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THE EVENING STAR, With Sunday Morning Edition. WASHING T O N, D. C. THURSDAY March 1, 1923 THEODORE W. NOYES Editor The Evening Star Newspaper Company Business Office, 11th St. end TViinsylvanU Ave. Npvt York Office : «* e St. Chicago Office: Tow*. BnlMln*. European Office: 18 Regent St., London. England. The Ereninc Star. with the Sunday morning edition, Is delivered hy carriers within the city at 80 cents per nimith: dally oti’y, 45 (enta per month; Sunday only. ‘JO cents per month. Or ders may t*> sent hy mail, or telephone Main r.ooo. Col lection is made hy earners at the end of each month. Rate by Mall—Payable in Advance. Maryland and Virginia. Daily and Sunday..l yr.. JS.4O; 1 mo., 70c Dally only t yr., Sfi.OO; 1 mo., 50c Sunday only 1 yr.. $2.40; 1 mo., 20c Ail Other States. Pally and Sunday..l yr., $10.00; 1 mo., 85c Daily only 1 yr., $7.00; 1 mo., 60c Sunday only 1 yr., $3.00; 1 mo., £sc Member of the Associated Press. Th# Associated ITem is exclusively entitled te the use for republicstion of sll news dis patches credited t*> if or art otherwise credited In this paper and also the local news pub lished herein. All rights of publication of special dispatches herein are also reserved. Col. Harvey on War Debts. The processes of George Harvey, American ambassador at the Court of fc't. Janies, are not exactly of the va riety which became known a genera tion ago as “shirt-sleeve” diplomacy.' but they lack nothing in directness and plain speaking. Col. Harvey, in fact, has indulged generously in plain speaking before British audiences, and. more to the point, he “has made them like it.” Repeatedly he has called a spade a spade, and instead of bringing the structure of diplomatic Intercourse tumbling down with a crash, relations between ids govern ment and the government to which he is accredited apparently have been strengthened and bettered in every way. Col. Harvey spoke again last night in London at a dinner given by the Pilgrims in honor of Stanley Baldwin, • •hancellor of the British exchequer, and in celebration of the funding of the British debt to this government. His speech was of the usual Harvey esque brand, felicitous and freighted with kindly feeling, but straight to the point. Funding of the British debt, he said, was a great deal more than the largest financial transaction in history, and more in its significance even than the first conclusive set tlement of a really vital problem since the armistice. It bore with it the enhancement of respect and. he believed, the everlasting friendship of the two great nations to which the entire world looks for the preserva tion of solvency and stability which are essential to the prosperity and happiness of mankind. The United Kingdom, he asserted, continues to rest on the rock of financial integrity and national honor. Then, having paid the British the tribute which was their due. Col. Har vey took a shot at the fiction that Great Britain did not really borrow money from the United States, but merely pledged her credit that loans might be made to more needy allies, and he referred to an official state ment by the British government con veying that impression. He denied that this government had asked Great Britain to guarantee one cent of the loans made to the other allies, and ex pressed the hope that at some suitable time “the British government will, with equal formality and no less ex plicitness, remove the misapprehen sion created by this unfortunate illu sion.” Up to this point the ambassador had been speaking to his British hear ers, but in concluding his address he enlarged his audience to include all the governments which are indebted to the government of the United States. He assured them that the United States “had no intention of ruining the credit” of any govern ment by canceling its debts to this country. The bootlegger finds a rival in the attention of the authorities in the society hlp-pocketer. French occupation of the Ruhr has caused the watch on the Rhine to re semble a case of insomnia. A Street Car Fare Inquiry. A full inquiry hy a special commit tee of the Senate Into the question of street car fares in the District is proposed in a resolution which, hav ing received the approval of the Dis trict committee and the committee on contingent expenses, is likely to be adopted. This committee will, under its directions, investigate the financial situation of the street railway cor porations operating here to determine whether the rate of fare as now charged is equitable. It will, in short, review the work of the Public Utilities Commission in fixing the rate on the basis of the earning power of the corporations. Such an inquiry will probably be helpful in setting at rest definitely all questions relating to the righteousness of the present street car rates, which means the fullness and fairness of the Inquiry by the Utilities Commis sion into the valuations of the prop erty of the corporations. This select committee may take Issue with the Utilities Commission on the score of the valuations. Everything turns upon tha actual money Investment of the owners of the lines. It la contended that the less affluent of the two cor porations cannot In the present con ditions earn sufficient gross revenue from the former rate of fore—six tickets for a quarter or 5 cents straight—to meet the fixed and over head charges and operating expenses and make any profit. It la contended by citizens, though denied by the com pany, that the other corporation can make a profit at the, old fare. It undoubtedly makes a larger profit now out of the present rate of fore than the company of larger mileage, heavier expense and proportionately less re munerative service. The select committee of the Senate Is likely to find, as the Commissioners found, that the street railway situa tion in the District is bod because of the differing financial conditions of Um two corporations, and that in a merger only can a cure be effected. Proposals for such a merger have been made, but without success. It is surely not desirable to adopt terms of compulsory merger that entail a heavy loss upon the present owners of either company, whatever may have been the mistakes of financing in the past on either side. Nor is it desirable by an arbitrary rate reduction to bring the fare to the point of absolute loss for one