours. It is a good clock: good, we hope, for another sixty-odd years of useful ness. The old oil lamps that Davis used are reposing still in the office of the Secretary of War. They stand where they stood In the days when the shadow of the civil war darkened the nation. They are not used, for coal oil has long since been van- ] quished by the Incandescent bulb, but there they stand on the mantel, wicks neatly trimmed, just as they were in Davis’ day and time. There are old stories that still are told in the government buildings, stories of those days and before. Every passing year bings more. Some of them are filled with hearty laughter, better for one’s health than eighteen holes of some of them are eerie.* One summer night, early in the season of 1918. the light burned brightly till after midnight in the office of the Secretary of War. The tide of battle was fast flowing to the flood across three thousand miles of ocean; troop movements were pour ing eastward from our shores; Belleau Wood was in the making. j Secretary Baker sent home the last of his clerks and continued on at his desk alone. The lights in the other offices flashed off. one by one, till his was the only light left. The building was quiet, deserted save by him and the few watchmen. As 1 o’clock neared. Mr. Baker decided to go home. He turned off the light and stepped into the corri dor. It was almost darkened, the light being so poor that the Secre tary could just make out his way to the door. He had gone three or four paces toward the exit when he heard foot- j steps at. tiie farther end of the corri dor. He stopped, in wonder, that any one should be pacing the corri dor at so unseemly an hour, and listened. EDITORIAL DIGEST Plan Submitted for Study Rather Than Immediate Action. The long - discussed effort to straighten out some of the complex ities of governmental functions has progressed as far as the submission to Congress by the President of a definite plan of reorganization of fed eral departments. While its immedi ate adoption is out of the question the plan affords a basis for future action and a theme for present dis cussion which editors find well worth considering. And already editorial opinion is showing wide divergence in some of the controversial points. As summarized by the Nashville Tennessean the salient points in the new program are: “Consolidation of the War Depart ment and Navy Department into a single department of national de fense; department of education and welfare, to be in charge of education, health, social service and veterans’ relief activities. The women's and children's bureaus of the Department of Labor would be transferred to tiie new department, as would the bureau of education, now under the Depart ment of the Interior; tlie superin tendent of prisons, from tlie Depart ment of Justice: public health, from the Treasury. Extension of the postal service so as to provide for develop ment of telephone, telegraph and wireless communications. with a change in the name to Department of communications.” It is well, tlie Louisville Courier Journal suggests, to refer to the plan of President’s Harding’s agent, Wal ter F. Brown, "as a proposed plan. For Brown proposes, while the com mittee. and after the committee. Con gress. disposes.” Expanding on the thought which the Boston Herald ex. presses, by saying that "as now con stituted the cabinet does not rep resent any intelligent attempt to cre ate a simple and efficient machine. • • • The cabinet ’just growed.’" Tlie Star recently pointed out that the government organization, which is "a veritable patchwork,” has been evolved from “only four departments. State. Treasury. War and Navy.” In the beginning “each had its definite and distinct function. The Attorney General was added as a legal adviser, without a department at first, and the Postmaster General was next created as the officer In charge of mail serv ice. also without cabinet seat. Before the interior Department was created these other two officials had been given cabinet rank. Then came Agri culture and finally Commerce and Labor, which soon was divided Into two separate departments, bringing the number of executive branches up to ten. the present number” Further, the Boston paper goes on to say, "Congress created one bureau after another, and hitched them on to the several departments, usually without ECHOES FROM CAPITOL HILL STOP PASSING IKCOYHTITITIOSAL LAWS If the members of Congress and the President would do their duty, then no Supreme Court would ever have a chance to declare an act of Con gress unconstitutional. It is the habit of "passing the buck" by mem bers of Congress that has brought about a situation that Is giving con cern to many people.—Representa tive McSwain, South Carolina, demo crat. ONE OF THE ESSENTIALS OP WAR. War is hell. International law has attempted to restrain some of its bar barities, hut you cannot get rid of them. Killing itself is contrary to all our moral senses, and yet it is one of the essential necessities of war.—Representative Temple, Penn sylvania, republican. BUILDING LP A DISREGARD FOR LAW. If the Congress of the United States continues to trespass upon the liber ties, personal rights, and freedom of the people of the several states of this Union, they will build up a sen fiment in disregard of law which will shake the whole fabric of our gov ernment. —Senator Underwood, Ala bama, democrat. NO WAY TO PAY PUBLIC OBLIGATION, No civilized nation in this world today will countenance for a moment the doctrine that private property 4tould be taken for the satisfaction «jf a public obligation.—Representa tive Rayburn, Texas, democrat. Unmistakably, the sound was that of footsteps. Moreover, the tread was quick and impatient. As be listened, wondering if a watchman was try ing to keep awake, the sound of a human voice in a strange and Jumbled tongue, high-pitched and clear, came to .his ear. The Secretary of War retraced his steps quietly to his own door and then tiptoed down the corridor In the direction whence came the sounds. He reached the end and Just around the corner beheld the figure of a clerk, om he knew well, walking rapidly back and forth. And us he walked the clerk talked ancient Greek. The Secretary rccog. nized the passage as a long extract from an old Greek tragedy, written by one of the major poets. The clerk was declaiming; he was giving the old Greek tragedy. In tonal expres sion. all lie was worth. For half a minute, perhaps. Mr. Baker looked on. unobserved. Pres ently the clerk saw him and. much abashed, halted bis passionate elo quence. They exchanged a few words and the Secretary passed on out into the night. Such an incident, naturally, would leave its imprint on a mind far less sensitive than that of the Secretary of War. During the weeks that fol lowed Mr. Baker thought often of the midnight incident. He marveled that the clerk should be there, and. still more, that the clerk should know so well the lines of the Greek tragedy. From time to time he saw the clerk. Then one day the little fellow appeared no more at his desk. He had gone into the ranks. And there after Mr. Baker thought less of the incident. Some time afterward Mr. Baker went to France. He visited the ex peditionary force. inspected all branches of the service, learned at first hand of all that was going on and contemplated, and returned to tlie United States. He came back aboard an Army transport. On board he mingled with men mi well as officers, chatted with the doughboys, spent long hours in their quarters, learned of their veiw polnt with respect to the war. He visited also the ship hospital. He went among the sick and wounded and finally asked to be shown into the ward where were kept the poor fellows who had become demented. They took him there. As the door opened and he stood on tlie threshold there smote his ear a volley of Greek poured out In a voice high pitched and clear. He stopped, thunder-struck. He lis tened. lie recognized the theme. It was from an old Greek tragedy writ ten by one of the major poets. He went to the bedside whence it came. And there, as the reader already has surmised, he saw once more the clerk with whom he had parted in the dim corridor of the War Department building at Washington months before. Mad. ladies and gentlemen; stark, raving mad. “And that." said Mr. Baker a few day s ago, "is ray one outstanding recollection of the world war." rhyme or reason.” and the 'plan now brought forward contemplates great changes clearly intended to produce order" out of the resulting chaos. "There is no question." the Brook lyn Eagle contends, "that many ot tlie agencies of federal government ought to be regrouped.” and ft looks upon the proposed program as a means of "making government more simple.” However, in common with several papers, it feels that the "only doubtful phase of the report is that relating to the consolidation of the War and Navy departments.” While "much may be said in favor of consolidating them under one head.” , it is. on tip* other band, "plain that they have relatively few points ot contact, especially in times of peace" From the viewpoint of the New York World this proposal is only a little less dubious than "that other pet project of the President’s —the crea tion of the new department of wel fare.” The World feels that by in cluding the recommendation for this consolidation "experiment.” which "is certain to arouse bitter opposition.” the “Brown organization plan has been greatly weakened." On the other hand, the Chatta nooga News believes "that the coun try favors” such a merger, which, the Watertown Standard points out. has been proposed “under almost every administration." In the opin ion of the Standard, "no other two departments dovetail so completely as the War