of the companies and force it through such loss into receivership. Public ownership has been proposed as a remedy for this bad condition. Probably the Senate select committee will consider such a measure. But it will be forced to face the fact that public ownership means purchase and upon equitable terms, which are based upon fair valuation of properties and rights which cannot be Ignored, even through the exercise of the right of eminent domain by condemnation. A municipal merger of the two systems In such circumstances might permit lower fares, but It must not be for gotten that the cost of purchase must be paid by the Community and the interest on that purchase means taxes, which may be considered as street rail way fare In another form. It will be a relief, however, to have this whole question fully and fairly examined by a legislative committee to the end of a settlement of any doubt there may be on the score of the fares, and possibly to the end of hastening a solution through the amal gamation of the two systems into one, which is to be desired from every point of view, of convenience, of serv ice and of economy. The Alley Emergency. With so few hours remaining of the present session of Congress and of the Congress itself, many worthy measures press for attention and mutually conflict in their demand for consideration. There is one bill, how ever, that should be given especial attention, for it is designed to meet a real emergency, and if not enacted before the gavel falls it will leave a deplorable and most distressing con dition here in Washington. This bill provides for an extension of the time for the closing and vaca tion of dwellings in alleys in this city. Under the terms of the law, enacted several years ago and subsequently extended, some 3,000 houses in alleys must be vacated hy June 1 next. These dwellings, which are In a very bad state of repair, owing to the pros pect of their vacation and loss of rev enue from them as residences, house, it is estimated, between 14.000 and 15,000 people. If this law lakes effect on the Ist of June all of these people will be thrown out of their homes, and there has been no provision them elsewhere. There is nobody to blame for the failure to provide proper homes for these people. Earnest efforts have been made by organizations and by individuals to secure money for the construction of substitute housings. But the funds have not been forth coming, and in the conditions that have prevailed, with prices stir beyond normal, it has been impossible to meet more than a slight fraction of the re quirement. Hope was at one time en tertained of a municipally aided project of construction, but for that no authority has been given and none seems likely. These housings must be provided for through private enter prise. possibly philanthropic-ally in spired. Two propositions are pending in Congress to relieve this situation. One is known as the Commissioners’ bill, which extends until November 14, 1924, the date for the vacation of the alley houses. The other, a substitute, provides three "zones” of vacation, or, rather, periods. Under it one-third of the alley dwellings would he closed on the Ist of June next, another third a year later and the last a year from that date. By the Cbmmissioners’ bill all will be vacated within seventeen and one-half months from June 1 next. Under the substitute bill all will be vacated within twenty-four months and most of them within twelve. In the circumstances it is earnestly to be urged that action should be had on one or the other of these bills. Failure to act means the eviction of nearly 15,000 people from homes which, though poor, though in many respects insanitary, though so located as to be breeders of crime and vice, are, nevertheless, the only shelter that they possess. People who learned to do without sweets during the war will not be worried by rumors of price-boosting by sugar gamblers. Many a lame duck finds his lame ness only a temporary inconvenience and proceeds to fly high in official or Industrial circles. A number of people are never re ferred to as “prominent in society” until they get caught In some kind of a raid. Clubs. Comment is often made on the In crease In the number of clubs In Washington and the growth of their membership. It Is remarkable, but there Is a reason, and so far as one can Judge by human standards the reason is praiseworthy. One or two generations ego all men were com menting on the growth of fraternal or benefit associations in America, and Americans were often humorously spoken of as a nation of “j'lners.” The instinct for “J'lnlng” was a good one, and the great majority of those or ganizations proved their worthiness In encouraging charity, thrift, friendship and other virtues. In other days a club was generally a group of men called together for various forms of diversion and for “good fellowship,” which usually meant a good deal of libation. The modern club stands for something better. There are clubs of and for men and women, and “good fellowship” and good sistershlp, with out drinking, seem to be the incidental rather than the chief aim. One of their big alms seems to be Intellectual Improvement of members and the do ing of good deeds for non-members. One gets this note In the news at holidays and at times of especial stress among the poor. In the news papers one finds accounts of the dis tribution of gifts among chlldrsn and THE EVENING STAR. WASHINGTON. D. C., THURSDAY, MARCH 1, 1923. of baskets of provisions among the I poor. Again, all these new-style clubs seem to go In for instruction In seri ous subjects. Persons who are authori ties in their fields appear before the club, and club members In their turn speak on matters In which they are particularly well Informed. So it seems that the modern club in Wash ington, and no doubt in other cities, partakes of the nature of the old fashioned “mutual Improvement so ciety” of town and village and of the equally old-fashioned lecture lyceum, each of them a valuable institution. The modern city clubs, those that are conspicuous in the newspapers, seem to be on a higher mental and moral plane than most of those associations of men which were called clubs In the long ago. Fewer Accidents, A decline in street accidents is noted in the first annual report of the Washington Safety Council. The council takes credit for the improved