and Navy. They neces sarily must work together in har mony in time of emergency. With two separate heads differences of opinion arose and it was frequently necessary for tlie President to take a band. With a single cabinet officer responsible for all defense, both land and sea. direction and co-operation might be easier." The Minneapolis Tribune agrees that "the business of war can never ba ideally conducted by two distinct and independent bureaucracies People who know anything about bureaucratic Jeal ousies know that co-operation is by no means always to be depended upon.” More than that, as the Tribune sees it. "any program of na tional defense ought to consider all branches of the service as means contributing to a single end. Land service, naval service and aerial serv ice must be studied, each in its re lation to the other. There should be no aggrandizement of one at the ex pense of the other. Hence the value of centralized ’control presided over by a man who feels no partisanship toward any specific branch of the service." Viewing tiie program as a whole, while "there is abundant room for simplification and reduction in costs.' the Ohio State Journal feels that Us adoption is far from certain, since "any reorganization that displaces men or reduces their official impor tance or compensation would he un popular with members of Congress. Politicians want more and better places • • • and ail congressmen are politicians at times." THE SITUATION OF AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. The situation of Austria-Hungary today la pitiful. Formerly a great nation of 52.000,000 people, its terri tory has been divided into six differ ent nations. Its capital city—Vienna —has a population of 2,000,000 people. The balance of Us territory is largely mountainous and without sufficient tillable land to feed Us population and with substantially no ooal de posits.—Representative Hawes, Mis souri, democrat. NO DANGER OF PRUSSIANIZING AMERICANS. For myself I have altogether too high an opinion of the American peo ple to believe that they are in danger of being Prussianized through either a Regular Army, an organized re serve or any other military force. — Representative Newton, Minnesota, republican. THE LOVE OF AMERICANS FOR THEIR GOVERNMENT. One of the moat gratifying things in these days of change and experi ments is the really deep-seated and quite general confidence and pride which the great majority of 'the American people have in our govern ment. Ninety per cent of the people be lieve in and respect our form of gov ernment, and I venture the opinion that they will be the last to surren der or destroy it.—Senator Borah, Idaho, republican. •’ -Vr THE CURSE OF OUR CIVILIZATION. The multiplicity of our lawa today is the curse of our civilisation.—Sen ator Stanley, Kentucky, democrat. I NEW BOOKS AT RANDOM TREES AS GOOD CITIZENS. Charles Uthmp Pack. The AmrrU'Pn Tree Association. You remember that day when the young god Prometheus, angered at the haughty elder gods, stole Are —the most Jealously guarded treasure of Olympus and gave it to man. That waa the very moment, you recall, when Zeus and his war lords were seriously considering the total destruction of this troublesome and pestiferous race of men. The neigh borly act of Prometheus, however, not only saved man from annihilation but It secured to him, as well, the prime wherewithal of continued existence— gods or no gods. The gift of fire was man’s salvation. And thereafter trees —the great fire food —became something other than home of hamadryad, or tem ple of worshipful rite to the gods of Olympian skies. Throughout the years, since that day, the trees have stood shoulder to shoulder with man in the business of creating a warmed and fur nished world. But not all of them. Certain of these have held aloof, unresponsive to the sacrificial adventure in usefulness. Pa gan trees, maybe, throwing back to re mote ancestral types, waiting, one fancies, for the cycle to round again upon the pagan belief that beauty is its own excuse for being. Up to recent years these idle trees were left pretty much to God and the poets and other impractical folks who, liking the look and feel of them, planted others around their homes and along their streets. And I these companionable, do-nothing trees were gathered loosely up under the name of shade trees. ** * ★ Mr. Pack offers this book in an ardent and very practical advocacy of shade trees. “Good citizens" lie calls them, maintaining that they deserve this title, not only by the quality and scope of their public service, but by the legal status that they have finally acquired, as well. Stepping a little back from this book, to get a free view, one finds that It has two outstanding features. One of these rounds up a record of shade-tree movement, so general, so spontaneous, so quickly responsive of every part of the whole, as to