situation and there can be no doubt in the minds of persons who have I followed the matter that a very large share of the credit for better accident statistics is due to the efforts of this body of public-spirited citizens. The council, by its safety propaganda and Us intensive campaign during Safety week, has reached great' numbers of people and has “put over” the thought to them that there are no unavoidable accidents. During the week just l»as.sed there were fifteen hospital cases a day due to street accidents, against thirty-live a day for the cor responding week last year. This is a gratifying cut in casualties and by keeping the thoughts of watchfulness and caution before people the down ward slope in accident figures can be maintained until a very low rate is reached. The rate is still far too high, but we are headed in the right direc tion. Pedestrians are still the greater sufferers from accident in the streets and too great emphasis cannot be laid on careful walking. Long before the streets of Washington became traffic burdened it was not uncommon for persons to be knocked down by a horse car or a horse and buggy. The evil of reckless motoring is with us, but if children did not play in the street, and if pedestrians would keep out of the street between crossings and would exercise prudence at the crossings the list of accidents would be very much shorter. Coal. It is good news which the Public Utilities Commission gives out. that on February 3 Washington had 5.000 tons of anthracite above its 60 per cent allotment. No figures are available as to the coal situation today, but there is a belief that we are still ahead on anthracite and there is a growing feeling of safety because spring cannot be far away and then we shall be free of furnace and fuel troubles till the leaves begin to fall. Though this has been an ex ceedingly genial and gentle winter, it lias been a winter of discontent. In- ; fiuenza and fuel troubles have beset i us. The usual kind of coal was hard to get and at least four times out of ten 1 could not be had at all. It has been necessary to feed the furnace with a “substitute.” or a coal for which the furnace seemed to have no appetite or too great an appetite. There have been many perplexities. Also, in stead of getting the winter supply in one lot. most persons have been able to get only one ton at a time and it has often required a good deal of diplomacy and hustling to get that before the furnace went on strike. But let us be of good cheer and hope that our troubles arc nearing the end and that the furnace can be kept go ing and glowing till April or May arrives. School teachers play so important a part in forming youthful character that It is far from good Judgment to leave them classified as undersalaricd people. Chicago packers claim that combina tion makes production and distribution less expensive. The thought of what a pork chop might cost were It not for such combination Is appalling. Mussolini is a great leader, but not great enough to avoid the necessity of recognizing factions. Poland and Lithuania have become almost as habitual in their enmity as France and Germany, Conditions on the continent enable Ireland to regard her troubles as small by comparison. SHOOTING STABS. BY PHILANDER JOHNSON. The Propagandist. The propagandist Is a man Untiring in his labors. He formulates a careful plan To educate his neighbors. While you and I are Jazzing It, With Pleasure’s merry minions. The propagandist doesn’t quit. But scatters his opinions. Safety First. “Tour constituents say you are do ing nothing.” “Well,” replied Senator Sorghum, "at this particular Juncture In affairs it’s safer to be criticized for loafing on the Job than to risk making mis takes.” Jud Tunklns says It seems impossi ble for some people to have a good time without looking foolish. The Income Tax. While I am counting up my pelf To swell taxation's store, I find out things about myself I nearer knew before. On With the Dance. “Do you dance?” “No,” replied Miss Cayenne. “I follow the present custom. 1 simply stand still in a low-neck dress and shiver In time with the music.” “De world,” said Uncle Eben, “Is gittln' better. Whatever doubts you may have 'bout de folks in It, dor ain’ no question concernin’ de real estate Improvements.” WASHINGTON OBSERVATIONS BY FREDERICK WILLIAM WILE. Dr. Hubert Work, who becomes Secretary of the Interior on March 4, has a world war record of which the public is not generally aware. He served at Maj. Gen. Crowder's elbow In the provost marshal’s office In 1917 and 1918, in charge of the physical-examination system under which Uncle Sam sent his mighty legions of “fit” young men into the fray. After leaving the service with the rank of colonel. Dr. Work vol unteered for duty at republican na tional headquarters and became Will H. Hays’ indefatigable collaborator In "organizing victory” in 1920. It was the estimate Hays came to place upon Work's ability and depend ability that caused the former to name the Coloradan first assistant postmaster general In 1921. When Hays retired he urged President Harding to appoint Work as his suc cessor, and the promotion Work has Just earned is a tribute to the es teem In which he is held at the White House as administrator and cabinet counselor. Dr. Work Is a “rancher” on an extensive scale. He knows the problems of the great west from long contact with them. ♦♦ ♦ ♦ Once upon a time this observer asked a well informed authority what three men Warren G. Harding would chiefly depend upon In an emergency involving either his personal fortunes or high politics. The answer was: “Harry Daugherty. John Weeks and Harry New.” Well, all three of them now sit at the cabinet table. New was wanted there from the outset. He would have been there on March 4. 1921, had lie not looked upon re election to the Senate as a certainty. The President lias limitless confidence In the Hoosler's sagacious counsel and true-blue faithfulness. Indiana political foes had about as much chance of wrecking New's status with Mr. Harding as they would have In attempting to muffle the roar of Niagara, The Harding-New intimacy Is geographical, professional and po litical in origin. The men long have been border neighbors in Ohio and Indiana; both are newspaper men. and each has been “carrying water” in and for the G. O. P. ever since they were able to hoist it. ♦* * * If there were anything in pride of origination. France long ago would have been on the road to the Perma nent Court of International Justice with her rumpus in the Ruhr. For it was two Frenchmen, in the dim and distant past, who first gave birth to the idea of a world court of ar bitral justice. The original patentee was Pierre Dubois, who suggested in the year 1305 precisely the kind of tribunal set up in 1922 by the league of nations. In 1623 another Gaul, Kmcric <’ruse, devised a plan corre sponding in essential detail with ar ticle XXIII of The Hague convention, providing for pacific settlement of in ternational disputes. John Bassett Moore. the "unofficial" American judge now sitting on the league court, lias tabulated that during the nine teenth century there were 136 inter national arbitrations. Only nineteen occurred before ISSO. indicating the rapid growth in favor of arbitral ad judication in cotemporary times. ** * ♦ William H. Moran, chief of the United States secret service, is a vet EDITORIAL DIGEST Force of Public Opinion Must Af fect Labor Board. The decision of the Supreme Court in the Pennsylvania railroad's dispute with the Railroad Board, in which the authority of the latter to enforce decisions is denied, although it was sustained in its publicity con tentions. has directed attention anew to reorganization suggestions. There seems to be a general opinion that. In view of the changed conditions in the railway labor world, the arbitra tion functions which the Chicago or ganization admittedly possesses will be ample to make it function proper ly so long as public opinion backs it up. “The decision of the court does set up the Labor Board as an arbitration tribunal of extensive influence.” says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. “Its function, according to the court. Is that of promoting co-operation be tween railroad executives and rail road labor to the end that the trans portation systems of the nation may he operated In the public interest. As we have said before, however, some reorganization of tho board that will bring the agencies controlling railroad income and railroad expendi ture closer together and will elimi nate from the board those represent atives who approach every question from the point of view of the advo cate rather than that of the judge Is desirable.” The decision “will be helpful In the future." the Canton News is convinced, because it calls for “co-operation in running the rail roads. That is exactly what is need ed.” But while this decision on one point "strengthens the position of the board in the matter of suggesting how representatives shall be chosen to negotiate wage scales," the Wil liamsport Sun Is convinced “It does not solve the problem of how deci sions of the board can be enforced and disputes between tho railroads and workers settled without strikes. Some action which will lead to en forcement of the board's decisions Is necessary.” The Philadelphia Record argues that the board “cannot pre vent strikes, and cannot even outlaw a strike. But Its right of investiga tion and decision may bo influential and therefore useful. It can assist the public to understand the merits of the controversy, educate public opinion and have considerable weight with both the companies and the unions. It Is quite possible that the fight of last summer was not in vain. As a moral Influence there are still possibilities of usefulness in the board, and we believe neither com panies nor unions will be quite as ready again for a trial of strength as they were last year." In addition, the decision emphasizes “the necessity that the board be given ECHOES FROM CAPITOL HILL DISTRICT COMPELLED TO TRAIL. I am here today to do justice to the children and to do justice to the Dis trict, not by trailing behind the ap propriations committee every year with bills that are subject to a poln,t of order.—Representative Focht, Pennsylvania, republican. DID NOAH GET A SUBSIDY! I remembered the fact that Noah built the ark, but I did not re mem ber that he got a subsidy.—Senator Caraway, Arkansas, democrat. MELLON'S PLEA TO REMEMBER THRIFT LESSONS OF THE WAR. Secretary Mellon Is probably acting on the wise Judgment expressed years ago by 6arnum, the showman, that “there Is one born every minute.” and on the short memory of the average Individual, who, even though badly stung, always comes back for more.— Senator Ladd, North Dakota* republi can. eran of that branch of the Treasury, although his is still the sprlghtliness of dynamic youth. He is completing his forty-first successive year In the Sherlock Holmes division of the gov ernment, having entered It In 1882. Although the public associates the secret service almost exclusively with detective work, shadowing, sleuth stuff and other mysterious activities, its primary function Is to safeguard the currency of the United States. That is why. ever since the service was instituted in the late '6os. It has been a division of the Treasury. In tracking down the crooks who re cently flooded the-country with coun terfeit money, Moran and his men, therefore, engaged In the practice of their genuine and original profession. “The chief." as his faithful subordi nates fondly call him, was in person al charge of the protective arrange ments for President Wilson through out the latter’s European journeys in 1918 and 1919. ** * * Beware the all-absorbing and faith ful radio, broadcasting apparatus, ye of loose tongue! One night of recent date a distinguished citizen of Wash ington. having delivered a stirring message at a certain commemorative meeting, was prevailed upon to repeat it for the benefit of listeners-in throughout the ethereal universe. Having submitted, more or less grace fully. he was conducted to a broad casting installation rigged up for the purpose. He was not aware that even stage whispers are picked up and sent on their way. for better or for worse. At any rate, he began operations by 'mumbling—subcon sciously to himself, as he fancied— that “This is a nuisance.” No body knew anything about it until several days later when letters ar rived from the four points of the compass complaining of the profanity which had introduced Mr. —'s re cent radio performance. ** ♦ ♦ Yankee tourists and business men can't be frightened out of foreign trav eling plans by rumblings or rumors of war. Tho State Department issued 10,434 passports during the first seven weeks of the present year, compared to 11,922 during the same period a year ago. Os the round 200.000 passports is sued in 1922, the department estimates that 20 per cent were for business pur poses. 