suggest a renaissance of the ancient tree cult, subdued and modified by the natural process of adaptation to the mod ern outlook and aim. The other sums to a body of Instruction—simple enough to meet anybody, practical enough to appeal to the go-getters of the world. Every craftsman prefers to work with his own tools. The sci entist is no exception. But. to take no chance on meeting his definite pur pose here. Mr. Pack lays aside the technicalities of tree life and culture, and. in the plainest of words, talks about a tree much as he might talk about a man. He tells of its looks, its disposition, its habits: of the places which it likes most and where it thrives best; of its proper schooling and training; of its occasional ail ments and the treatment that prom ises to set it speedily upon its grow ing way again, of its service to the community and its high standing therein. The author theft moves out Into the general field of shade trees. He points to Washington and Paris as star examples of tree culture, won dering. in passing, what these cities would be stripped of the forest green ery in which each is set. He tells of the keen rivalry among cities for pre eminence as shade-tree centers. Springfield. Mass., is, at present, for its population, the foremost of our cities in this respect. The author describes methods of tree appraisal, according to accepted formula, and the money value that many cities count among their assets, on the basis of such competition. . He analyzes the laws that have been enacted through out the country to protect both the life and the rights of these “good cit izens" ** * * The shade tree in history makes a somewhat familiar story, a deeply interesting one. From this it is but a step to the Hall of Fame, estab lished In honor of famous trees. These are nominated, elected and confirmed in proper form. This institution proved to be a tremendous influence in spreading interest In the shade tree movement. Many of these trees deserve mention —one in particular. It is the Gen. Sherman sequoia, in the redwood forest of California. This tree gained admission to the hall on the statement of age alone. It is said to be the oldest tree now living— more than 4,000 years old. a giant growth when Christ was born twenty , centuries ago. The memorial free Idea sprang Into life at the signing of the armistice, wnen the people of the United States adopted the tree as a symbol of their tribute to peace. Immediately every sort of organization responded with en thusiasm to the beautiful and significant ceremony of memorial tree planting till the entire country stands now a com munitv in this enterprise. The most thrilling instance of the rite accompa nied the burial of our Unknown Soldier at Arlington and at the same time marked the opening of Armistice week two vears ago. ♦* * * The planting of memorial trees, ex panded. is producing the 'Toads of re membrance” where shade trees, miles and miles of them, are stepping into line along the great highways that soon will loop our cities and towns and fields together into a commonwealth of grow ing friendliness and Intimacy. These “roads” are placed and described here in terms of their present achievement and along the lines of their ultimate ful fillment. And so this stimulating bock goes on —a kind of splendid, portable arbore tum. Chapters and pages are packed wdth tree lore. Instruction for the learner is here In a rounded body of fact and method —simple, definite, com plete. for the purpose involved. Here, too. is instruction, supplemented by ex ample and suggestion, for municipali ties and other governing nodies, to the end that the tree-planting project may. in every community, take advantage of ! experience already gained. And here, i for everybody. Is an inspiring story of fine achievement. Both the news and the literature of the tree movement arc so happily blended here that the former makes its usual prompt appeal while the latter moves more slowly into one's permanent appreciation. It has become an axiom that men of science—the most useful of all men, perhaps—are notably inarticulate to the average man by vir tue of their special language and gen eral obliviousness to the world around them. So they are poor purveyors of Ideas in anything like popular form and appeal- That may be so with many of them. But Is not true, decidedly not true, in respect to Charles Uathrop Pack —for a more open man or a more communicable one than this author has proved himself to be in this inspired tree propaganda cannot be conceived. * I. G. M. Deplores Recent Crime At Fairmount Heights To I he Editor of The Star: Any crime committed Is an offense against the whole community. Any violator of the law is an enemy against the whole community. The citizens of Fairmount Heights regret to the full the wave of crime which seems to have struck this com munity and they offer any assistance