35 per cent for tourist purposes and the rest for miscellaneous objects. Passport experts figure, on the basis of several years' computation, that the rush season in American traffic to for eign shores sets in with the eighth week of the calendar year—the one Just ended. ♦* * * In the Harding cabinet sits a man who was graduated from university in the early 'Bos. He had a disconcerting experience while walking down 42d street. New York, the other day. A weazened little old man approached him and. calling him by name, ejacu lated; “You’re .aren’t you?" When they were in college the decrepit little fellow was the champion athlete of the varsity and renowned on every campus in the east. The cabinet minister In those days was the frail one. The twain reminisced. They soon discov ered that nearly all the big fellows and strong men of their day hail died in middle life.* Nearly all of Die “weak lings.” like Mr. Harding’s coadjutor in question, were alive, hearty and grace fully approaching old age. power to enforce its decisions.” the Waterbury Republican holds, in in dorsing the plan to abolish it alto gether and combine it as a division of the Interstate Commerce Commis sion. But it is the opinion of the t’hattajiooga. News that before any such action is taken the changed na tional labor situation be considered, inasmuch as “nation-wide concert of action seras to have been abandoned, both by tile roads and their employes, following the strike of last summer. Negotiations between a road and its employes are now confined to the im mediate system concerned. Contracts are made accordingly. The brother hoods seem also to have adopted this plan." Regardless of the fact that the decision shows "the board has no power to enforce its rulings,” the Mobile Register argues that “the de cision strengthens the influence of the board and clears the atmosphere of the confusion that has existed in regard to Its functions.” If “it were given teeth.” as has been suggested, the Baltimore News feels that "it might have more direct power, hut It would be vastly restricted to its use. Without teeth tho power which It has can be used almost autocrati cally. The effect of this, supposing that the board survives and conse quently gradually attracts to itself the authority of tradition, can scarce ly be forecast. If the principles underlying the board live and are extended it may be necessary to de velop an entirely new theory of ad ministrative government.” It should be remembered, the Provi dence Journal insists, “that the board gets a certain new moral standing under the decision and should enjoy an added prestige henceforth through tho definite permission accorded it to employ publicity as a lever in the furtherance of its plans.” It equally is certain, as the Boston Transcript sees it. that while decisions of the board may not “be the best that could be reached, the court decides that resistance to its decisions will hereafter be made in the light of full publicity and the parties disregard ing the judgment given will be called upon to justify their action before the bar of public opinion or to face that hostile sentiment which on occa sion can prove so powerful.” Dis agreeing with this argument, the St. Louis Post-Disi>atch characterizes the outcome as “a I*abor Board de feat,” to which the Chicago News rejoins that “this significant decision should enhance the prestige of the board and lessen opposition to It from every quarter.” The Duluth News Tribune replies to both opinions by insisting that “whether the decision will strengthen the board or end its usefulness will be determined by developments. It will strengthen its position If an enlightened public opinion gets be hind the decisions of the board and supports them vigorously. It will weaken that position If the board fails to win public confident. If the public backs the Labor Board both employers and unions will consider very carefully before they flout Its i decisions.” GREAT BRITAIN’S GAIN PROM THE WAR. Great Britain added to her empire as a result of the war, either by an nexation or by protectorates and mandates, a territory of 3.972.000 square miles—larger than continental Europe—with a population of more than 51,725,000.—5enat0r La Folletle, Wisconsin, republican. A SERIOUS MATTER FOR GREAT BRITAIN. There was a large increase of mar riages In Great Britain immediately after the close of the war, but not a corresponding inorease in birth rate, and since then the birth rate. If I am correctly Informed by such statistics as I have been able to examine, has been declining; and that, at this mo ment particularly, Is a very serious matter for the country-—Senator Lodge. Massachusetts, republican. GOOD ADVICE. Let us be partisans, not republican or democratic partisans, but parti sans of America. —Senator Ransdeli, Louisiana, democrat. The North Window BY LEILA MECHLIN, A distinguished art critic standing before a water color by Marin at a recent out-of-town exhibition eald ruefully: 'Tin sorry, but I don’t get him.” “Don't get him," repeated a bystander. ‘Why should you? What Is there to get?” “That’s Just it,” the critic explained, “I don’t know. Cer tainly there is something In his work which is worth while, something In dicative of purpose, but X don’t see It.” “If you don’t see It, what makes you think that It’s there?” wonder ingly asked the layman, “Because,” was the answer, "people in whose Judgment I have the utmost faith say it Is. there; they do get it.” The picture In question had the appearance to the uninitiated of an extremely immature work, a variety of color spots placed In almost a hap hazard way on paper, after the man ner of the modernists. It was a landscape, but It was incomplete. The layman would have passed It by almost without thought, but the re mark of the critic kept coming back, opening, as it were, an avenue of in quiry. “Is it possible,” thought she, "that the painter of that water color, so meaningless even to the trained eye of the critic, had the germ of an idea which he was striving to eluci date and which might in time prove not merely revolutionary, but Illumi nating?" ** * * One does not commonly look for an answer to such inquiries as this in articles on religion, but, curiously enough, the writer discovered such an explanation In an article on “Mod ernism and the Church,” by the Rev. Roland Cotton Smith, for many years rector of St. John's Church in this city, which was published In a cur rent number of the Outlook. In this article Dr. Smith says: "The art of today is not sensual and materialis tic; It is the attempt of a man to express, not what the other man has seen, but what ho secs of tho spirit within the form. The result of his labors often appears monstrous, but It Is a step in the right direction: for when the true spirit Is recap tured It will inevitably express itself in the right form. This development which we can see most clearly in modern art throws a light upon the whole modern surging of the spirit. It springs out of life and demands! reality, and it refuses for the present to accept any of the established forms, but when the spirit is recap tured we shall find that it will ex press itself more and more in the old accepted forms.” In this brief paragraph Dr. Smith with marvelous clarity sets forth the idea back of the modernist movement in art—some thing which no artist has apparently been able to do and which no critic lias yet done—possibly because neither artist nor critic has had the wisdom nor the intuition to discover that germ of an idea that was labor ing to find expression. * * ♦ ■* X’l) to the present time the effort, the struggle, has been ugly and has brought forth distressing results, but It is possible that Dr. Smith is right: and that out of this ugliness, this haze of misunderstanding, may be coming a new art which is infinitely better than and equally precious as the art of the past. To gain a de sired end it is sometimes necessary to go through long- dark passages. Large achievement almost always comes as the result, possibly as the reward, of struggle. It is easier by far to repeat what others .have said than to put fortli new, worth-while ideas. The loader of a great symphony orchestra said to the writer less than a fortnight ago; "The musical out look is discouraging. What are we doing today but repeat what has been I done so well in the past? oh. yes. we do it well—the works of the masters are beautifully rendered to day. But we are making no contri bution; we have no brilliant young composers either in this country or abroad—that is. none of the stature of Beethoven, or Brahms, or Wagner.” To a great extent the same has been true in painting. An accomplished Dutch painter said some years ago to lan American traveler in Holland; “It [is impossible for us to paint any thing which is original today. If we [attempt a landscape, involuntarily we I do a Mauve; if we choose an interior with figures as our theme, we produce la weak imitation of Israels. It is for this reason that the modern Dutch school, which attained such heights but a decade ago, has almost sunk into oblivion.” The conditions in this country have not been altogether different. Cur rent exhibitions of American paint ing for some time have testified to an extraordinary technical skill on the part of the painters, but evidenced an almost tragic absence of real mes sage. Not only this, but in many instances the artists have seemed to have lost their ideals of beauty and to be putting forth work of an ex tremely graceless sort. Undoubtedly U was time for a renaissance. And yet it has been hard to be jiieve that out of the confusion of j modernism could come something j new and fresh and fine in tho field of l art. No one in one’s sano mind could I admire the abortions which have been ) brought forth by cubism. post- ( impressionism, futurism: but hideous ias they have been, in themselves i meaningless to the uninitiated, they should perhaps have been regarded las indicative of a spirit of progress, I .as witnessing to a dissatisfaction iwith feeble imitation and a desire (to search out new truth. Through I ail the grotesque ugliness, though un- I observed, may have run a thread of I purpose, and this purpose may per haps later on find beautiful expres sion in the “old accepted forms.” ** * ♦ The Pennsylvania Academy's cur rent exhibition, which is now in progress in Philadelphia, goes far to substantiate such belief. This exhi bition shows work by cotemporary American artists which is strong, col orful, fine; work of real beauty and charm, exquisitely rendered, and yet in the modern idiom; pictures which are not grotesque, which are done with that same skill which tho great masters employed and with no less realization of the fundamental prin ciples governing all fine art, yet pic tures of an essentially different sort from any that have previously been produced; pictures which make a room full of work* by distinguished painters of fifty yeans ago look dull and uninteresting, smoky and life less. ♦♦ ♦ ♦ We hold no brief for the so-called "modernists.” but we realize that art today Is making progress. Move ment is indicative of life; works of art may be in every sense correct, but dead. There is an art of so innocu ous a quality that It is Inexplicably bad —art of a feeble prettiness which is utterly valueless. Art of this sort is most often admired, but In com parison the ugliness associated with modernism is infinitely preferable; the one has character, the other has none. Why not, then, have patience with the ’’modernists,” even while ad mitting that we do not “get them.” and. above all, not pretending that we like their works? Why not ac cept Dr. Smith’s explanation of their purpose and trust that under all is a fundamental idea which in its de velopment will open an era of great original creative accomplishment through which beauty will be added to tho world In largo measure? To do so is, to say the least, reasonable and cheering- CAPITAL KEYNOTES BY PAUL V. COLLINS. It all depended on the viewpoint a? to which farm credit bill of the Sen ate deserved approval. The Capper bill was indorsed by Banker Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury, as the only plan which should be considered. It proposed the organization of banks with private funds for the purpose of making three-year loans. Mr. Mellon denounced the Denroot- Anderson bill because It was provid ing for deskroom in each of the twelve federal farm loan banks already established by the Hollis