they can give to apprehend and con vict any guilty parties. They arc determined th -1 * no irresponsible per son or anything shall mar or-inter fere with the most helpful relations that exist, and have existed In thla community among all citizens. They ask to be called upon in time of distress. They will use lawful means.to drive any criminal Into prison bosses. UMM W. ARMSTRONG. CAPITAL KEYNOTES BY PAUL V. COLLINS. WASHINGTON, D. C.. February 26. —lt was undoubtedly without any reference to the movement amongst a certain element in Congress to override the decisions of the Supreme Court, as to the constitutionality of a law decreed by the court as uncon stitutional, that Chief Justice Taft, came back at the legislators, in his speech at the Law Institute banquet, when he alleged that the legislatures are to blame for the errors of courts. He blames the legislatures for their unwillingness to give the courts necessary power to render just de cisions. He failed to specify just what power Is lacking, which could be supplied by act of the legislatures, to clarify the brain of the "most learned judges," but surely an humble layman would not question the decision of the Chief Justice. The comment of Chief Justice Tsft confirms the argu ment recorded in this column a day or two ago. protesting against en larging the power of Congress by en abling it to confirm a law after the Supreme Court had ruled It as uncon stitutional, by re-enacting it with a two-thirds vote —a process known as a "recall of judicial decisions.” If statesmen hesitate to empower the high courts adequately to study and pass upon the laws, then the states men are not taking the responsibility of correct law administration and in terpretartlon with the seriousness it deserves—requires. The American lovers of liberty, under a govern ment of law. It is argued, would in deed rue the day when any influence —certainly when political excitement and all-considered, transitory enthusi asm—could sweep aside the safeguards of the Constitution. When the Consti tution needs to be amended, the con servatives plead, let so important a step be taken soberly and with due enlight enment. and studied and passed upon by the whole people—not in radicalism by a few politicians. "Let the people rule”’ ** * * It is a long step toward correc tion of a fault when the fault is recognized and stated. The American Law Institute recognizing the failure to bring speedy and certain justice through, the courts, ascribe the com plexity of the laws as the chief cause, not only for failures an court, but for increasing disrespect for law. which tempts to its violation. There fore a complete restatement and codification of all law is to be under taken—a tremendous task, which, it is prohesied, will require ten to twenty years to complete, and an ex pense exceeding $1,000,000. ** * * Oulsido of the courts and law offices, most people leave thought the disrespect of law was due to lax execu tion by the officers of law in haling offenders into court. It has been declared that the liquor laws were sure to break down, because they can not be enforced. The statement of the internal revenue collector, at- - tributed to him within the last fort- j night, that 95 per cent of prohibition i officers are either killed or corrupted within the first six months of their service, is the most startling confes sion of the weakness of government that has been made in many genera tions. It bespeaks a woeful state of society. If we now must add that only 10 per cent of the homicides are ever convicted in court, and that the uncertainty of law is corrupting merchants to cheat, and crimes of all kinds to be committed with increas ing Impunity—as charged by the com- ! mittee of the American Uw Institute. : representing the leading judges and | lawyers of America —the disclosure is | most Impressive. w The Monroe Doctrine Only 25 Per Cent Monroe. To the Editor of The Starr In Mr. Edward Berwick’s letter in | The Star of Friday. February 23. the impression is given that ail of Mon- | roe’s verbose message of December 2. 1823. is Monroe doctrine and that all of the doctrine is contained in that message. As a matter of fact, the doctrine, today, is made up of four deflnitely cnunciated principles, no more and no less, no matter what may be the modifications in the future. These four principles are; I. Monroe principle; No extension ! of European territorial holdings in ' the Americas, but perfect freedom of European powers to deal and shuffle with their American colonies as they chose. 11. Grant princ ; ple: No territory In the Americas subject to transfer to a European power. 