law of 1916, and the government was to supply $5,000,000 capital to each of the twelve banks. In either case ad ditional funds were to be procured by the sale of debenture bonds to the amount of ten times the capital. The Lenroot-Anderson bill would lend to farmers for a term of from six months to three years. ♦♦ ♦ ♦ From the standpoint of the banker the Lenroot-Anderson bill was anathema: It would involve govern ment money In aiding fartners, and that would Involve the government in the control of such banks. It would be impossible to lend such money to farmers for less than 716 per cent, he claimed. Now comes Dirt Farmer Wallace, Secretary of Agriculture, paying his respects to the banker Secretary ot the Treasury for what he does not know as to when the cows come home on a farm. "I can see no strong objection,” says Mr. Wallace, “to the enactment of the Capper bill also, but to offer the lat ter as a rural credits bill, or a sub stitute for the Lenroot-Anderson bill, would give the farmers of the nation the best of reasons for feeling that in reply to their request for bread then, had been offered a stone.” ** * * Referring to the Capper bill, Secre tary Wallace says, in a letter to Rep resentative Anderson: “The credit facilities It authorizes may prove highly useful to ranching interests if actually brought Into existence. The plan does not, however, meet the farmer's needs for intermediate credit. It is not designed to meet the needs of the great surplus-producing states in which diversified farming is fol lowed. It does not protect borrowers from excessive interest rates. It gives the color of federal support to large money-making corporations organized for that especial purpose.” Whether he meant to do it, or not. Secretary Wallace put his finger on the very key to the attitude of capi tal toward farmers. Capital is pat ronizing, broadly sympathetic and willing to lend aid—or lend anything it possesses to aid agriculture—pro vided the security is satisfactory and tlie interest profitable to the stock holders. Capital is looking out of the wicket of the bank counter. The farmer is looking over his fence at his field and his cattle. The viewpoint decides the difference. Not in a generation will capital realize that it is not a question ot profits on the loans that shall decide the pioblems of our weakening agri culture. Time may come when bonuses will be called for—subsidies— to save farming from utter collapse. The farmers do not ask for interest rates that will not invite investment in the debentures, but actual farm conditions must be met In the terms of the loans, and not merely livestock interests consulted. if diversified fanning is to be saved. ** * * Maybe Mrs. Gifford Pinchot, wife of the Governor of Pennsylvania, is wrong in thinking the enforcement of the Volstead law against moonshiners and bootleggers is just like a pink Powis Castle Library, About to Be Sold, Contains Many Literary Treasures BV THE MARQL’ISE DE FOVTEXOY. I Fowls Castle, the principal country ! seat of the Earl of Fowls in Mont- j gomeryshire—the "Castle of Garde j Doloureuse” of 81r Walter Scott's | novel “The Betrothed”—ls about to ! surrender its wonderful literary j treasures. For the Powis Castle j library, relatively unknown, and which for a strange reason, explained below, has escaped the attention of bibliographers, is to be sold through Sotheby's in London three weeks hence—that ia to say, on the 20th. 21st and 22d instant. The collection con tains many works of great rarity, in cluding the Shakespearean quartos, the 1600 edition of “The Merchant of Venice** and the 1622 edition of "Othello.” There are a number of exceedingly raro books of the fif teenth and sixteenth centuries in Welsh. But perhaps the volume which appeals most to the Imagina tion In the forthcoming sale is a quarto copy of the first edition of Milton's "Comus," and of which the first performance of the masque was given under his supervision in 1634 by the children of the first Earl ot I Bridgewater, lord president of the council of Wales, at Ludlow Castle, his official residence. It bears the signature as well as a number of marginal notes of the great poet. It is understood that large bids will be made for this wonderfully interesting copy of “Comus” and for the Shake spearean quartos in behalf of certain well known American collectors and that the treasures are destined to cross the Atlantic. ** * * Powis Castle, formerly known as Red Castle, being built of red sand stone, Is of great antiquity, having originally been the seat of Owen Ap-Griffith, the last Welsh sovereign. Prince of Powls-Gwenwyn. The latter’s descendants having be come extinct in the male line, the castle passed through the distaff side of the house to the Herberts, a junior branch of the great family of which the Earl of Pembroke is the chief. There were Herbert Earl of Powis. also a Marquis of Powis, and even a Duke of Powis, who played an Im portant role at the Stuart court of St. Germain after the deposition and exile of James 11. The great Lord Clive’s son married the only sister and sole heiress of the last ot the Herbert lords of Powis, and, on be coming through this union the owner of Powis Castle and of all the landed property connected therewith, was created Earl of Powis of the present line. Powis Castle la a huge baronial pile built on an eminence in the midst of a very extensive and beautiful park, and contains a marvelous collection of Indian curios and relics brought from the orient by the great Lord Clive, to whose victories the British crown is so largely indebted for the possession of its mighty Indian em pire. * ♦♦♦ It was this Lord Clive, whose title is borne today by his descendant, the eldest son and heir ot the Earl of Fowls, who, it may be remembered, stormed and captured Calcutta and inflicted, condign punishment upon its cruel ruler for the atrocity still known in history as the “black hole of Calcutta.” H the literary treasures and collec tions of books and manuscripts of Powis Castle escaped the attention tea. Maybe the fair ladies, aa suggests, might arreyt the moonshin ers better than do tho huskies nova employed in that laudable task. But would they like the rough work con nected with it?