111. Olney principle; No intrusion by any European power in the politics of any stale in North or South Amer ica and the flat of the United States is law upon the subjects to which, it confines Its interposition. IV. The Root principle: What we will not permit the great powers of 1 Europe to do, we will not permit any American republic to make it neces sary for the great powers of Europe to do. Mr. Berwick seems to think that the Monroe doctrine remained, even unto this day. as Monroe formulated it. after it had been suggested by canning the British premier, and mod ified by Rush. Madison and others. History tells us that within three years 'from the Monroe pronounce ment Clav modified it by declaring that the United States would not al low European powers to trade their American colonies at will, in that Spain would not be allowed to transfer Cuba and Porto Rico to any other European power. Van Buren declared the same thing in 1830 and in 1845 Polk declared that the United States would never acknowledge any transfer of territory, whether made bv the desire of the inhabitants, by purchase or by force, from any coun try of North America to any nation of Europe. Apparently Polk did not think the Guianas in South America worth considering. The logic of events proved that one of those colonies had Suggests U. S. Bounty For Still Capturers To the Editor of The Star: It stems presumptuous on the part of a private citizen to think he can offer anything new on this question which is costing the government so much money and our Congress so mnch worry. I desire space in your paper to ask a question for the readers to consider and answer in regard to enforcing the eighteenth amendment. Why could not the government make enforcement self-supporting by offer ing the citizens who capture stills and Illicit "boose” 60 perjeent of the value of the confiscated property? The alcohol thus captured could ho used as medicine or fuel instead of being destroyed, and men who are now- "bootlegging” to get money would raid illicit stills to get money. There is no more reason in wasting captured whisky than there would be to throw silver or gold into the ocean if found in a raid on counterfeiters, or In making a bonfire every year ot the goods that go to the dead letter °When we want to get rid of wolves we offer a bounty on their scalps, and it is my opinion if the property ot the man who attempts to violate our Constitution were to be divided between the stale and the officers or citizens who brought hint to justice, you would soon sss the traffic of il licit booze come to an end. Anarchists are more dangerous than wolves. Then why not offer a bounty and rid ourselves of them? • The violation of our Constitution ts treason. Bootleggers are guilty of treason. a L Good citizens everywhere will real ize that they have a serious duty t <■ perform, beyond merely living a-, law-abiding citizens, uis time that every good citizen took squarely th* duty of co-operating actively In law enforcement and respect for law, be cause It in law', whether the citizen voted for or against that particular law. America is headed for anarchy, it Is alleged, unless strong influence -, are set at work to counteract present criminal tendencies and law con tempt. This points to a great held of patriotic usefulness for commun ity associations and other organiza tions. ** * * Senator David I. Walsh (democrat) of Massachusetts joins with Senator Underwood, democratic floor leade, of the Senate. In denouncing the old fashioned filibuster as a practice in Congress, by which a minority talks to death a measure supported by a majority. As both of these senator-, were opposed to the ship subsidy bill, against which a successful filibuster has just been waged, it can not be said that their attitude against th-- filibuster practice is biased by theii desire to sec this particular filibuster fail. It Is based upon the broader grounds that it is a defeat of the rul of the majority, and, as such, is "gov ernment by the minority,” which is tyranny!’ Senator Walsh, commenting on the filibuster, is quoted as saying; "The first step necessary to check the alleged growing lack of confi dence in Congress is to guarantee tin right of the majority to call the roil and pass final judgment on all 1-g lation. I.ess talk and more vot-s would, in my opinion, promote re public good.” The senator from Massachusetts ■> vocated an immediate reform of fe rules. saying: "Indeterminate deba •• is a slovenly, antiquated and repr. hensible method of conducting pul-’ business.” ** * * The fact that these criticisms c-.•in most strongly from the loaders of the democrats, in this instance, is no spe cial reflection upon the members of their own party who have differed from them, and have fought the subsidy bill with this weapon. The other party has been equally guilty. It is a praclk which might well be outlawed, with tin honors equally divided between the parlies. It is a test of physical endur ance. i.ot mental reasoning. Even the forty million mqrons. attributed !