—getting shot up, or chased down the road by dogs, or manhandled by toughs whose rule is the hard-boiled “treat ’em rough." That is what Mrs. Annette Abbott Adams, assistant attorney genera*, believes. She does not think that ♦ his is a society assignment at all. Perhaps she is helped to this Idea by the report of the internal revenue col lector that 95 per cent of the man officers sent after bootleggers and moonshiners are either corrupted or killed within the first six months. It would muss up things badly to have that happen to ladies. Mrs. Adams is not favoring the wets in this argument. She is the assistant who wrote the ruling which barred Mr. Lasker’s bars on shipboard and another ruling pulling wholesale liquor dealers out of business. ** * * Possibly both ladles are right. Mr*. Adams is mindful of the brigandage of the road and the slum; Mrs. Plncbot may bs remembering that there Is violation In high *o clety which sets going an influence most pemlclotls. WontAn detectfres may be useful in tipping off tho fash ionable violators, so trial they may be watched and evidence accumulated. Let the ladies get together and all will be well. *♦ ♦ ♦ Some one should offer a reward o| several trillion marks for cvlaenci leading to the discovery of the motlvi or provocation of tho ghoulish gle< with which Congress delights to at tack the schools of the District of Co lumbia. if the germ or microhi could once ho Isolated, a. parasite or antidote might be developed to at tack it. At present the whole assault by our great and wise and learned statesmen is so utterly inexplicable that the most scientific research fatls to identify the seat of tho disease. Possibly the psychologist was right who specified the exact number of years yet before all Americans would be crazy, but no one expected a break ing down so near, physically and chronologically. ** * * Will any one deny that the teachers of Washington are wretchedly under paid; that the school buildings are inadequate to house the children en titled to full school hours and the best of teaching talent? Will any one give a rational explanation why congressmen should think it their pa triotic duty to rob Washington chil dren of their birthright? Can any one dispute, the fact that the schools of the capital of tho nation ought to he the model schools of tho nation? Or that lh«y are. hy reason of the niggardliness of Congress, a national shame and scandal? ** * * One of the things most bitterly re sented by the reconstructed states after the civil war was the "carpet bag rule.” Men from distant stales came into communities, with no com munity interest, and reigned accord ing to their interpretation of what was good for their ’'subjects.” His tory is not clear as to whether they cared whether school kept or not. just so they got their per diem and mileage. "Carpetbag rule” has been abolished everywhere except In the District of Columbia. Some rulers still don’t care whether school keeps or not. Perhaps they have no children at tending the alleged public schools of Washington. Certainly they have no relatives or friends undertaking to live comfortably on a teacher's pay. (Copyright, 1923, hy I’. V. Collins.) and the ken of bibliographers throughout all the last half of the nineteenth century it was largely dun to the eccentricity of the late and third Earl of Powis. His entire life may bo said to have been over shadowed by the fact that on reach ing manhood he had accidentally killed his father, the second earl, while out shooting, a tragedy which caused him to withdraw altogether from society and live from thence forth the life of a recluse. He was not on particularly good terms with his nephew, the present earl, and when the latter, as George Herbert, married the famous beauty. Miss Vio let Lane Fox. they had extremely lit tle on which to live. in fact, their circumstances were very straitened. Before many months had passed, how ever. the late earl suddenly died and the voting couple found themselves In possession of a very largo fortune Indeed. ***!(.' The late earl's eccentricity had taken the form, with other ways, of hiding things in the most out-of the-way places. Thus he displayed the utmost ingenuity in contriving secret cupboards and "caches,” and even had rooms In life immense old castle walled up In such a fashion as to leave no trace of their exist ence. Much of tho library which is about to be placed on sale at Sotheby’s this month was in this fashion hidden away from view. All the first years ot the possession of Fowls Castle by the present earl and countess were spent in hunting up these various “caches.” Rooms that had been unopened for half a century or more, and the very existence of which had been unsuspected, were found, and many precious things be sides rare literary treasures, such as valuable old masters, literally tons of old silver plate and a quantity of superb jewels, some of Indian origin, were brought to light. It is asserted that Lord Powis. and especially his countess, were assisted in their search by the apparition of the second earl—of the one who had been killed by his sou—and who, ap pearing to them in their dreams, in dicated successively all the various places of concealment. But It was not only to the present earl and countess that the spook of tho second earl appeared. The story goes that one night he came to the bedside ot the old family butler, who. being strong-minded and convinced that the apparition meant no harm, arose In response to the beckoning of tho specter and followed It. He was led In this fashion to a remote portion of the castle, where the ghost pointed to a spot on the stone flagging of this chamber in one of the most undent parts of the building. ** * * On the following morning the but ler, who had taken note of tho spot, summoned to his assistance the head gardener, also an old family servant, and, prying up one of the flagstones and digging down a little, came upon an ancient-looking Iron box. Before It was removed Lord Powis was notified. By his direction it was taken to the library and there opened. It contained a number of documents, all carefully tied with red tape. What the docu ments were bus never been definitely revealed. There Is supposd to have been long missing title deeds to cer tain tracts qt land and property. But that they were valuable to the own ers of Powis Castle is best shown by the fact that tho two servants, tbs butler and the gardener, were hand somely pensioned for life, each of them with a cottage, rent free.