•• America by the Princeton psychologist, might serve as senators —at reduced pa —if legislation! is to be achieved by sheer physical strength, rather than the logic of intellectual debate. • * -Jf if * The Secretary of Agriculture, Henry Wallace, saya that he has no power to prevent the meat merger of th(t Armour and Morris packing companies, but that, as soon as they merge and begin to de velop a meat monoponly. he has amp! • power to break the monopoly. He can not lock the stable door, but how he can chase the fellows who try to kidnap the horse’ Why has not Congress put a proper padlock on the stable door and given its groom the key? In. the meanwhile tlie merger Is pro gressing. an Chicago, and the packer-- assure the public tiiat they have tb<- best lawyers. Americans had just h- - gun to get back to normalcy, too. eating meat. We averaged six pound more in 1922 than in either 1921 or 192". All*that increase was in iKirk—no in crease in other kinds of meat. Wa t until that merger goes through and tin monopoly begins to boost the price. a> • then we’ll "eat ’em alive.” We if, pork. (Copyright. 1923, hr I>. V. Hollins I to be very seriously considered , : Cleveland’s administration. f The matter of transfer e>f Europea; colonies rn the Americas was finally settled by the Grant principle. While there are many decisions con nected with our national relations i the Americas, such as the Roosevelt decision that European powers migh temporarily occupy territory h American countries, the Dodge prohi bition of the gaining of strategy footholds in the Americas are no more a part of the Monroe doctrine than is the Bolivar dogma "I.ae Americas para las American' - ” Today, the. old doctrine stands, ail fours upon its four basic principles. , As the doctrine is ours, and ours alone, our government alone can violate it. which it has done upon several occasions. European countries may contravene the doctrine. They have, now and again. Mr Berwick injects, in parentheses, the idea that Monroe, when he men tioned the system of the European powers, had in mind the system of militarism and imperialism as a bad system. Imperialism and militarism had absolutely nothing to do with tin case. Our country was even then headed upon the westward course of empire which took its westward way and our country with it. through * exercise of military power, first to • the Pacific and later to the far east via the westward course of th- American empire. At present our course of empire seems to be laid to the southward, via Porto Rico, Haiti, Panama et al. No, Monroe had no notion of tin evils of militarism and imperialism If he had had such a notion, wo. the people, in our cmpire-by-military- I power-built glass house, should he tin last to throw stones at other peoples for indulging in those national sins Incidentally, if we can differentiate patriotism from national self-conceit sufficiently to feel patriotic shame, a-, well as patriotic pride, it might h l ' well for us to remember that apart from the commonplace national sin of imperialism and militarism we have a number of darling ones of our very’ own. among which may h mentioned oratorism. litoratism lawyorism. pedagogism, parsopism sumptuarism. meddleism, prohibition of-libertyism and war-provoking f pacifism, each a mors deadly sin 'or a nation’s soul than either militarism or imperialism. WM, W. KTMBAI.I. Summer White House Called a Restriction To the Editor of The 8t»r: There is an agitation on foot, sine a Washington home is likely to he found for the Vice President, which Is perhaps admissible—to get a summer - White House for the President. * Though we honor our Presidents as much as subjects do their kings. I wish to say that Presidents would not and never will like to live in summer White Houses, as it is sure that ouy American Presidents will / seek an Independent free will privacy to liberate themselves from official dom. It should not be our desire In our America to start on a career of White Houses here and W’hite Houses there on the pattern of castled here and castles there, as In the old country. The royal families and all their sons and daughters are each provided with castles and appropriations. If we are to follow the line of old traditions, we might do as well and better by setting up things for our much more . worthy officials—the secretary of ' state and the rest of-the President’s cabinet, and lay out a park for that purpose. We have passed the out-of-date old world methods. Our aspirations are great, and we have made this country great by the plain policies of its founders. We can still he content to follow their piain policies, tbe poli cies of a republic. If anything i« to be done, it would be a grateful country to reward with a pension our ex-Presidents who have born the terrifying perplexities to please all parlies and who boldly stand for our principles—the repre sentatives of our republic, the great a est republic yet born In deeds and* ideal*. MICHAEL. BLISS.